1 Linguisitics: Linguistics is generally defined as the scientic study of language
2 Phonetics : The study of sounds which are used in linguistics communication is called phonetics. For example,vowels and consonants
3 Phonology” : The study of how sounds are put together and used in communication is called phonology. For example, phone, phoneme, and allophone. 4 Morphology :The study of the way in which morphemes are arranged to form words is called morphology. For example, boy and “ish”---boyish, teach---teacher. 5 Syntax : The study of how morphemes and words are combined to form sentences is called syntax. For example,”John like linguistics.”
6 Semantics: The study of meaning in language is called semantics. For example, :The seal could not be found. The zoo keeper became worried.” The seal could not be found, The king became worried.” Here the word seal means different things. 7 Pragmatics: The study of meaning in context of use is called pragmatics. For example, “I do” The word do means different context.
8 Sociolinguistics: The study of language with reference to society is called sociolinguistics. For example, regional dialects, social variation in language.
9 Psycholinguistics: The study of language with reference to workings of mind is called psycholinguistics.
1 Phonetics: The study of sounds that are used in linguistic communication is called phonetics.
2 Phonology: The study of how sounds are put together and used in communication is called phonology.
3 Phone: Phone can be simply defined as the speech sounds we use when speaking a language. A phone is a phonetic unit or segement. It does not necessarily distinguish meaning; some do, some don’t.
4 Phoneme: Phonology is concerned with the speech sounds which distinguish meaning. The basic unit in phonology is called phoneme; it is a unit that is of distinctive value.
5 allophone: The different phones which can represent a phoneme in different phonetic environment are called the allophones of that phoneme.
6 Complementary distribution: These two allophones of the same phoneme are said to be in compkenebtary distribution.
7 Minimal pair: When two different forms are identical in every way except for one sound segement which occurs in the same place in the stings, the two words are said to form a minimal pair.
8 Stress: When a certain syllable of a word is stressed, it means that the syllable is pronounced with great force than the other or others.
9 tones: Tones are pitch variation, which are caused by the different rates of vibration of the vocal cords. Pitch variations can distinguish meaning just like phoneme; therefore, the tone is a suprasegemental feature.
10 intonation: When pitch, stress and sound length are tied to the sentence rather than the word in isolation, they are collectively known as intonation. Intonation plays an important role in conveying meaning in almost every language, especially in a language like English.
1 morphology: Morphology is a branch of grammar which studies the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed.
2 inflectional morphology: Inflectional morphology studies the inflections of word-formation.
3 derivational morphology: Derivational morphology is the study of word-formation. 4 morpheme: Morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of language.
5 free morpheme: Free morpheme are the morphemes which are independent units of meaning and can be used freely all by themselces or in combination with other morphemes.
6 bound morpheme: Bound morphemes are the morphemes which cannot be used independently but have to be combined with other morphemes, either free or bound, to form a word.
7 root: A root is often seen as part of a word; it can never stand by itself although it bears clear, definite meaning; it must be combined with another root or an affix to form a word.
8 affix: Affixes are of two types: inflectional and derivational.
9 prefix: Prefix occur at the beginning of a word.
10 suffix: Suffixes are added to the end of the stems; they modify the meaning of the original word and in many cases change its part of speech.
11 derivation: Derivation affixes are added to an existing form to create a word. Derivation can be viewed as the adding of affixes to stem to form new words.
12 compounding: Like derivation, compounding is another popular and important way of forming new words in English. Compounding can be viewed as the combination of two or sometimes more than two words to create new words.
1 linguistic competence: Chomsky defines competence as the ideal user’s knowledge of the rules of his language, and performance the actual realization of this knowledge in linguistic communication.
2 sentence : A sentence is a structurally independent unit that usually comprises a number of words to form a complete statement question or command.
3 transformation rules: Syntactic movement is governed by transformational rules. The operation of the transformational rules may change the syntactic representation of a sentence.
4 D-structure : A sentence may have two levels of syntactic representation. One exists before movement take place, the other occurs after movement take place. In formal linguistic exploration, these two syntactic representation are commonly termed as D-structure.
5 Move а : Just as there is a general rule for all phrase structure rules, i,e. the X-bar schema, there is a general movement rule accounting for the syntactic behavior of any constituent movement.
1 semantics: Semantics can be simply defined as the study of meaning in language. 2 sense : Sense is concerned with the inherent meaning of the linguistic form. It is the collection of all the features of the linguistic form; it is abstract and decontextualized.
3 reference : Reference means what a linguistic form refers to in the real, physical world; it deals with the relationship between the linguistic element and the non-linguistic world of experience.
4 synonymy : Synonymy refers to the sameness or close similarity of meaning. Words that are close in meaning are called synonymy.
5 polysemy : Polysemy refers to the fact that the same one word may have more than one meaning. A word having more than one meaning is called a polysemic word.
6 antonymy : Antonymy refers to the oppositeness of meaning. Words that are opposite in meaning are called antonyms.
7 homonymy : Homonymy refers to the phenomenon that words having different meanings have the same form, i.e. different words are identical in sound or spelling, or in both.
8 hyponymy : Hyponymy refers to the sense relation between a more general, more inclusive word and a more specific word.
9 componential analysis : Componential analysis is a way to analyze word meaning. It was proposed by structural semanticists.
10 grammatical meaning : The grammatical meaning of a sentence refers to its grammaticality, i.e. its grammatical well-formedness. The grammaticality of a sentence is governed by the grammatical rules of the language.
11 semantic meaning : The semantic meaning of a sentence is governed by rules called selectional restrictions.
12 predication : In semantic analysis of a sentence, the basic unit is called predication. The predication is the abstraction of the meaning of a sentence.
1 pragmatics: Pragmatics can be defined as the study of how speakers of a language use sentences to effect successful communication.
2 context: The notion of context is essential to the pragmatic study of language. Generally speaking, it consists of the knowledge that is shared by the speaker and the hearer.
3 utterance meaning: Utterance is based on sentence meaning; it is realization of the abstract meaning of a sentence in a real situation of communication, or simply in a
4 locutionary act: A locutionary act is the act of utterance words, phrases,clauses. It is the act of conveying literal meaning by means of syntax, lexicon and phonology. 5 illocutionary act: An illocutionary act is the act expressing the speaker’s intention; It is the act performed in saying something.
6 perlocutionary act: A illocutionary act is the act performed by or resulting from saying something: it is the consequence of, or the change brought about by the utterance; it is the act performed by saying something.
1 historical linguistics: Historical linguistics is the subfield of linguistics that studies language change.
2 apocope: Another well-documented sound loss is the deletion of a word-final vowel segement, a phenomenon called apocope.
3 epenthesis: A change that involves the insertion of a consonant or vowel sound to the middle of a word is known as epenthesis.
4 metathesis: Sound change as a result of sound movement is known as metathesis. 5 compounding: Compounding is a process of combining two or more words into one lexical unit.
6 derivation: Derivation refers to the process by which new words are formed by the addition of affixes to the roots.
7 blending: Blending is a process of forming a new word by combining parts of other words.
8 back-formation: Back-formation is a process by which new words are formed by taking away the suffix of an existing word.
9 semantic broadening: Semantic broadening refers to the process in which the meaning of a word becomes general or inclusive than its historically earlier denotation.
10 semantic narrowing: Semantic narrowing is a process in which the meaning of a word becomes less general or inclusive than its historically earlier meaning.
11 semantic shift: Semantic shift is a process of semantic change in which a word loses its former meaning and acquire a new, sometimes related, meaning. 12 protolanguage: It refers to a family of a language.
A protolanguage is the original form of a language family that has ceased to exist.The proto form can be reconstructed by identifying and comparing similar linguistic forms with similar meanings across related languages.
13 sound shift: It refers to the systematic modification of a series of phonemes.
1 sociolinguistics: Sociolinguistics is the study of language in social context.
2 speech community: A speech community is thus defined as a group of people who form a community and share the same language or a particular variety of language. 3 speech variety: Speech variety, also known as language variety, refers to any distinguishable form of speech used by a speaker or group of speakers.
4 language planning: One way out of the communication dilemma is language standardization known as language planning. This means that certain authorities, such as the government or government agency of a country, choose a particular speech variety and spread the use of it, including its pronunciation and spelling system, across regional boundaries.
5 idiolect: Such a personal dialect is refered to as idiolect.
6 standard language: The standard language is a superposed, socially prestigious dialect of language. It is the language employed by the government and the judiciary system,used by the mass media.
7 nonstandard language: Language varieties other than the standard are called nonstandard, or vernacular, languages.
8 lingua franca: A lingua franca is a variety of language that serves as a medium of communication among groups of people for diverse linguistic backgrounds.
9 pidgin: A pidgin is a variety of language that is generally used by native speakers of other languages as a medium of communication.
10 Creole: A Creole language is originally a pidgin that has become established as a native language in some speech communication.
11 diglossia: Diglossia usually describes a situation in which two very different varieties of language co-exist in a speech communication, each with a distinct range of purely social function and appropriate for certain situations.
12 bilingualism: Bilingualism refers to a linguistic situation in which two standard languages are used either by an individual or by a group of speakers, such as the inhabitants of a particular region or a nation.
13 ethic dialect: An ethnic language variety is a social dialect of a language ,often cutting across regional differences.
14 sociolect: Social dialect, or sociolects, are varieties of language used by people belonging to particular social classes.
15 register: Registers are language varieties which are appropriate for use in particular speech situations, in contrast to language varieties that are associated with the social or regional grouping of their customary users. For that reason, registers are also known as situational dialects.
16 slang: Slang is a causal use of language that consists of expressive but nonstandard vocabulary, typically of arbitrary, flashy and often ephemeral coinage and figure of speech characterized by spontaneity and sometimes by raciness.
17 tabo A linguistic taboo refers to a word or expression that is prohibited by the “polite” society from general use.
18 euphemism: Euphemism comes from the Greek word euphemismos, meaning “to speak with good words”. A euphemism, then ,is mild, indirect or less offensive word or expression substitute when the speaker or writer fears more direct wording might be harsh, unpleasantly direct, or offensive.
1 psycholinguistics: Psycholinguistics is the study of language in relation to the mind. As the suggests, psycholinguistics is viewed as the intersection of psychology and
linguistics, drawing equally upon the language we acquire, produce and comprehend. 2 cerebral cortex: The most important part of the brain is the outside surface of the brain, called the cerebral cortex.
3 brain lateralization: The localization of cognitive of cognitive and perceptual functions in a particular hemisphere of the brain is called lateralization.
4 linguistic lateralization: In their research of brain lateralization, psycholinguistics are particulary interested in linguistic lateralization, which is the brain’s neurological specialization for language.
5 dichotic listening: Evidence in support of lateralization for language in the left hemisphere comes from researches in dichotic listening tasks
6 right ear advantage: Stimuli heard in the left ear are reported less accurately than those heard in the right car. This phenomenon is knowas the right ear advantage. 7 critical period hypothesis: The critical period hypothesis refers to a period in one’s life extending from about age two to puberty during which the human brain is most ready to acquire a particular language and language learning can proceed easily, swiftly and without explicit instruction.
8 linguistic determinism: Whorf proposed first that all higher levels of thinking are dependent on language. That is, language determines thought, hence the strong notion of linguistic determinism.
9 linguistic relativism: Whorf also believed that speakers of different language perceive and experience the world differently, that is, relative to their linguistic background, hence the notion
10 subvocal speech: When language and thought are identical or closely parallel to each other, we may regard thought as “subvocal speech”. of linguistic relativism.
1 language acquisition: Language acquisition is concerned with language development in humans. In general, language acquisition refers to children’s development of their first language, that is, the native language of the community in which a child has been brought up.
2 telegraphic speech: The early multiword utterance of children have a special characteristic. They typically lack inflectional morphemes and most minor lexical categories. Because of their resemblance to the styly of language found in telegrams, utterance at this acquisition stage are often called telegraphic speech.
3 holophrastic sentence: Children’s one-word utterance are also called holophrastic sentences.
4 acquisition: According to Krashen,acquisition refers to the gradual and subconscious development of ability in the first language by using it naturally in daily communicative situations.
5 learning: Learning, however, is defined as a conscious process of accumulating knowledge of a second language usually obtained in school settings.
6 language transfer: Learners will subconsciously use their L1 knowledge in learning a second language. This is known as language transfer.
7 positive transfer: Presumably, positive transfer occurs when an L1 pattern is
identical with, or similar to, a target-language pattern.
8 negative transfer: Conversely, negative transfer occurs when an L1 pattern is different from the counterpart pattern of the target language.
9 contrastive analysis: The Contrastive Analysis approach was founded on the belief that, by establishing the linguistic differences between the native and target language system, it was possible to predict what problems learners of a particular second language would face and the types of errors they would make.
10 interlanguage: SLA is viewed as a process of creative construction, in which a learner constructs a series of internal representations that comprises the learner’s interim knowledge of the target language, known as interlanguage.
11 formal instruction: Formal instruction occurs in classrooms when attempts are made to raise learner’s consciousness about the nature of target language rules in order to aid learning.
12 instrumental motivation: Thus, instrumental motivation occurs when the learner’s goal is functional.
13 integrative motivation: Integrative motivation occurs when the learner’s goal is social.
14 acculturation: A related issue with integrative motivation has been the extent to which learners differ in the process of adapting to the new culture of the 12community. This adaptation process is called acculturation.