职称英语教材电子版

职称英语教材电子版

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范文一:2015年职称英语教材电子版目录

第二部分 阅读判断„(51)

第一篇 Inventor of LED„(51) LED的发明者

第二篇 El Nino „(52) 厄尔尼诺

第三篇 Smoking„(54) 吸烟

第四篇 Engineering Ethics„(55) 工程道德

第五篇 Rescue Platform„(57) 救生平台

* 第六篇 Microchip Research Center Created„(58) 微芯片研究中心成立

* 第七篇 Moderate Earthquake Strikes England„(60) 中度地震袭击英国

* 第八篇 What Is a Dream?„(62) 梦是什么

* 第九篇 Dangers Await Babies with Altitude„(64) 高海拔地区的婴儿有危险 * 第十篇 The Biology of Music„(66) 音乐生物学

+ 第十一篇 Bill Gates: Unleashing Your Creativity„(67) 比尔·盖茨:发挥你的创造力 + 第十二篇 Study Helps Predict Big Mediterranean Quake„(69) 科学家研究预测地中海地区大地震

+ 第十三篇 The Northern Lights„(71) 北极光

+ 第十四篇 Stage Fright„(73) 如何避免怯场

+ 第十五篇 Image Martian Dust Panicles„(75) 观测火星上的尘粒 第三部分 概括大意与完成句子„(77)

第一篇 More Than 8 Hours Sleep Too Much of a Good Thing „(77) 每晚只需8小时,睡眠过多非益事

第二篇 Soot and Snow a Hot Combination„(79) 煤灰与白雪:“火热"的组合 第三篇 Icy Microbes„(80) 冰冻微生物

第四篇 Compact Disks„(82) 光盘

第五篇 LED Lighting„(84) 发光二极管

* 第六篇 How We Form First Impression„(86) 对别人的第一印象是怎样形成的 * 第七篇 Screen Test„(87) 透视检查

* 第八篇 The Mir Space Station„(89) 和平号空间站

* 第九篇 More Rural Research Is Needed„(91) 需要进行更多的农业研究

* 第十篇 Washoe Learned American Sign Language„(93) Washoe学会了美国手语 + 第十一篇 The Tiniest Electric Motor in the World„(95) 世界上最小的电动机 + 第十二篇 A Strong Greenhouse Gas„(97) 一种强烈的温室气体

+ 第十三篇 Face Masks May Not Protect from Super-Flu „(99) 口罩也许无法预防感冒 + 第十四篇 The Magic Io Personal Digital Pen„(101) 神奇的io私人数字笔

+ 第十五篇 Maglev Trains„(103) 磁悬浮列车

第四部分 阅读理解„(106)

第一篇 Ford Abandons Electric Vehicles„(106) 福特放弃电动汽车

第二篇 World Crude Oil Production May Peak a Decade Earlier Than SomePredict„(108) 世界原油产量可能提前十年达到峰值

第三篇 Citizen Scientists„(110) 公民科学家

第四篇 Motoring Technology„(112) 汽车技术

第五篇 Late-Night Drinking„(114) 在深夜饮咖啡

第六篇 Making Light of Sleep„(116) 不要太在意睡眠

第七篇 Sugar Power for Cell Phones„(117) 用糖为手机发电

第八篇 Eiffel Is an Eyeful„(119) 引人注目的埃菲尔铁塔

第九篇 An Essential Scientific Process„(122)【新增文章】一个至关重要的科学过程 第十篇 Young Female Chimps Outlearn Their Brothers„(123) 年轻雌猩猩学习优于她们的弟兄

第十一篇 When Our Eyes Serve Our Stomach„(125) 我们的视觉服务于我们的胃口 第十二篇 Florida Hit by Cold Air Mass„(127) 佛罗里达遭受冷气团袭击

第十三篇 Invisibility Ring„ „(130) 隐形环

第十四篇 Japanese Car Keeps Watch for Drunk Drivers„(131) 日本用来监视醉酒司机的新型概念车

第十五篇 Winged Robot Learns to Fly„(133) 肋生双翅机器人学飞行

第十六篇 Japanese Drilling into Core of Earth„(135) 日本人的地心旅行

* 第十七篇 A Sunshade for the Planet„(137) 地球防晒霜

* 第十八篇 Thirst for Oil„(139) 石油匮乏

* 第十九篇 Musical Robot Companion Enhances Listener Experience „(141) 音乐机器人伴侣提升音乐欣赏体验

* 第二十篇 Explorer of the Extreme Deep„(143) 深海探索器

* 第二十一篇 Plant Gas„(145) 植物,沼气的又一来源

* 第二十二篇 Real-World Robots„(147)【新增文章】现实世界中的机器人

* 第二十三篇 Powering a City ? It's a Breeze„(148) 风力发电?轻而易举

* 第二十四篇 Underground Coal Fires -a Looming Catastrophe„(150) 地下煤引发即将来临的灾难

* 第二十五篇 Eat to Live„(153) 为生存而食

* 第二十六篇 Male and Female Pilots Cause Accidents Differently „(155) 男女飞行员引起飞行事故的差异

* 第二十七篇 Driven to Distraction„(157) 分散注意力驾驶

* 第二十八篇 Sleep Lets Brain File Memories„(159) 睡眠促使记忆归档存储 * 第二十九篇 I’1l Be Bach„(161) 我也能成为巴赫

* 第三十篇 Digital Realm„(163) 数码王国

* 第三十一篇 Hurricane Katrina „(165) 卡特里娜飓风

* 第三十二篇 Mind-reading Machine „(167) 读心机

* 第三十三篇 Experts Call for Local and Regional Control of Sites for RadioactiveWaste.„专家呼吁局部和区域控制放射性废物地点(169)

+ 第三十四篇 Batteries Built by Viruses„(171) 病毒电池

+ 第三十五篇 Putting Plants to Work„(173) 植物效能

+ 第三十六篇 Listening Device Provides Landslide Early Warning„(175) 听觉仪器提供早期山崩预警

+ 第三十七篇 “Don't Drink Alone” Gets New Meaning„(177) “不要在就餐时间以外饮酒”有了新含义

+ 第三十八篇 “Life Form Found” on Saturn's Titan„(179) 土卫六上发现了生命迹象 + 第三十九篇 Clone Farm„(181) 克隆农场

+ 第四十篇 Teaching Math, Teaching Anxiety„(183) 教数学,教焦虑

+ 第四十一篇 Too Little for Global Warming„(185) 全球变暖“缺油”

+ 第四十二篇 Renewable Energy Sources„(187) 可再生能源

+ 第四十三篇 Forecasting Methods„(190) 天气预报的方法

+ 第四十四篇 Defending the Theory of Evolution Still Seems Needed„(192) 捍卫进化论仍有必要

+ 第四十五篇 Small But Wise„(194) 小而聪明

+ 第四十六篇 Ants Have Big Impact on Environment as “Ecosystem Engineers” „(196) 蚂蚁作为“生态系统工程师”对环境影响巨大

+ 第四十七篇 Listening to Birdsong„(198) 倾听鸟鸣

+ 第四十八篇 Researchers Discover Why Humans Began Walking Upright„(200) 研究人员发现人类开始直立行走的原因

+ 第四十九篇 U.S. Scientists Confirm Water on Mars„(202) 美国科学家确认火星上有水

+ 第五十篇 Cell Phones Increase Traffic, Pedestrian Fatalities„(204) 手机增加交通行人死亡

第五部分 补全短文„(207)

第一篇 Mobile Phones„(207) 移动电话

第二篇 The World’s Longest Bridge„(208) 世界上最长的桥

第三篇 Reinventing the Table„(210) 重新发明元素周期表

第四篇 The Bilingual Brain„(211) 双语大脑

第五篇 A Record-Breaking Rover„(212)【新增文章】破纪录的漫游车

* 第六篇 Dung to Death„(214) 施肥致死

* 第七篇 Time in the Animal World„(215) 动物界中的时间

* 第八篇 Watching Micro currents Flow„(217) 观察微电流流程

* 第九篇 Lightening Strikes„(218)【新增文章】雷击

* 第十篇 How Deafness Makes It Easier to Hear„(219) 何让失聪的人更容易听见 + 第十一篇 Virtual Driver„(221) 虚拟驾驶员

+ 第十二篇 Musical Training Can Improve Communication Skills„(223) 音乐训练可以提高交流技能

+ 第十三篇 Affectionate Androids„(224)【新增文章】深情的机器人

+ 第十四篇 Robotic Highway Cones„(226) 机器人高速路锥形路标

+ 第十五篇 A Memory Drug? „(227) 记忆药物?

第六部分 完形填空„(230)

第一篇 Captain Cook Arrow Legend„(230) 库克船长弓箭的传说

第二篇 Avalanche and Its Safety„(232) 雪崩和安全问题

第三篇 Giant Structures„(233) 巨型建筑

第四篇 Animal’s “Sixth Sense” „(236) 动物的“第六感”

第五篇 Singing Alarms Could Save the Blind„(238) 警报器救盲人

* 第六篇 Car Thieves Could Be Stopped Remotely„(240) 远程制止偷车贼

* 第七篇 An Intelligent Car„(242) 智能汽车

* 第八篇 Why India Needs Its Dying Vultures„(244) 印度为什么需要濒临灭亡的秃鹰 * 第九篇 Wonder Webs„(246) 奇妙的网

* 第十篇 Chicken Soup for the Soul: Comfort Food Fights Loneliness„(248) 心灵鸡汤:爽心食品排解孤独感

+ 第十一篇 Climate Change Poses Major Risks for Unprepared Cities„(251) 气候变化给不备城市带来重大风险

+ 第十二篇 Free Statins With Fast Food Could Neutralize Heart Risk„(253) 快餐加免费降胆固醇药物可以降低罹患心脏病的风险

+ 第十三篇 Better Solar Energy Systems: More Heat, More Light„(255) 更有效的太阳能系统:更多热量,更强灯光

+ 第十四篇 Sharks Perform a Service for Earth's Waters„(258) 鲨鱼有益于地球水系 + 第十五篇 “Liquefaction" Key to Much of Japanese Earthquake Damage„(260) “液化”是日本地震破坏的关键

范文二:2011综合类职称英语教材-新增文章-电子版

2011年综合类职称英语教材新增文章下载

阅读理解新增文章(共3篇)

第八篇

The State of Marriage Today

Is there something seriously wrong with marriage today? During the past 50 years,the rate of divorce in the United States has exploded:almost 50%of marriages end in divorce now,and the evidence suggests it is going to get worse. If this trend continues,it will lead to the breakup of the family,according to a spokesperson for the National Family Association. Some futurists predict that in 100 years,the average American will marry at least four times,and extramarital affairs will be even more common than they are now.

But what are the reasons for this,and is the picture really so gloomy? The answer to the first question is really quite simple:marriage is no longer the necessity it once was. The institution of marriage has been based for years partly on economic need. Women used to be economically dependent on their husbands as they usually didn’t have jobs outside the home. But with the rising number of women in well-paying jobs,this is no longer the case, so they don’t feel that they need to stay in a failing marriage.

In answer to the second question,the outlook may not be as pessimistic as it seems. While the rate of divorce has risen,the rate of couples marrying has never actually fallen very much,so marriage is still quite popular. In addition to this,many couples now cohabit and don’t bother to marry. These couples are effectively married,but they do not appear in either the marriage or divorce statistics. In fact,more than 50%of first marriages survive. The statistics are deceptive because there is a higher number of divorces in second and third marriages than in first marriages.

So is marriage really an outdated institution? The fact that most people still get married indicates that it isn't. And it is also true that married couples have a healthier life than single people:they suffer less from stress and its consequences,such as heart problems,and married men generally consider themselves more contented than their single counterparts. Perhaps the key is to find out what makes a successful marriage and apply it to all of our relationships! 词汇:

divorce n.离婚 cohabit v.同居

evidence n.证据,迹象 effectively ad.实际上

futurist n.未来主义者 statistics n.统计,统计资料

explode v.激增,迅速扩大deceptive adj.迷惑的,骗人的

predict v.预言,预料,预报 outdated adj.旧式的,过时的

extramarital adj.婚外的 indicate v.表明,暗示

gloomy adj.阴暗的;令人沮丧的 consequence n.结果,后果

institution n.制度,习俗 contented adj.满足的,满意的

outlook n.展望,前景 counterpart n.对应的人(或物)

pessimistic adj.悲观的

注释:

National Family Association:美国国家家庭联合会

练习:

1.Which is true about the problem of marriage in the United States today?

A)Divorce leads to the breakup of the family.

B)Half of the married couples get divorced.

C)American people marry more than four times.

D)More and more people are getting divorced.

2.What does “this is no longer the case” in paragraph two mean?

A ) It is not necessary to get married any more.

B) Women do not need a husband any longer.

C) Women are not economically dependant any more.

D) Many wives do well-paying jobs outside home now.

3.Why may the outlook of marriage not be as gloomy as it appears?

A) Many people still like to get married.

B)The rate of divorce has actually decreased.

C)Over 50%of the marriages continue to exist.

D)The statistics of divorce is not quite true.

4.How do people usually feel in their marriage life?

A)They are much healthier.

B)They feel no longer single.

C)They are more satisfied.

D)They suffer a lot less.

5.Which of the following about marriage is NOT mentioned in the passage?

A)There will be more relationships outside marriage.

B)Many people try to get married again after divorce.

C)Marriage has long been partly an economical need.

D)It is a fact that most people choose to get married.

答案与题解:

1. D 从第一段里可以了解到选项A与C都是预计将来会发生的,而不是如今的情况。

B选项与第一段第二句“almost 50%of the marriages end in divorce”不符。第一段第二句里的“the rate of divorce in the United States has exploded”“the evidence suggests it is going to get worse”话语正好说明了D选项的情况。

2. C 第二段第四句、第五句说得很清楚,妇女们如今在外工作在经济上不再依赖她们的丈夫,因此觉得无需维持行将失败的婚姻。

3. A 从第二段里可以了解到离婚率并没有下降而是上升了,因此B选项不对。而C选项与第三段里“In fact,more than 50%of first marriages survive”所说不符,该选项没有提到是第一次婚姻。同样,D选项在文中也没有说到,文中第三段的最后一句只是说统计数据具有欺骗性,而没有说数据失实。

4. C 文中第四段第三句的后半句说得很清楚,结了婚的人比单身的人更满足。A,D选项提到的是实际情况而不是婚后人们的感觉,因此不对。文中并没有提到选项B所说的情况。

5. B A选项在第一段最后一句里提到了,C选项和D选项分别在第二段、第四段里提到了,而B选项却没有哪一段具体提到

第三十八篇

Excessive Demands on Young People

Being able to multitask is hailed by most people as a welcome skill,but not according to a recent study which claims that young people between the ages of eight and eighteen of the so-called Generation M1are spending a considerable amount of their time in fruitless efforts as they multitask. It argues that,in fact,these young people are frittering away as much as half of their time again as they would if they performed the very same tasks one after the other. Some young people are juggling an ever larger number of electronic devices as they study. At the same time that they are working,young adults are also surfing on the Internet,or sending out emails to their friends,and/or answering the telephone and listening to music on their iPods2 or on another computer. As some new device comes along it too is added to the list rather than replacing one of the existing devices.

Other research has indicated that this multitasking is even affecting the way families themselves function as young people are too wrapped up3 in their own isolated worlds to interact with the other people around them. They can no longer greet family members when they enter the house nor can they eat at the family table.

All this electronic wizardry is supposedly also seriously affecting young people’s

performance at university and in the workplace. When asked about their perception of the impact of modern gadgets on their performance of tasks,the overwhelming majority of young people gave a favour able response.

The response from the academic and business worlds was not quite as positive. The former feel that multitasking with electronic gadgets by children affects later development of study skills,resulting in a decline in the quality of writing,for example,because of the lack of concentration on task completion. They feel that many undergraduates now urgently need remedial help with study skills. Similarly,employers feel that young people entering the workforce need to be taught all over again,as they have become deskilled.

While all this may be true,it must be borne in mind4 that more and more is expected of young people nowadays; in fact,too much. Praise rather than criticism is due in respect of5 the way today’s youth are able to cope despite what the older generation throw at them.

词汇:

excessive adj.过多的,额外 interact vi.交流,沟通,互动

multitask vi.同时进行多个任务 wizardry n.魔力,法术

supposedly adv.据认为,据推测

hail vt.赞扬 performance n.表现,行为

claim vt.声称,主张 perception n.认识,看法,见解

considerable adj.相当大的,相当多的 impact n.影响,作用

gadget n.小巧的机械装置

fritter vt.消耗,浪费 overwhelming adj.压倒性的

juggle vt.耍弄,玩耍 majority n.大多数

electronic device n.电子装置,电子仪器 academic adj 学术的,学校的

decline n.下降,衰退

surf vi.(网上)冲浪,漫游,浏览 concentration n.专心,专注

indicate vt.表明,指出 remedial adj.补习的,补救的

affect vt.影响 deskilled adj.逐渐失去技能的

isolated adj.孤立的,与世隔绝的 due adj.应有的,适当的

注释:

1.Generation M:M代表multimedia。Generation M即“多媒体时代”,是指伴随着计算机和因特网的普及而成长起来的一代年轻人。他们多出生于1980年之后,热衷于计算机、因特网、视频游戏、智能手机。这些新媒体和传统媒体如电视、印刷品、音响制品结合起来,使得他们的世界异常丰富多彩。“多媒体时代”的另一特征就是可以multitask,即多项任务同时进行,如他们可以一边上网冲浪、一边听着音乐、一边看着电视里的MTV、一边和朋友短信聊天、同时还做着自己的家庭作业。

2.iPod:美国苹果公司的一款音乐播放器,除了可以播放MP3音乐外,iPod还可以作为高速移动硬盘使用,可以显示联系人、日历和任务,以及阅读电子书和聆听有声电子书以及播客(Podcasts)。

3.be wrapped up in„注意力完全集中于„„

4.bear in mind记住

5.in respect of关于,就„„而言

练习:

1. According to a recent study, what is probably true about the multitasking Generation M?

A)They are highly commended for being so effective and efficient.

B)They waste more time than they should save,contrary to common assumptions.

C)They should prioritize and focus on the most important tasks on hand.

D)They need to improve their organizational skills so as to complete all their tasks.

2.With the advent of new gadgets,what will happen to Generation M’s present e-devices?

A)They make way for the latest and greatest and are retired by the young people.

B)They are put away temporarily but stay in rotation for their owners to choose from.

C)They become part of the ever increasing collection of novelties.

D)They are either sold or traded so that their owners can update their toys and hobbies.

3.How will multitasking affect Generation M adversely?

A)It makes them feel lonely and pitiful.

B)It makes them aloof and elusive to family and friends.

C)It makes them selfish and possessive.

D)It makes them impolite and ungrateful.

4.What is the biggest problem for multitasking undergraduates in universities?

A)They should adjust their academic attitudes seriously.

B)They should seek psychological professionals for assistance.

C)They should take some crash courses to catch up with their classmates.

D)They should try harder to focus on one task before moving on to the next.

5.In dealing with today’s youth. what approach should parents take?

A) Be supportive and understanding.

B) Be realistic and lower their expectations

C) Be encouraging and let their children stick to their old habits.

D) Be patient and hope everything will work out just fine eventually.

答案与题解:

1.B 从第一段第一句话中的“a considerable amount of their time”“fruitless efforts”以及该段最后一句话中的“frittering away as much as„”可以进行同义替换,waste就是fruitless和fritter的同义词。

2.C从第二段的最后一句话中的“added to the list rather than replacing”可以判断出,这些年轻人的电子设备是越来越多,而不是A被取而代之、B被轮流使用、D被出售或交换以便买更新的产品。

3.B 答案A是文字游戏,原文中“isolated worlds”应该理解为孤立的世界,即独自

4.D 答案A认为是态度问题,把客观问题主观化。答案B是误导选项,试图用“remedial help”误导大家联想到remedy一词,故引出psychological professional的曲解。答案C把第五段第一句中的“later development”和“decline in the quality of...”表象化,认为应该抓紧赶上同学(catch up)。答案D才是正确答案,问题症结在于multitasking难以让人集中注意力,造成浪费时间、影响表现等后果,这些前文均已提过。

5.A答案A把praise替换成了相对隐性的近义词。答案B只针对最后一段的第一句话,断章取义。答案C前半部分encouraging还算接近正确答案,后半部分则成了鼓励“将错就错

第四十七篇

Spoilt for Choice

Choice,we are given to1 believe,is a right. In daily life,people have come to expect endless situations about which they are required to make decisions one way or another. In the main2,these

are just irksome moments at work which demand some extra energy or brainpower,or during lunch breaks like choosing which type of coffee to order or indeed which coffee shop to go to. But sometimes selecting one option as opposed to another can have serious or lifelong repercussions. More complex decision-making is then either avoided,postponed,or put into the hands of the army of professionals,lifestyle coaches,lawyers,advisors,and the like,waiting to lighten the emotional burden for a fee2.But for a good many4 people in the world,in rich and poor countries,choice is a luxury,not a right. And for those who think they are exercising their right to make choices,the whole system is merely an illusion,created by companies and advertisers wanting to sell their wares5.

The main impact of endless choice in people’s lives is anxiety. Buying something as basic as a coffee pot is not exactly simple. Easy access to a wide range of consumer goods induces a sense of powerlessness,even paralysis,in many people,ending in the shopper giving up and walking away6,or just buying an unsuitable item that is not really wanted in order to solve the problem

and reduce the unease. Recent surveys in the United Kingdom have shown that a sizeable proportion of electrical goods bought per household are not really needed. The advertisers and the shareholders of the manufacturers are,nonetheless,satisfied.

It is not just their availability that is the problem, but the speed with which new versions of products come on the market. Advances in design and production mean that new items are almost ready by the time that goods hit the shelves7.Products also need to have a short 1ifespan so that the public can be persuaded to replace them within a short time. The classic example is computers, which are almost obsolete once they are bought. At first,there were only one or two available from a limited number of manufacturers,but now there are many companies all with not only their own products but different versions of the same machine. This makes selection a problem. Gone are the days when one could just walk with ease into a shop and buy one thing8:no choice,no anxiety.

The plethora of choice is not limited to consumer items. With the greater mobility of people around the world,people have more choice about where they want to 1ive and work-a fairly recent phenomenon. In the past,nations migrated across huge swathes of the earth in search of food,adventure,and more hospitable environments. Whole nations crossed continents and changed the face of history. So the mobility of people is nothing new. The creation of nation states and borders9 effectively slowed this process down. But what is different now is the speed at which migration is happening.

词汇:

spoil vt.使某人扫兴 unease n.焦虑,不安

irksome adj.令人心烦的 sizeable adj.相当大的,颇大的

brainpower n.智能 proportion n.部分,比例

option n.选择 shareholder n.股东

repercussions n.(常指意料之外的)影响,后果 manufacturer n.制造商,厂家

complex adj.复杂的 nonetheless adv.然而,不过

postpone vt.&vi.延迟,延缓 availability n.可获得性,可使用性

professional n.专业人士adj内行的

version n.版本

coach n.教练员,指导 obsolete adj.过时的,被淘汰的

luxury n.难得的享受 plethora n.过多,过剩

illusion n.幻觉,想象 phenomenon n.现象

ware n.商品,货物 migrate vi.迁徙

jmpact n.影响 swathe n.大片土地

anxiety n.焦虑,不安 hospitable 有利的,适宜的

consumer n.消费者 skip v.跳过

induce vt.引起,导致 obese adj.肥胖的

paralysis n.麻痹 metabolic adi.新陈代谢的

unsuitable adj.不恰当的,不适适宜的 psychiatric adj.精神病的

abnormal adj.异常的

注释:

1.be given to:倾向于

2.in the main:大体上,基本上

3. More complex decision-making is then either avoided,postponed,or put into the hands of the army of professionals,lifestyle coaches,lawyers,advisors,and the like,waiting to lighten the emotional burden for a fee.对于情况更复杂的决策,人们或者回避、拖延,或者求助于各式各样的专业人士--生活方式指导人员、律师、咨询师等等,而他们也正等着你付费来缓解心理重负呢。put A in the hands of B由B为A做决策。the like等等,诸如此类的(人或物)。

4. a good many:也可说a great many, (用来强调所指数量)非常多的。

5.And for those who think they are exercising their right to make choices.the whole system is merely an illusion,created by companies and advertisers wanting to sell their wares.对那些自认为行使选择权的人来说,这整个体制不过是销售商和广告商为了卖货而制造出的一种幻觉而已。exercise one’S right行使权利。

6. Easy access to a wide range of consumer goods induces a sense of powerlessness,even paralysis,in many people,ending in the shopper giving up and walking away.购物更便捷,商品更丰富,但这却让很多人感到不知所措,甚至麻痹,最后只好放弃挑选,一走了之。access to„获得„的渠道。

7.hit the shelves:上架,上市

8.Gone are the days when one could just walk with ease into a shop and buy one thing.那种无它可选,轻松购物的日子一去不复返了。此句为倒装句。

9. nation states and borders:国家和疆域。

练习:

1. What is the difference between the decision to shop in a certain supermarket and the decision to drop out of college according to the first paragraph?

A)The former is a right while the latter is not.

B)The latter has more impact on life.

C)The former may happen for many times in life.

D)The latter requires a fee.

2.When people can not easily decide what to buy,what is the least possible choice?

A)Give up.

B)Walk away.

C) Buy an unsuitable item.

D) Seek advice.

3. Why do products have short lifespan nowadays?

A)They are more often replaced with better ones.

B)They have worse quality.

C)They have too many versions.

D) Computer technology advances too fast.

4.How does migration differ from the past?

A)People now migrate across the whole earth.

B)People now migrate for better life.

C)People now have more choice about where to migrate.

D)People now migrate for better environment.

5. Which is the best summary of the writer’s attitude towards choice in a commercial society?

A) More choice,more anxiety.

B)Better more choice than no choice.

C)Better no choice than more choice.

D) All choice is not easy.

答案与题解:

1. B根据文章第一句话,这两种选择都是权利,所以A不对,选项C本身没错但文中丝毫未提及,选项D有可能发生,但不是绝对的。选项B符合But sometimes selecting one option as opposed to another can have serious or lifelong repercussions的意思。

2. D第二段第三句提到了A、B、C三个选项,只有D没提到,这正是本题答案。

3. A第三段都是在讲商家为了销售更多的商品,不断推出新产品,老百姓不知不觉更换地更勤,所以一个商品的使用寿命就更短了。

4. C其它三个选项都不是新的特点,最后一段第三句话都有涉及。

5. A整篇文章都是在论述现代商品社会人们虽然选择更多了,但焦虑感也多了。其它三个选项文中都有提及,但不能代表作者整体的态度

完型填空新增文章(共3篇)

第五篇

Why People Use Pseudonyms

You can’t choose the name you are given at birth.but in many countries you can change it legally when you reach adulthood.Of course, most people never change their names 1

they feel unhappy about them.However, some people do 2 this course of action-particularly artists! What makes an artist want to change their name? Sometimes it’s for purely 3 reasons, such as the Nobel Prize winning poet from Chile,Neflali Reyes.He didn’t want his father to 4 he was writing poetry, so he changed his name to Pablo Neruda when he was a young man. 5 other times the reason may appear eccentric;take the case of the Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa, 6 wrote under 75 different names.The reason?“When I use a different name,I always write in a different way,”he explained.In most cases, 7 ,the reason is for social,historical,political,or cultural reasons.Here are some of the most 8 :

The person’s real name is just 9 long and difficult to remember.Let’s be honest, Madonna Louise Ciccone is not as 10 to remember as just plain “Madonna”.And short names are much easier to remember:William Bradley became Brad Pitt and Edson Arantes do Nascimento became Pele. Sometimes names are changed for marketing 11 .For example,if a name sounds too“foreign”,it may be changed to something that is more recognizable in a 12 .So in the film world,Ramon Estevez adopted the name Martin Sheen.Or maybe the artist’s real name doesn’t sound very attractive-Chad Everett does 13 a lot better than Raymond Cramton.

Artists sometimes 14 the name of someone they admire.Robert Zimmerman changed his name to Boo Dylan because of his admiration for the Welsh poet,Dylan Thomas.

Another reason may be practicality:in the past,women found it very difficult to get published.To 15 this situation they sometimes gave themselves men’s names,so the English author Mary Ann Evans became George Eliot,and she did get her books published!

词汇:

pseudonym n.假名,笔名 recognizable adj.可辨认的,可识别的

legally ad.法律上,合法地

eccentric adj.古怪的,反常的 attractive adj.有吸引力的,引人注目的

Portuguese adj.葡萄牙的,葡萄牙人的,葡萄牙语的

adopt v.采取,采纳

plain adj.清楚的,明白的 admire v.赞赏,钦佩

marketing n.推销,营销

注释:

Nobel Prize:诺贝尔奖

练习:

1.A)as if B)as C)even if D)even

2.A)take B)make C)do D)have

3.A)private B)individual C)own D)personal

4.A)understand B)know C)recognize D)observe

5.A)At B)On C)In D)During

6.A)whom B)which C)who D)that

7.A)but B)although C)though D)however

8.A)popular B)common C)ordinary D)average

9.A)so B)too C)very D)much

10.A)easy B)short C)simple D)brief

11.A)aims B)ends C)goals D)purposes

12.A)market B)film C)country D)business。

13.A)look B)sound C)appear D)seem

14.A)choose B)give C)change D)get

15.A)admit B)assure C)avoid D)affect

答案与题解:

1.C 本句前半句提到“大多数人不会改名字”,因此可以判断是选有让步转折意义的“even if,,其他的选项都没有这个意思,尤其要注意even是副词,不可以这样用于句首引出从句。

2.A本句的意思是想说“有些人,尤其是艺术家们,会更改名字”。不过,本句没有直接说change their names而是说采取行动,那么只能用take与action进行搭配,其他动词都不合适。

3.D根据后面such as后所举的例子知道,某些人改名字完全出于个人的原因,故选择personal。private是指与公众无关的,私隐的;individual是与集体对立而言,个体的;而own则必须放在物主代词的后面一起来表达属于某人的。

4.B 本句是想说他改名字是为了不让父亲了解到他在写诗这件事,因此选know。understand是理解的意思,recognize是认出,observe是察觉、观察到的意思。

5.A本句里的times是时机、场合的意思,at other times是表示“其他的情况”,还有其他的固定搭配也是用at这个介词,如at all times,at the best of times等等,其他介词无此搭配。

6.C 本句是举葡萄牙人的例子来说明某些人更改名字的理由很奇怪,后半句是想说此人用过75个不同的名字。对本句结构做出分析后,应该是非限定性定语从句对此诗人做出补充解释,故用who。that不能用于非限定性定语从句,which则不能表示人,只能表示物,whom是用来做宾格形式只能作宾语不能作主语。

7.D 如果注意到了此空前后的逗号的话就应该知道需要填一个副词来表示转折了,四个选项中只有however是副词,所以其他的选项都不对。

8.B 前一句刚说到大家改名字有社会、历史、政治、文化等方面的原因,通过下面几段里所给出的例子可以知道本句是想说“下面是几种常见的原因”,所以选common用于指常常发生的情况,而popular是指大家都喜欢的,ordinary和average则都是指没什么特别的。

9.B 根据后文,本句是想说某些人的名字太长、太难不好记住,是一个too„to„的结构,表达“太„„而不能„„”的意思。

10.A根据上下文知道,本句是想说简单明了的Madonna更容易记住。从本句中的plain一词可以断定不是想说长短,所以short和brief都不对,而simple则是与复杂相对立的,因此选用easy一词与前句的difficult来对应,后一句话中的easier to remember也可以帮助我们选择easy。

11.D 此题四个选项都能表示目的,但各有不同,aim是偏重于想要取得的目标;end往往表示最终目的,而且常常用于指与手段相对应的目的;goal则更多的是指个人或者某群体决心要达到的目标,通常指一般的趋势或方向而没有最终的具体目标;而purpose则主要是指所向往的结果,是行为、行动的缘由。

12.A 根据前一句中的marketing purposes一词可以判断此句是想说把名字改成在市场上更好识记的,因此选market,而不是在某个国家、某部电影或者是某笔生意里更容易辨识。

13.B 根据前半句里的doesn’t sound可以判断此处应该选用sound来表示听上去怎样,其他三个选项里的词意上不恰当。

14.A 从后面一句可以推断此句是想说艺术家有时候根据自己所欣赏的人的名字给自己

取笔名或艺名。如果用give一词的话则必须有themselves来作间接宾语,不然就不是给他们自己取名字了。也不能用change,但如果是change into的话还可以表示把名字改成别的名字,而get则是“获得

15.C 本句是想说为了不让作品得不到出版的情况出现而取个男子的名字,因此选avoid。 admit是承认的意思,assure是确认的意思,affect则是影响的意思

第十二篇

Sport or Spectacle?

Muhammad Ali1 is probably the most famous sports figure on earth:he is recognized on every continent and by all generations.The diagnosis of his illness 1 Parkinson’s disease2 after his retirement fuelled the debate about the dangers of boxing and criticism 2 the sport.That,plus his outspoken opposition 3 women’s boxing,made people wonder how he would react when one of his daughters decided to take 4 the sport.His presence at Laila’s first professional fight, 5 ,seemed to broadcast her father’s support.Of course Muhammad Ali wanted to watch his daughter fight.The ring announcer introduced him as the “the greatest” and as he sat down at the ringside the crowd chanted.

Twenty-one-year-old Laila’s debut fight was a huge success and there was as much publicity for the fight 6 her father’s fights once attracted. 7 ,Laila’s opponent was much weaker than she was and the fight lasted just 31 seconds.Since then,Laila has won most of her fights by knocking out3 her opponent.“She knows 8 she’s doing,all right,”said one referee about her.“She knows about moving well.You can see some of her dad’s moves.”

Laila Ali4 would rather not compare herself 9 her father.She prefers to make her own 10 .Her father supports her decision to enter the sport but he has not spared her the details of what can happen.Laila realizes that her father wants her to understand the 11 possible scenario to

see 12 she still wants to go forward with it.She knows she’s going to get hit hard at times,that she may get a broken nose or a swollen face,but at least she is prepared for it.

Laila’s decision to start boxing 13 her father’s struggle with the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease has of course sparked a mixture of debate and 14 .But Laila is a feisty and determined individual and it is that as much as her famous last name that has made her a magnet for worldwide media attention. Of course, the 15 on the boxing scene of a woman with her family history attracts even more questions about whether women’s boxing is sport or spectacle.

词汇:

Spectacle n.场面;景象 chant vi.(反复地、有节奏地)欢呼

recognize vt.赏识;认可 debut n.(演员、运动员)首次亮相

continent n.洲,大陆 publicity n.宣传;公众的注意

diagnosis n.(医学)诊断法 attract vt.吸引;引起注意

retirement n.退役;退休 opponent n.对手;敌手

fuel vt.激起,加强,刺激 referee n.裁判员

debate n.辩论;讨论, compare vt.比较;对照

criticism n.批评;批判;指责’ spare vt.省去,免除

outspoken adj 直言的 scenario n.事态;局面

opposition n.反对 swollen adj.肿起的;浮肿的

react vi.做出反应;回应 symptom n.症状

presence n.出席;到场 spark vt.导致,激起

broadcast vt.传播(消息等) feisty adj.个性强而好争辩的

ring n.拳击台 magnet ]n.有吸引力的人

注释:

1. Muhammad Ali:穆罕默德·阿里,世界上最伟大的拳击运动员之一。1999年,他被《体育画报》杂志评为本世纪最佳运动员。退出拳坛后,阿里一直致力于宗教、慈善事业和维护世界和平的工作,受到许多国家上至总统下至普通百姓的拥戴。然而,职业拳击生涯中他头部受到的29000多次的重击,使阿里一直饱受帕金森综合症的困扰。

2.Parkinson’s disease:帕金森综合症,又称震颤麻痹,是一种中枢神经系统变性疾病,临床表现有癫痫、偏瘫、头痛、共济失调、眼球运动障碍、言语不清、体位性低血压、痴呆等。随着病情的发展,穿衣、洗脸、刷牙等日常生活活动都出现困难。

3. knock out: (拳击术语)一拳击倒

4.Laila Ali:莱拉·阿里,拳王阿里与他第三任妻子的女儿,1999年9月进入女子职业拳坛,并很快取得了较好的成绩。她曾说:“我不想拿自己和父亲作比较,我们是完全不同的。但有一点,作为他的女儿,我自然会有一些独特的拳击技术,这是别人不可能具备的。在现阶段,我认为自己棒极了!”一些商家看中了这对拳坛父女的商业价值,最近,一家运动品牌就利用电脑技术,让阿里父女在拳台上同场竞技。在这样的比赛中,我们看到的,并不是胜负,而是一种生命力的延续。

练习:

1. A)with B)for C)as D)by

2. A)of B)on C)for D)at

3. A)on B)to C)with D)at

4. A)after B)over C)along D)up

5. A)therefore B)however C)accordingly D)whereas

6. A)as B)like C)for D)to

7. A)Luckily B)Similally C)Undoubtedly D)Unfortunately

8. A)that B)what C)how D)why

9. A)as B)like C)to D)against

10. A)fight B)name C)success D)image

11. A)better B)best C)worse D)worst

12. A)if B)that C)what D)how

13. A)in spite B)spite C)despite D)despite of

14. A)argument B)criticism C)quarrel D)bickering

15. A)arrival B)birth C)departure D)attention

答案与题解:

1. diagnosis of „as 把某种疾病诊断为„„,类似的短语有 regard„as,consider...as和think of „as等。

2. A此题是对语法的考查,criticize由动词变为名词criticism,其逻辑上的宾语应由介词of引导。

3.B考查介词短语搭配,be opposed to 和opposition to, 固定搭配。

4.D take up 是从事某种职业,take after 是与某人长得相像,take over 是接手,take along是随身携带。

5.B根据上下文判断,前面讲拳王阿里反对女子从事拳击运动(his outspoken opposition to women’s boxing),随后又讲他亲自出席女儿的首场比赛,明显对比,故应选however。

6. A as much„as属于固定搭配。

7. D 首场比赛,备受媒体关注,不料比赛仅持续了31秒,难免令人失望,故应选unfortunately,因观众难以目睹拳王女儿的风采。

8. B she knows what she’s doing,此句型口语中较为常见,如某人说I know what I’m doing或I know what I’m talking about,则表示说话者本人对自己的言行很有信心。

9. C 对介词短语compare A to B或compare A with B 的考查。前者有比作、比拟的意思,后者表示把A和B作比较的意思。

10. B make one’s own name 表示成功、成名的意思。其他表示成功的短语还有make it,口语中更常见。答案C make one’s own success有中式英语Chinglish之嫌。

11. D 考查上下文,下文中“a broken nose or a swollen face”暗示拳击运动员受伤病困扰的苦恼,更不要说拳王本身正受帕金森综合症的折磨。另外,possible一词之前常出现形容词最高级。综合上文两处的解释,worst是最佳答案。

12. A 拳王表明拳击运动可能会造成严重的后果,意欲让女儿自己决定“是否”继续从事这项危险的运动。

13. C 此题考查易混淆短语in spite of 和介词despite,多一个of或少一个of,都不对。

14. B 对上下文的考查,文中第一段就有“fuelled the debate about the dangers of boxing and CRITICISM of the sport”。

15. A 对上下文的考查,文中多次提及拳王女儿是初登拳坛,如第一段中“His presence at Laila’s FIRST professional fight”,如第二段中的“Twenty-one-year-old Laila’s DEBUT fight”,都是暗示莱拉“出现”在拳坛,故arrival最合适。答案B的搭配应该是the birth of,而不是介词on。答案C的departure是离开拳坛。答案D的attention首先介词搭配应该是to,其次意思也不是甚为贴切 第十五篇

Life Expectancy in the Last Hundred Years

A hundred years ago,life expectancy in developed countries was about 47;in the early 21st century,men in the United States and the United Kingdom can expect to live to about 74,women to about 80,and these 1 are rising all the time.What has brought 2 these changes? When we look at the life 3 of people 1 00 years ago,we need to look at the greatest 4 of the time.In the early 20th century,these were the acute and often5 infectious diseases such as smallpox.Many children died very young from these diseases and others,and the weak and elderly were always at risk. In the 6 world these diseases are far 7 today,and in some cases have almost disappeared.A number of 8 have led to this:improvements in sanitation and hygiene.the discovery and use of antibiotics,which 9 bacterial diseases much less dangerous,and vaccinations 10 common diseases. 11 ,people’s general health has improved with improvements in our general environment:cleaner air, better means of preserving food,better and warmer housing,and better understanding of nutrition.

Genetically, we should all be able to live to about 85 but 12 people do live longer today,there are still some big killers around that are preventing US from consistently reaching that age.The problems that affect people today are the more chronic illnesses,such as heart disease and strokes,and those 13 by viruses,such as influenza and AIDS1.Of course,cancer is a huge killer as well.In most cases these diseases affect 14 people,but there are worrying trends in the developed world with problems such as obesity 15 more heart disease and illnesses such as diabetes at younger ages.

The killers today can be classed as“lifestyle diseases

词汇:

expectancy n.预期 preserve vt.保藏,防止(食物) 腐烂

acute adj.(疾病)急性的

infectious adj.传染性的 nutrition n.营养

smallpox n.天花 chronic adj.(疾病)慢性的

sanitation n.环境卫生 stroke n.中风

hygiene n.个人卫生 virus n.病毒

antibiotic n.抗生素 influenza n.流行性感冒

bacterial adj细菌性的 trend n.趋势,倾向

vaccination n.种痘,接种 obesity n肥胖

diabetes n.糖尿病 halt vt.使„停止

注释:

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome(AIDS):艾滋病,后天性免疫缺乏综合症

练习:

1. A)ages B)years C)lives D)countries

2. A)in B)about C)to D)with

3. A)length B)time C)duration D)span

4. A)people B)killers C)invention D)nation

5. A)more B)less C)high D)highly

6. A)developed B)less developed C)undeveloped D)developing

7. A)more deadly B)deadly C)less deadly D)fatal

8. A)improvements B)factors C)jobs D)measures

9. A)makes B)causes C)make D)cause

10.A)against B)for C)to D)from

11.A)And B)Therefore C)In addition D)Nevertheless

12.A)when B)yet C)however D)while

13.A)spread B)affected C)produced D)created

14.A)poor B)weak C)older D)young

15.A)and B)leading to C)from D)with

答案与题解:

1. A 通过上下文可知此处应为“年龄

2. B bring about意思是“带来”,bring in意为赚取,实现(一定利润),没有bring to这个短语,如果用with,此句话必须变成what has it brought with these changes才符合语法,但意思就不符合文章了。

3. D life span是一个固定搭配,意为寿命。

4. B 从下一句可以看出此处应指那些不治之症。

5. D 本句举了天花的例子,下一句指出很多孩子死于这些病,所以此处应为一个表严重的词。high是形容词,不能修饰后面的形容词。acute不是比较级,所以and后面也不应用比较级。

6. A 本句后部分说在一些国家这些病已经消失,通过常识得知应该是发达国家。

7. C 本句后部分说在一些国家这些病已经消失,整段都在说明情况好转,故选C。

8. B 冒号后面列举的内容不能统一用其他几个词概括,只能用factor。

9. C注意这里的which不是非限制定语从句中指代前面一句话的作用,而是指代前面两项内容:卫生的改善和抗生素的发明使用,所以which后的动词不用三单形式。cause没有这样的语法搭配。

10. A 该选项为固定搭配,意为对某种疾病的预防接种。

11. C 前面说的是对疾病的防范和控制加强,后面说的是整体环境的改善,两者为并列关系,但是And在书面语中不能这样使用,所以只能选in addition。

12. D整句话的意思是:从基因角度看,人都能活到85岁,但是虽然现在人们寿命

确实比以前长了,仍然有一些疾病使得我们不能都活到那个岁数。所以此处应该填一个转折副词。

13. A those指代流感和艾滋病等靠病毒传播的疾病,those后面的动词是过去分词作定语。spread的过去分词与原形相同。

14. C 本句最后指出一些病越来越年轻化,所以此处应选择younger的反义词。

15. B obesity是心脏病和糖尿病年轻化的重要原因,它和心脏病、糖尿病不是并列关系,而是因果关系,所以选择leading to,现在分词作结果状语

范文三:2016年职称英语等级考试教材电子版_卫生类新增文章5篇

1

Common Questions about Dreams

Does everyone dream?

Yes. Research shows that we all dream. We have our most vivid dreams during a type of sleep called Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. During REM sleep, the brain is very active. The eyes move quickly back and forth under the lids, and the large muscles of the body are relaxed. REM sleep occurs every 90-100 minutes, three to four times a night, and it lasts longer as the night goes on. ___1___ We dream at other times during the night, too, but those dreams are less vivid.

Do people remember their dreams?

A few people remember their dreams. However, most people forget nearly everything that happened during the night — dreams, thoughts, and the short periods of time when they were awake. ___2___ It seems that the memory of the dream is not totally lost, but for some reason it is very hard to bring it back. If you want to remember your dream,the best thing to do is to write it down as soon as you wake up.

Are dreams in color?

Most dreams are in color. However, people may not be aware of it for two reasons : They don’t usually remember the details of their dreams, or they don’t notice the color because it is such a natural part of our lives. ___3___

Do dreams have meaning?

Scientists continue to debate this issue. ___4___ Some people use dreams to help them learn more about their feelings, thoughts, behavior, motives, and values. Others find that dreams can help them solve problems. It’s also true that artists, writers, and scientists often get creative ideas from dreams.

How can I learn to understand my dreams?

The most important thing to remember is that your dreams are personal. The people, actions, and situations in your dreams reflect your experience, your thoughts, and your feelings. Some dream experts believe that there are certain types of dreams that many people have,even if they come from different cultures or time periods. Usually, however, the same dream will have different meanings for different people. For example, an elephant in a dream may mean one thing to a zookeeper and something very different to a child whose favorite toy is a stuffed elephant. ___5___ Then look for links between your dreams and what is happening in your daily life. If you think hard and you are patient, perhaps the meaning of your dreams will become clearer to you.

词汇:

vivid /'vivid/ adj. 清晰的,生动的,逼真的

lid /lid/ n. 眼睑(=eyelid)

motive /məutiv/ n. 动机

stuffed /stʌft/ adj. 填充的,塞满了的

注释:

1. back and forth:来回地,反复地。

2. bring it back:回忆起它来。bring back:使回忆起来,带回来、拿回来,使恢复。

3. Scientists continue to debate this issue. 科学家们不断地讨论这个问题。“debate”作动词“争 论,辩论,讨论”讲,既可以是不及物动词也可以是及物动词,作不及物动词时常与 “about/

on/upon” 搭配。

练习:

A However, people who spend time thinking about their dreams believe that they are meaningful and useful.

B The final REM period may last as long as 45 minutes.

C People who are very aware of color when they are awake probably notice color more often in their dreams.

D Our most powerful dreams don’t happen during deep sleep.

E To learn to understand your dreams, think about what each part of the dream means to you or reminds you of.

F Sometimes, though, people suddenly remember a dream later in the day or on another day.

答案与题解:

1. B 文中第一部分主要介绍快速眼动睡眠期,而且前一句正好提到每晚快速眼动睡眠期的间隔时间、出现频率及其持续时间的情况。

2. F 题目所在的前一句提到大多数人会忘记晚上所发生的几乎所有事情,而后一句中又提到人们对梦的记忆好像没有完全丢失,由此可以推断出中间这一句应该说的是人有时会记起自己的梦。

3. C 文中第三部分提到梦是彩色的,前面主要讲的是人们可能意识不到这个问题以及意识不到的原因,由此可以推断后面应该会提到那些可以意识到这个问题的人。因此,答案为C。

4. A 文中第四部分讲的是梦的意义,纵观六个选项与部分主题相关的只有选项A,而且后面主要提到人们会利用梦做些什么,这也就意味着人们会思考他们的梦而且相信梦是有意义的。

5. E 由第五部分的标题就可以锁定选项E,而且后一句讲的是要寻找梦与现实的联系,正好与选项E的意思相吻合。

2

Baby Talk

Babies normally start to talk when they are 13 to 15 months old. Ryan Jones is only eight months old, but he is already “talking” with his parents. When lie is hungry, he opens and closes his hand. This means milk. He also knows the signs for his favorite toy and the word more.

Ryan is not deaf, and his parents are not deaf, but his mother and father are teaching him to sign. They say a word and make a sign at the same time. They repeat this again and again. When ___1___ Ryan’s parents think that he will be a happier baby because he can communicate with them. Ryan s parents are teaching Ryan to sign because of a man named Joseph Garcia. Although Garcia was not from a deaf family, he decided to learn American Sign Language (ASL). First, he took courses in ASL. Then he got a job helping deaf people communicate with hearing people. In his work, he saw many deaf parents sign to their infants. He noticed that these babies were able to communicate much earlier than hearing children. ___2___ When they were one year old, they could use as many as 50 signs.

Garcia decided to try something new. He taught ASL to parents who were not deaf. The families started to teach signs to their infants when they were six or seven months old. ___3___ More and more parents took Garcia’s ASL classes. Like Ryan’s family, they were excited about signing with their babies. They wanted to give their babies a way to communicate before they could use spoken words.

Some people worry about signing to babies. They are afraid that these babies won’t feel a need

to talk. Maybe they will develop spoken language later than other babies. ___4___ In fact, one study found just the opposite. Signing babies actually learned to speak earlier than other children. As they grow older, these children are more interested in books. They also score higher on intelligence tests1.

There is still a big question for parents: Which are the best signs to teach their babies? Some parents make their own signs. Other parents want to teach ASL. ___5___ There’s no clear answer, but we do know this: All signing babies and their families are talking quite a lot!

词汇:

normally /'nɔ:m(ə)li/ adv. 正常地;通常地,一般地

infant /'infənt / n. 婴儿;幼儿;未成年人

communicate /kə'mju:nikeit/ 通信;交流;感染

opposite /'ɔpəzit/ adj. 相反的;n. 对立面,反义词

注释:

1. intelligence test:智力测试

练习:

A However, research does not show this.

B All parents want to teach babies to sign.

C Ryan learns a new sign, his family is very excited.

D These babies started using signs about two months later.

E It can be useful because many people understand it.

F They talked with signs by the time they were eight months old.

答案与题解:

1. C 第二段主要是讨论Ryan学习手语的过程,当他学会一种新的手势时,父母非常高兴。

2. F 这一段讲的是婴儿在学习手语过程中的共同规律。题目前一句讲Garcia注意到学习手语的婴儿比普通婴儿更早开始交流,后一句讲婴儿1岁时能使用的手势多达50种,因此,此处应填“这些婴儿从8个月起就开始用手语交流”。

3. D 这一段讲有些家庭在婴儿六七个月的时候开始教他们手语。D选项中的these babies指代这些婴儿,符合题意。

4. A 前文讲有些人担心婴儿学习手语会导致其会话能力发展缓慢,后文讲的是研究表明并不是这样,因此空格处应填表示转折的句子。

5. E E选项是对前文中ASL的解释,ASL是通用手语,因此能被更多的人理解。选项中的it即指代ASL。

3

The Apgar Test

The baby was born at 3:36 p. m. At 3:37, she scored 4 out of 10 on her first test. At 3:41, she scored 8 out of 10. The doctor was glad.

Another baby, born at 8:24 p. m., scored 3 out of 10 on his first test. He scored 4 out of 10 on his second test. He took another test at 8:34 and scored 5. ___1___ He called for help1. These newborn babies took a test called the Apgar test. This test helps doctors diagnose problems. ___2___ Most babies take two tests. The first is at 1 minute after birth, and the second is at

5 minutes after birth. If a baby’s score at 5 minutes is less than 6, the baby takes another test at 10 minutes after birth.

The Apgar test is not an intelligence test. It’s a test that shows a baby’s health right after it is born. The Apgar test measures things such as a baby’s color, heart rate, and breathing. The test has five parts, and the score for each part can be 0, 1, or 2. ___3___

A doctor named Virginia Apgar developed the test. Apgar went to medical school at Columbia University in New York City in 1929. She faced many challenges because she was the first woman in the program. However, she was one of the best students in her class. After medical school, she started treating patients2.

Apgar also became a researcher in anesthesiology, a new topic in medicine at the time3. During her studies, she learned how to give patients anesthesia. ___4___

In the 1940s, many women started to have anesthesia when they gave birth. Apgar had a question: How does anesthesia affect newborn babies? In 1949, when Apgar was a professor at Columbia’s medical school, she created her simple test. She wrote a paper about her methods in 1953. Soon after, people started using the Apgar test around the world.

In her work, Apgar saw that many newborns had problems. She wanted to help these babies survive. She stopped practicing medicine in 1959, and she went back to school to get a master’s degree in public health. ___5___

Today, the Apgar test is still used all over the world. Newborn babies don’t know it, but Virginia Apgar is a very important person in the first few minutes of their lives.

词汇:

diagnose /'daiəgnəuz/ vt. & vi. 诊断(疾病)

anesthesiology /,ænis,θizi’ɔlədʒi/ n. 麻醉学

anesthesia /,ænis'θiziə/ n. 麻醉

注释:

1. called for help:需要帮助,求救。call for:需要,要求,提倡;来找(某人),来取(某物)。

2. she started treating patients:她开始治疗病人。treat sb.有三种意思,分别是“对待某人”“治疗某人”和“款待某人”。treat作“治疗”讲,是普通用语的治疗,意义广泛,cure多用于疾病方面,heal多用于创伤或外伤方面。

3. at the time:当时,在那时。同义短语有at that point, at that time, on the occasion。

练习:

A Doctors add the scores together for the total Apgar score.

B She spent the rest of her life doing research and raising money to help newborn babies.

C A score of 10 is uncommon.

D The doctor was worried.

E They decide if a baby is normal or needs special care.

F Anesthesia is a procedure that makes patients lose consciousness, so they do not feel any pain during surgery.

答案与题解:

1. D 由第二段的前半部分可知这个婴儿三次健康测试的分数都不理想,而且最后一句提到他需要

救助,说明他的情况不容乐观,所以医生应该担心。因此,答案为D。

2. E 第三段中第二句话提到这项测试帮助医生诊断新生儿的问题,即医生可以根据测试结果判断新生儿的健康状况。因此,答案为E。

3. A 顺承本段倒数第二句的句意可知选项A和选项C都可以,但选项C说10分的成绩不常见,这一点由全文其他地方推断不出来。因此,答案为A。

4. F 本段第二句话最后提到阿普加学习给病人实施麻醉,而选项F讲的是麻醉是什么,正好与本段第二句话句意吻合。因此,答案为F。

5. B 本段主要讲的是阿普加帮助新生儿的愿望以及她为此所做的努力,纵观六个选项符合段意的只有选项B。因此,答案为B。

4

Ice Cream Taster Has Sweet Job

John Harrison has what must be the most wanted job in the United States. He’s the official taster for Edy’s Grand Ice Cream, one of the nation’s best-selling brands. Harrison’s taste buds are insured for $1 million. ___1___ And when he isn’t doing that, he travels, buying Edy’s in supermarkets all over the country so that he can check for perfect appearance, texture, and flavor. After I interviewed Harrison, I realized that the life of an ice cream taster isn’t all Cookies ’n Cream — a flavor that* he invented, by the way. No, it’s extremely hard work, which requires discipline and selflessness.

For one thing, he doesn’t swallow on the job. Like a coffee taster, Harrison spits. Using a gold spoon to avoid “off” flavors, he takes a small bite and moves it around in his mouth to introduce it to all 9,000 or so taste buds. ___2___ Then he breathes in gently to bring the aroma up through the back of his nose. Each step helps Harrison evaluate whether the ice cream has a good balance of dairy, sweetness, and added ingredients 一 the three-flavor components of ice cream. Then, even if the ice cream tastes heavenly, he puts it into a trash can. A full stomach makes it, impossible to judge the quality of the flavors.

During the workweek, Harrison told me that he has to make other sacrifices, too: no onions, garlic, or spicy food, and no caffeine. Caffeine will block the taste buds, he says, so his breakfast is a cup of herbal tea. ___3___

Harrison’s family has been in the ice cream business in one way or another1 for four generations, so Harrison has spent his entire life with it2. However, he has never lost his love for its cold, creamy sweetness. ___4___ On these occasions3, he does swallow, and he eats about a quart (0.95 liters) each week. By comparison4, the average person in the United States eats 23.2 quarts (21. 96 liters) of ice cream and other frozen dairy products each year.

Edy’s ice cream is available in dozens of flavors. So what flavor does the best-trained ice-cream taster in the country prefer? Vanilla! In fact, vanilla is the best-selling variety in the United States. ___5___ “It’s a very complex flavor,” Harrison says.

词汇:

taste bud 味蕾

texture /'tekstʃə/a/ n. 质地

aroma /ə'rəumə/ n. 芳香

vanilla /və'mlə/ n. 香草

注释:

1. in one way or another:以某种方式,用这样或那样的方式

2. has spent his entire life with it:为此他已付出一生。spend.…with sth.:花(时间等)在某事上

3. on these occasions:在这种场合下

4. by comparison:相比之下

练习:

A However, you should never call it plain vanilla.

B He even orders ice cream in restaurants for dessert.

C Next he smack-smack-smacks his lips to get some air into the sample.

D This is a small price to pay for what he calls the world’s best job.

E In his younger days, he would help out at the ice cream factory his uncle owned.

F He gets to sample 60 ice creams a day at Edy’s headquarters in Oakland, California.

答案与题解:

1. F 文中第一段讲了Harrison的工作情况。后文提到他休假时的情况,所以此处应为对他工作状态的介绍。

2. C 第二段主要介绍了他工作时品尝冰淇淋的过程。前文介绍了刚入口中的情况,此处应该是后续介绍。

3. D 第四段讲了他为此工作做出的牺牲。

4. B 此处前文讲到他仍然爱吃冰淇淋,所以此处B选项最符合原文。

5. A 根据后文讲“香草是一种复杂的口味”可以推断此处应为A选项。

5

Primer on Smell

In addition to bringing out1 the flavor of food, what does the sense of smell do for us?

Smell “gives us information about place, about where we are,” says Randall Reed, a Johns Hopkins University professor whose specialty is the sense of smell. ___1___ “Whether we realize it or not, we collect a lot of information about who is around us based on smell,” says Reed.

Even at a distance, odors can warn us of2 trouble — spoiled food, leaking gas, or fire. “It’s a great alert,” offers Donald Leopold, a doctor at Johns Hopkins. For example, if something in the oven is burning, everyone in the house knows it.

With just a simple scent, smell can also evoke very intense emotion. Let’s say, for example, that the smell is purple petunias. ___2___ Now let’s imagine that your mother died when you were three, and she used to have a flower garden. You wouldn’t need to identify the smell or to have conscious memories of your mother or her garden. You would feel sad as soon as you smelled that spicy odor.

Compared with3 animals, how well do people detect smelts?

That depends on what you mean by “how well”. We are low on receptor cells : current estimates say that humans have roughly five million smell-receptor cells, about as many as a mouse. ___3___ Reed says that, across species, there is a relatively good correlation between the number of receptor cells and how strong the sense of smell is. “You can hardly find the olfactory bulb in a human brain —— it’s a pea-sized object. In a mouse, it’s a little bigger. It’s bean-sized in a rat, about the size of your little finger in a rabbit, and the size of your thumb in a bloodhound.”

Does that mean that our sense of smell is not very acute?

Not exactly. While we may not have the olfactory range of other creatures, the receptors we do have are as sensitive as those of any animal. ___4___ A trained “nose”, such as that of a professional in the perfume business, can name and distinguish about 10,000 odors. Reed says that a perfume expert can sniff a modem scent that has a hundred different odorants in it, go into the lab, and list the ingredients. “In a modest amount of time, he comes back with what to you or me would smell like a perfect imitation of that perfume. It’s amazing.”

What happens to4 our sense of smell as we age?

Many people continue to have good olfactory function as they get older. ___5___ Leopold says that smell is generally highest in childhood, stays the same from the teens through the 50s, and drops starting at about 60 for women and 65 for men. “The average 80-year-old is only able to smell things half as well as the average 20-year-old,” says Leopold.

词汇:

scent /sent/ n. 气味,香味

petunia /pə'tju:niə/ n. 喇叭花

olfactory /ɔl'fækt(ə)ri/ adj. 嗔觉的,味道的

sniff /snif/ v. 嗅,闻,用力吸

注释:

1. bring out:使……显出,使……变得明显

2. warn of:发出关于……的警告。warn sb. of sth.:警告某人某事

3. compare with:与……相比

4. happen to:发生于,发生在

练习:

A These flowers have a rich spiciness that no other petunia has.

B Odors, or smells, can warn us about trouble.

C That’s not the rule, however.

D And smell tells us about people.

E We can also think, and we make conscious (and successful) efforts to tell the difference between one smell and another.

F A rat has some 10 million, a rabbit 20 million, and a bloodhound 100 million.

答案与题解:

1. D 根据后文提到的“我们能够根据气味收集到有关人的很多信息”可以推断此处答案是D选项。

2. A 前文提到以紫喇叭花的香味举例,选项中只有A选项提到了喇叭花。

3. F 前文提到人类和小鼠的嗅觉受体细胞数量,可以推断此处应介绍其他物种的嗅觉受体细胞数量。

4. E 后文都在介绍人类可以区分味道的不同,所以此处E选项最符合原文意思。

5. C 后文介绍了不是每个人都随着年龄的增长嗅觉能力不发生变化,所以此处C选项最符合原文。

范文四:2012会计职称考试教材电子版

初级会计实务

1、Dbank下载:

2、u115网盘下载:http://115.com/file/aq5455e3

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范文五:职称英语理工电子版编辑(2014听讲课后)

(完形填空)第六篇Car Thieves could Be Stopped Remotely【远程制止偷车贼】 Speeding off in a stolen car, the thief thinks he has got a great catch. But he is in a nasty

surprise. The car is fitted with a remote immobilizer and a radio signal from a control center miles away will ensure that once the thief switches the engine 超速驾驶在偷来的汽车里,偷车贼以为自己大获全胜。但是他马上就会又惊又恼。车上已经被装了远程制动装置,一个几英里以外的控制中心发来的无线信号将确保盗贼一旦启动引擎,他就不能再次发动汽车了。

For now, such devices construction sites. But remote immobilization technology could soon start to trickle down to ordinary cars, and be available to ordinary cars two months.

目前,这种装置只用于卡车队或者用于建筑工地的特殊车辆上。但是远程制动技术很快就会逐步应用到普通汽车上。并且应该在两个月之内用在英国的普通汽车上。

The idea goes like this. A control box fitted to the car incorporates miniature cellphone , a microprocessor and memory, and a GPS satellite positioning receiver .cellphone signal will tell the unit to block the vehicle’s engine management system and prevent the engine restarted.

计划是这样的。把一个集合有微型无绳电话,微量处理器,存储器以及全球定位系统的卫星接收器的控制合子安装在汽车上。如果汽车被盗,一个被编码的无绳电话信号就会告诉这个装置停止车辆引擎控制系统来阻止引擎再次被启动。

There are even plans for immobilizers shut down vehicles on the move, though there are fears over the safety implications of such a system.

甚至还有一些人主张计划将制动装置装在运行着的车辆上,可是这一来人们就会担心这个系统的安全性。

In the UK.an array of technical fixes is already making harder for car thieves. “The pattern of vehicles crime has changed,” says Martyn Randall of Thatcham, a security research organization based in Berkshire that is funded in part the motor insurance industry.

在英国,一系列的技术装置已经让盗车贼步履维艰了。玛丁兰多来自位于贝克郡的一个由汽车保险工业投资成立的名为撒策姆的安全研究机构。他说:“车辆盗窃的手法已经有所改变。” He says it would only take him a few minutes to a novice how to steal a car, using a bare minimum of tools. But only if the car is more than 10 years old.

他还声称只要是10年以上的汽车,他就能用几样的简单的工具有几分钟之内教会一个新手怎样的偷车。

Modern cars are a far tougher proposition, as their engine management computer will not them to start unless they receive a unique ID code beamed out by the ignition key. In the UK, technologies like thisachieve a 31 percent drop in vehicle-related crime since 1997. 现代车却远没有这么简单,因为它们的引擎管理计算机装置只有接收到一个独一无二的由点火钥匙发送过来的身份密份才可以启动汽车。自1997年以来,在英国,技术人员已经利用此项技术帮助减少了31%的涉及车辆犯罪案。

But determined criminals are still managing to find other ways to steal cars. Often by getting hold of the owner‟s keys in a burglary. In 2000, 12 percent of vehicles stolen in the UK were taken using the owner‟s keys double the previous year‟s figure.

但是不死心的盗贼们却还在一直想方设法偷车。例如很多时候,他们在夜里盗走主人的汽车钥匙进而偷车。在2000年,英国21%的车辆被盗案是由于主人的钥匙被盗,这个数字比前一年增长了1倍。

Remote-controlled immobilization system would a major new obstacle in the criminal‟s way by making such thefts pointless. A group that includes Thatcham, the police, insurance companies and security technology firms have developed standards for a system that could go on the market sooner than the expects.

远程控制的制动系统给盗贼设置了一个全新的障碍。包括撒策姆,公安部门,保险公司以及安全技术公司的这样一个群体已经为体系开发出了一个标准,将比顾客所预期的更早地被很快推广到市场上。

(完形填空)第七篇An Intelligent Car【智能汽车】

Driving needs sharp eyes, keen ears, quick brain, and coordination between hands and the brain. Many human drivers have all car control itself?

开车需要目光锐利,耳朵灵敏,反应敏捷和手脑间的协作。许多人类司机这些条件都具备,并可控制一辆急速行驶的汽车。但一辆智能车如何进行自控?

There is a virtual driver in the smart car. This virtual driver has “eyes,””brains,””hands” and ”feet,” too. The minicameras on each side of the car are his “eyes,” which observe the road conditions ahead of it. They watch the to the car‟s left and right. There is also a highly automatic driving system in the car.

智能车中有一位虚拟驾驶员。这位司机同样有“眼”有“脑”有“手”有“脚”。车两侧的微型摄像头就是他的眼,负责观察车前方的路况。他们注意着车两侧的交通情况。车中也有高度自动化的驾驶系统。

It is the build-in computer, which is the virtual driver‟s “brain,” His „brain” calculates the speeds of moving cars near it and analyzes their positions. Basing on this information, it chooses the right for the intelligent car, and gives to the “hands” and “feet” to act accordingly. In this way, the virtual driver controls his car.

这就是内置的电脑,也就是虚拟司机的大脑。这个大脑计算出车近旁正在运动车辆的速度,并分析它们的位置。基于这些信息,它为智能车选择最佳路径,并给出指示以让手脚做出相应运动。通过这样的方式,虚拟司机就对车辆实行了控制。

What is the virtual driver‟s best advantage? He reacts . The minicameras are images continuously to the “brain.” It the processing of the images within 100

milliseconds. However, the world‟s best driver needs one second to react. , when he takes action, he needs one more second.

虚拟司机的最大优点是什么?他的反应速度很快。微型摄像头不断向大脑发送图像数据。他完成图像处理的时间为100毫秒。然而,世界上最优秀的人类司机也至少需要1 秒钟的反应时间。当他作出行动时,又多需一秒。

The virtual driver is really wonderful. He can reduce the accident considerably on expressways. In this case, can we let him have the wheel at any time and in any place? Experts that we cannot do that just yet,. His ability to recognize things is still. He can now only drive an intelligent car on expressways.

虚拟司机的确很棒。在高速公路上,他可大大减少事故发生率。鉴于此,我们是否可以让他在任何时间任何地点都驾驶汽车呢?专家们警告说我们现在还不能这样做。智能车辨别事物的能力还很有限。目前,这种车只能在高速公路上行驶。

(完形填空)第九篇Wonder Webs【奇妙的网】

Spider webs are more than homes, and they are ingenious traps. And the world‟s best web spinner may be the Golden Orb Weaver spider. The female Orb Weaver spins a web of fibers thin enough to be invisible to insect prey, yet蜘蛛网对蜘蛛来说不仅仅是家,它们还是奇妙的引虫入网的陷阱。世界最棒的织网者可能是Goldern Orb Weaver的蜘蛛。雌性的Orb Weaver可以织出很细的丝,连被捕的昆虫都看不见。但却是坚韧得可以将一只飞入网中的鸟缠住而不弄断。

The secret of the web‟s strength?A type of super-resilient called dragline. When the female spider is ready to the web‟s spokes and frame, she uses her legs to draw the airy thread out through a hollow nozzle in her belly. Dragline is not sticky, so the spider can race back and forth along e web‟s trademark spiral.

那么蜘蛛网为何有如此强的力度呢?有一种网丝有超强的弹力,叫做蜘蛛的避敌丝。当雌性的蜘蛛准备织蛛网的辐条和框架时,它就用腿从一个空的喷嘴里勾出轻飘飘的丝线,放到肚子里面。避敌丝不粘,因此蜘蛛可以沿着它来回活动编织,从而来编织网的标志性螺旋。

Unlike some spiders that weave a new web every day, a Golden Orb Weaver her handiwork until it falls apart, sometimes not for two years. The silky thread is five times stronger than steel by weight and absorbs the force of an impact three times better than Kevlar, a high-strength human-made与某些种类的蜘蛛不同,它不用每天织新网,只要网不破,就能一直用下去,有时一用就两年。柔软如丝的蛛丝的强度比相同重量的钢丝大五倍,同时可以承受的力度比一种高强度的防弹衣的人工材料大三倍多。

And thanks to its high tensile strength, or the ability to resist breaking under the pulling force called tension, a single strand can stretch up to 40 percent longer than its original back as well as new. No human-made fiber even comes .

同时由于它有很强的张力,或者说一种能够抵住被弄断的往下的拉力。一根单线可以伸长至比原始长度长40%以上,然后重新弹回至原来的长度,还像新的一样。没有一种人造纤维可以与它相媲美。

It is no wonder manufacturers are clamoring for spider silk. In the consumer pipeline: High-performance fabrics for athletes and stockings that never run. Think parachute cords and suspension bridge cables. A steady – but how to produce it? Harvesting silk on spider farms does not because the territorial arthropods have a tendency to devour their neighbors.

因此,生产者们强烈要求蛛丝也就不足为奇了。在消费者这一方面,人们强烈要求的是高质量的运动服和永不脱丝的长袜。试想一下另外如降落伞绳索和吊桥上的绳索。如果有稳定的蛛丝的供应,它将是一个价值上亿的产业,但问题是怎么样才能生产出稳定的蛛丝呢?试图以养蛛场收获蛛丝是行不通的,因为生长在那块地方的节肢动物有可能会吞掉它们的这些“邻居”。

Now, scientists at the biotechnology company Nexia are spinning artificial silk modeled after Golden Orb dragline. The first step: extract silk-making genes from the spiders. Next, implant the genes into goat egg cells. The nanny goats that grow from the eggs secrete dragline silk proteins in their 现在,生物工艺公司“Nexia”的科学家们正在研制一种仿制Goldern Orb避敌丝的人工丝。第一步骤:从蜘蛛身上抽取制丝的基因,然后,将这些基因植入山羊的卵细胞中。由这

些卵细胞发育生的雌山羊会在羊奶中分泌一种带丝的蛋白质。

“The young goats pass on the silk-making gene without any help from us,” says Nexia president Jeffrey Turner. Nexia is still perfecting the spinning process, but they hope artificial spider silk will soon be snagging customers the real thing snags bugs.

“Nexia”公司总裁吉弗利特纳说:“这些幼山羊不需我们的任何帮助就可以将制丝基因遗传过去。”“Nexia”继续在完善它的制丝过程,但是他们希望这种人造蜘蛛丝能尽快地吸引住顾客,就像真正的蛛丝抓住小虫子一样。

(完形填空)第十篇Chicken Soup for the Soul: Comfort Food Fights Loneliness

【心灵鸡汤:爽心食品排解孤独感】

Mashed potatoes, macaroni and cheese, may be bad for your arteries, Psychological Science, they're good for your heart and . The study focuses on “comfort food” and how it makes people feel.

土豆泥,通心粉和奶酪可能对动脉血管有害,但是,据《心理科学》一项研究表明,它们对心脏有利并且能抑制不利情绪。其研究对象是爽心食品,目的是探究人们对爽心食品的感觉。

“For me, food has always played a big role in my family, ” says Jordan Troisi, a graduate student at the University of Buffalo, and lead author on the study. The study came out of the research program of his co-author Shira Gabriel. It has may affect human emotions.

“就我而言,食品在我的家庭一直是比较关注的问题”,Jordan Troisi如是说。他是布法罗大学的研究生并且是本次研究的首席作者。该研究出自于他与Shira Gabriel合作的一个研究项目。它关注的是可能影响人类情感的物质的东西。

Some people reduce loneliness by bonding with their TV show, building virtual relationships with a pop song singer or looking at pictures of loved ones. Troisi and Gabriel wondered if comfort food could have the same effect dearest.

有些人用诸如绑定喜爱的电视节目,和流行音乐歌手建立虚拟的关系或浏览亲人的照片来排遣孤独。Troisi和Gabriel想知道爽心食品是否能通过使人们想到他们最亲近和最爱的人,同样达到排遣孤独的效果。

In one experiment, in order to make for six minutes about a fight with someone close to them. Others were given an emotionally neutral writing assignment. Then, some people in each wrote about the experience of eating a comfort food and others wrote about eating a new food. the researchers had participants在一个实验中,为使参与者感觉孤独,研究者让他们用六分钟的时间描写一次与最亲近的人吵架的经历。而要求另外一些人写一个情感中性的作业。然后,每一组的一些人描写食用爽心食品的经历;而其他的人描写食用新食品的经历。最后,研究者让参与者书面回答关于孤独程度的问题。

Writing about a fight with a close person made people feel lonely. But people who were generallyhave found that comfort foods are consistently associated with those close to us, ” says Troisi. “Thinking about or consuming these foods later then serves as a reminder of those close others. ” In essays on comfort food, many people wrote about the of eating food with

family and friends.

描写与亲人吵架的经历使人感到孤独。但是,一般来说,人们的关系若处于稳定状态,通过描写他们吃爽心食品的经历会排遣一些孤独感。Troisi说道:“我们已经得出这样的结论:爽心食品与我们的亲人密切相连,想一想或之后真正食用这种食品会提醒人们注意到他们的亲人。”在所有关于爽心食品的文章中,许多人都描述了与家人和朋友共同进餐的经历。

In another experiment, chicken soup in the lab made people think more about relationships, but only if they considered chicken soup to be a comfort food. This was a question they had been asked long before the experiment, along with many other questions, so they wouldn't remember it.

在另外一个实验中,在实验喝鸡汤令人想到和其他人的关系,但是,这只有在他们把鸡汤认为是爽心食品的时候才会发生。参与者被要求回答这个问题和许多其他问题是在这个实验很久以前,因此他们不会记得。

Throughout everyone's daily lives they experience stress, often associated with our

“在每一个人的日常生活中,都会经历紧张,而这往往与人际关系有关,爽心食品可能是排遣孤独的便利食品”。Troisi如是说。

范文六:2015年理工A职称英语(阅读理解)电子版

第十一篇:Bill Gates: Unleashing Your Creativity(A级)

I've always been an optimist and I suppose it is rooted in my belief that the power of creativity and intelligence can make the word a better place.

For as long as I can remember, I've loved learning new things and solving problems. So when I sat down at a computer for the first time in seventh grade, I was hooked. It was a clunky old teletype machine and it could barely do anything compared to the computers we have today. But it changed my life.

When my friend Paul Allen and I started Microsoft 30 years ago, we had a vision of

And after 30 years, I'm still as inspired by computers as I was back in seventh grade.

I believe that computers are the most incredible tool we can use to feed our curiosity and inventiveness -- to help us solve problems that even the smartest people couldn't solve on their own.

Computers have transformed how we learn, giving kids everywhere a window into all of the world's knowledge. They're helping us build communities around the things we care about and to stay close to the people who are important to us, no matter where they are.

Like my friend Warren Buffett, I feel particularly lucky to do something every day that I love to do. He calls it

But for all the cool things that a person can do with a PC, there are lots of other ways we can put our creativity and intelligence to work to improve our world6. There are still far too many people in the world whose most basic needs go unmet7. Every year, for example, millions of people die from diseases that are easy to prevent or treat in the developed world.

I believe that my own good fortune brings with it a responsibility to give back to the world. My wife, Melinda, and I have committed to improving health and education in a way that can help as many people as possible.

As a father, I believe that the death of a child in Africa is no less poignant or tragic than9 the death of a child anywhere else, and that it doesn't take much to make an immense difference in these children's lives.

I'm still very much an optimist, and I believe that progress on even the world's toughest problems is possible -- and it's happening every day. We're seeing new drugs for deadly diseases, new diagnostic tools, and new attention paid to the health problems in the developing world. I'm excited by the possibilities I see for medicine, for education and, of course, for technology. And I believe that through our natural inventiveness, creativity and willingness to solve tough problems, we're going to make some amazing achievements in all these areas in my lifetime.

第三十四篇 Batteries Built by Viruses

What do chicken pox,the common cold, the flu,and AIDS have in common? They’re all disease caused by viruses,tiny microorganisms that can pass from person to person.It's no wonder that when most people think about viruses, finding ways t0 steer clear of viruses is what's on people's minds.

Not everyone runs from the tiny disease carders, though.In Cambridge, Massachusetts, scientists have discovered that some viruses can be helpful in an unusual way.They are putting viruses to work, teaching them to build some of the world's smallest rechargeable batteries.

Viruses and batteries may seem like an unusual pair,but they're not so 4321

strange for engineer Angela Belcher,who first came up with the idea.At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, she and her collaborators bring together different areas of science in new ways.In the case of the virus-built batteries, the scientists combine what they know about biology, technology and production techniques.

Belcher's team includes Paula Hammond,who helps put together the tiny batteries, and Yet-Ming Chiang, an expert on how to store energy in the form of a battery.“We’re working on things we traditionally don’t associate with nature.” says Hammond.

Many batteries are already pretty small.You can hold A.C and D batteries in your hand.The coin—like batteries that power watches are often smaller than a penny.However。every year,new electronic devices like personal music players or cell phones get smaller than the year before.As these devices 65shrink, ordinary batteries won't be small enough to fit inside.

The ideal battery will store a lot of energy in a small package.Right now,Belcher's model battery,a metallic disk completely built by viruses,looks like a regular watch battery.But inside,its components are very small—so tiny you can only see them with a powerful microscope.

How small are these battery parts? To get some idea of the size,pluck one hair from your head.Place your hair on a piece of white paper and try to see how wide your hair is—pretty thin,right? Although the width of each person's hair is a bit different,you could probably fit about l o of these virus—built battery parts,side to side,across one hair.These microbatteries may change the way we look at viruses.

第三十六篇 Listening Device Provides Landslide Early Warning

A device that provides early warning of a landslide by monitoring vibrations in soil is being tested by UK researchers. The device could save thousands of lives each year by warning when an area should be evacuated, the scientists say. Such natural disasters are common in countries that experience sudden, heavy rainfall, and can also be triggered by earthquakes and even water erosion.

Landslides start when a new particles of soil or rock within a slope start to move, but the early stages can be hard to spot. Following this initial movement, “slopes can become unstable in a matter of hours or minutes.,” says Nell Dixon at Loughborough University, UK. He says a warning system that monitors this movement “might be enough to evacuate a block of flats or clear a road, and save lives .”

The most common way to monitor a slope for signs of an imminent landslide is to watch for changes in its shape. Surveyors can do this by measuring a site directly, or sensors sunk into horeholes or fixed above ground can be used to monitor the shape of a slope. Slopes can, howcver, 17

change shape without triggering a landslide, so either method is prone to causing false alarms. Now Dixon’s team has developed a device that listens for the vibrations caused when particles begin moving within a slope.

The device taktes the form of a steel pipe dropped into a borehole in a slope. The horeholeis filled in with gravel around the pipe to help transmit high-frequency vibrations generated by particles within the slope. These vibrations pass up the tube and are picked up by a sensor on the surface. Software analyses the vibration signal to determine whether a landslide may be imminent.

The device is currently being tested in a 6-metre-tall artificial clay embankment in Newcastle, UK. Early results suggest it should provide fewer false positives than existing systems. Once it has been carefully and thoroughly tested, the device could be used to create a complete early-warning system for dangerous slopes.

“Locations with a significant risk of landslides could definitely benefit from a machine like this,” says Adam Poulter, an expert at the British Red Cross. “As long as it doesn’t cost too much.” But, Poulter adds that an early-warning system may not be enough on its own. “You need to have the human communication,” he says. “Making systems that get warnings to those who need them can be difficult.”

*第四十篇 Teaching Math, Teaching Anxiety

In a new study about the way kids learn math in elementary school, the psychologists at the University of Chicagol1 Sian Beilock and Susan Levine found a surprising relationship between what female teachers think and what female students learn:If a female teacher is uncomfortable with her own math skills, then her female students are more likely to believe that boys are better than girls at math.

Just as students find certain subjects to be difficult, teachers can find certain subjects to be difficult to learn -- and teach. The subject of math can be particularly difficult for everyone. Researchers use the word

The new study found that when a teacher has anxiety about math, that feeling can influence how her female students feel about math. The study involved 65 girls,52 boys and 17 first- and second-grade teachers in elementary schools in the Midwest. The students took math achievement tests at the beginning and end of the school year, and the researchers compared the scores.

The researchers also gave the students tests to tell whether the students believed that a math superstar had to be a boy. Then the researchers turned to the teachers:To find out which teachers were anxious about math,the researchers asked the teachers how they felt at times when they came 2

across math, such as when reading a sales receipt5. A teacher who got nervous looking at the numbers on a sales receipt, for example,was probably anxious about math.

Boys,on average,were unaffected by a teacher's anxiety. On average,girls with math-anxious teachers scored lower on the end-of-the-year math tests than other girls in the study did.Plus,on the test showing whether someone thought a math superstar had to be a boy,20 girls showed feeling that boys would be better at math -- and all of these girls had been taught by female teachers who had math anxiety.

第四十二篇 Renewable Energy Sources

Today petroleum provides around 40% of the world’s energy needs, mostly fuelling automobiles. Coal is still used, mostly in power stations, to cover one-quarter of our energy needs, but it is the least efficient, unhealthiest and most environmentally damaging fossil fuel. Natural gas reserves could plug some of the gap from oil, but reserves of that will not last into the 22nd century either. Most experts predict we will exhaust easily accessible reserves within 50 years. We could fast reach an energy crisis. We need to rapidly develop sustainable solutions to fuel our future. Less-polluting renewable energy sources offer a more practical long-term energy solution. They may benefit the world’s poor too. “Renewable”, refers to the fact that these resources are not used faster than they can be replaced.

The Chinese and Romans used watermills over 2,000 years ago. But the first hydroelectric dam was built in England in 1870. Hydroelectric power is now the most common form of renewable energy, supplying around 20% of world electricity. China’s Three Gorges Dam, which has just been completed, is the largest ever. At five times the size of the US’s Hoover Dam, its 26 turbines will generate the equivalent energy of 18 coal-fired power stations. It will satisfy 3% of China’s entire electricity demand. Surprisingly, some argue that hydroelectric dams significantly contrihute greenhouse gases.

In 2003, the first commercial power station to harness tidal currents in the open sea opened in Norway. It is designed like windmill, but others take the form of turbines.

As prices fall, wind power has become the fastest growing type of electricity generation — quadruplingworldwide between 1999 and 2005. Modern wind farms consist of turbines that generate electricity. Though it will be more expensive, there is more than enough wind to provide the world’s entire energy needs. Wind farms come in onshore and offshore forms. They can often end up at spots of natural beauty, and are often unpopular with residents. And turbines are not totally benign — they can interfere with radar and leave a significant ecological footprint, altering climate and killing sea birds. Migrating birds may have more luck avoiding them. Scotland is building Europe’s largest wind farm, which will power 200,000 homes. The UK’s goal is to generate one-fifth of power from renewable sources, mainly wind, by 2020. But this may cause 121195432167810

problems, because wind is unreliable.

第四十四篇 Defending the Theory of Evolution Still Seems Needed

Judith S. Weis, a biology professor who serves aspresident of the American Institute of

Biological Sciences (AIBS) is leading a nationwide effort to “defend” the theory of evolution. Weis leads the effort in the face of what the institute views as opposition and indifference from school boards and government entities.

The Institute believes that the teaching of evolution in America is being diminished by the teaching of creationism as well as by an overall lack of teaching Darwin’s theory in high school. “There’s nothing that requires schools to teach evolution. Sometimes teachers in high schools just leave it out. However , from the point of view of biologists, evolution is the central theory of hiology upon which everything is based,” said Weis. “Unfortunately, teaching evolution has become a political issue in many parts of the country and AIBS, as a representative of biologists, wanted to be a major force speaking out in favor of its teaching.”

Weis said the institute is working together with the American Geological Institute and the National Association of Biology Teachers and its 80-plus member organizations to address the political and legislative threats to teaching evolution. In states challenging its teaching, the institute responds by sending letters to school boards and state legislatures, by providing testimony at public meetings and by notifying members and affiliated organizations. AIBS, with more than 80 member societies and 250,000 members, has established an e-mail system enabling scientists and teachers in each state, and member societies, to keep each other informed about threats to the teaching of evolution.

Darwin’s theory of evolution holds that living things change and adapt to their environment and that present-day species (including human beings) are descended from earlier species through modification by natural selection. The theory has been accepted by scientists for nearly 100 years, Weis said, and has been refined, extended and strengthened over the years by findings in paleontology and developmental biology.

Discoveries in genetics, molecular biology and genomics — all of which provide significant benefits for human health — would not be possible without the underlying knowledge of evolution. And, Weis adds, “modern molecular biology and genomics have increased our understanding of how evolution works.” Nonetheless, evolution

remains a politically. if not scientifically, controversial issue.

Weis said that this year alone, seven states have had either local or statewide efforts to water down the teaching of evolution, or “balance” it with the teaching of creationism — a religious belief that different species were created separately by a higher power, such as God. “Rarely does anyone now use the word ‘crcationism,’ because that’s too obvious,” Weis said. “The current terminology is ‘intelligent design.’”

+第四十六篇 Ants Have Big Impact on Environment as

Research by the University of Exeter1 has revealed that ants have a big impact on their local environment as a result of their activity as

Firstly, through moving of soil by nest building2 activity and by collecting food they affect the level of nutrients in the soil. This can indirectly impact the local populations of many animal groups, from decomposers to species much higher up the food chain.

Secondly, they prey on a wide range of other animals, including larger prey which can be attacked by vast numbers of ant workers.

Dirk Sanders, an author of the study from the university's Centre for Ecology and Conservation, said:

The study, carried out in Germany, studied the impact of the presence of different combinations and densities of black garden ants and common red ants, both species which can be found across Europe, including in the UK. It found that a low density of ants in an area increased the diversity and density of other animals in the local area, particularly the density of herbivores and decomposers. At higher densities ants had no or the opposite effect, showing that predation is counteracting the positive influence.

Dr Frank van Veen, another author on the study, said:

Ants are important components of ecosystems not only because they constitute a great part of the animal biomass5 but also because they act as ecosystem engineers. Ant biodiversity6 is incredibly high and these organisms are highly responsive to human impact, which obviously reduces its richness. However, it is not clear how such disturbance damages the maintenance of ant services to the ecosystem. Ants are important in below ground processes8 through the alteration of the physical and chemical environment and through their effects on plants, microorganisms, and other soil organisms.

第四十八篇 Researchers Discover Why Humans Began Walking Upright

Most of us walk and carry items in our hands every day. These are seemingly simple activities that the majority of us don’t question. But an international team of researchers, including Dr. Richmond from GW's Columbian College of Arts and Sciences,have discovered that human

walking upright, may have originated millions of years ago as an adaptation to carrying scarce, high- quality resources. The team of researchers from the U. S., England, Japan and Portugal investigated the behavior of modern-day chimpanzees as they competed for food resources,in an effort to understand what ecological settings would lead a large ape — one that resembles the 6 million-year old ancestor we shared in common with living chimpanzees — to walk on two legs.

“These chimpanzees provide a model of the ecological conditions under which our earliest ancestors might have begun walking on two legs,

The research findings suggest that chimpanzees switch to moving on two limbs instead of four in situations where they need to monopolize a resource. Standing on two legs allows them to carry much more at one time because it frees up their hands. Over time,intense bursts of bipedal activity may have led to anatomical changes that in turn became the subject of natural selection where competition for food or other resources was strong.

Two studies were conducted by the team in Guinea. The first study was conducted by the team in Kyoto University’s “ outdoor laboratory ” in a natural clearing in Bossou Forest. Researchers allowed the wild chimpanzees access to different combinations of two different types of nut — the oil palm nut,which is naturally widely available, and the coula nut, which is not. The chimpanzees’ behavior was monitored in three situations:(a) when only oil palm nuts were available,(b)when a small number of coula nuts were available,and(c) when coula nuts were the majority available resource.

When the rare coula nuts were available only in small numbers, the chimpanzees transported more at one time. Similarly, when coula nuts were the majority resource, the chimpanzees ignored the oil palm nuts altogether. The chimpanzees regarded the coula nuts as a more highly-prized resource and competed for them more intensely.

In such high-competition settings,the frequency of cases in which the chimpanzees started moving on two legs increased by a factor of four. Not only was it obvious that bipedal movement allowed them to carry more of this precious resource, but also that they were actively trying to move as much as they could in one go by using everything available 一 even their mouths.

The second study, by Kimberley Hockings of Oxford Brookes University, was a 14-month study of Bossou chimpanzees crop-raiding, a situation in which they have to compete for rare and unpredictable Resources. Here, 35 percent of the chimpanzees activity involved some sort of bipedal movement, and once again, this behavior appeared to be linked to a clear attempt to carry as much as possible at one time.

第四十九篇 U.S. Scientists Confirm Water on Mars

NASAscientists said that Mars was covered once by vast lakes, flowing rivers and a variety of other wet environments that had the potential to support life.

Laboratory tests aboard NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander have identified water in a soil sample.The lander’s robotic arm delivered the sample Wednesday to an instrument that identifies vapors 21

produced by the heating of samples.

“We have water,” said William Boynton of the University of Arizona, lead scientist for the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. “This is the first time Martian water has been touched and tasted.”

The robotic arm is a critical part of the Phoenix Mars MISSION. It is needed to trench into the icy layers of northern polar Mars and deliver samples to instruments that will analyze what Mars is made of, what its water is like, and whether it is or has ever been a possible habitat for life.

The soil sample came from a trench approximately 2 inches deep. When the robotic arm first reached that depth, it hit a hard layer of frozen soil. Two attempts to deliver samples of icy soil on days when fresh material was exposed were foiled when the samples became stuck inside the scoop. Most of the material in Wednesday’s sample had been exposed to the air for two days, letting some of the water in the sample vaporize away and making the soil easier to handle.

“Mars is giving us some surprises,” said Phoenix principal investigator Peter Smith of the University of Arizona. “We’re excited because surprises are where discoveries come from. One surprise is how the soil is behaving. The ice-rich layers stick to the scoop when poised in the sun above the deck, different from what we expected, from all the Mars simulation testing we’ve done so far.”

Since landing on May 25, Phoenix has been studying soil with a chemistry lab, TEGA, a

microscope, a conductivity probe and cameras. The science team is trying to determine whether the water ice ever thaws enough to be available for biology and if carbon-containing chemicals and other raw materials for life are present.

The mission is examining the sky as well as the ground. A Canadian instrument is using a laser beam to study dust and clouds overhead.

“It’s a 30-watt light bulb giving us a laser show on Mars,” said Victoria Hipkin of the Canadian Space Agency.

A full-circle, color panorama of Phoenix’s surroundings also has been completed by the spacecraft. “The details and patterns we see in the ground show an ice-dominated terrain as far as the eye can see,” said Mark Lemmon of Texas A & M University, lead scientist for Phoenix’s Surface Stereo Imager camera. “They help us plan measurements we’re making within reach of the robotic arm and interpret those measurements on a wider scale. ”

第五十篇 Cell Phones Increase Traffic, Pedestrian Fatalities (A级)

Cell phones are a danger on the road in more ways than one. Two new studies show that talking on the phone while traveling, whether you're driving or on foot, is increasing both pedestrian deaths and those of drivers and passengers, and recommend crackdowns on cell use by both pedestrians and drivers.

The new studies, lead-authored by Rutgers University, Newark, Economics Professor Peter D. Loeb, relate the impact of cell phones on accident fatalities to the number of cell phones in use, showing that the current increase in deaths resulting from cell phone use follows a period when 2143

cell phones actually helped to reduce pedestrian and traffic fatalities. However, this reduction in fatalities disappeared once the numbers of phones in use reached a “critical mass”of 100 million, the study found.

These studies looked at cell phone use and motor vehicle accidents from 1975 through 2002, and factored in a number of variables, including vehicle speed, alcohol consumption, seat belt use, and miles driven. The studies found the cell phone-fatality correlation to be true even when including factors such as speed, alcohol consumption, and seat belt use.

Loeb and his co-author determined that, at the current time, cell phone use has a “significant adverse effect on pedestrian safety” and that “cell phones and their usage above a critical threshold adds to motor vehicle fatalities.” In the late 1980s and part of the 1990s, before the numbers of phones exploded, cell phone use actually had a “life-saving effect” in pedestrian and traffic accidents, Loeb notes. “Cell-phone users’ were able to quickly call for medical assistance when involved in an accident. This quick medical response actually reduced the number of traffic deaths for a time,” Loeb hypothesizes.

However, this was not the case when cells were first used in the mid-1980s, when they caused a “life-taking effect” among pedestrians, drivers and passengers in vehicles. In those early days, when there were fewer than a million phones, fatalities increased, says Loeb, because drivers and pedestrians probably were still adjusting to the novelty of using them, and there weren't enough cell phones in use to make a difference in summoning help following an accident, he explains. The “life-saving effect” occurred as the volume of phones grew into the early 1990s, and increasing numbers of cells were used to call 911 following accidents, leading to a drop in fatalities, explains Loeb. But this life-saving effect was canceled out once the numbers of phones reached a “critical mass” of about 100 million and the “life-taking effect” - increased accidents and fatalities outweighed the benefits of quick access to 911 services, according to Loeb.

Loeb and his co-authors used econometric models to analyze data from a number of government and private studies. He and his co-authors recommend that governments consider more aggressive policies to reduce cell phone use by both drivers and pedestrians, to reduce the number of fatalities. 653 4

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阅读理解新增文章(共3篇)

第八篇

The State of Marriage Today

Is there something seriously wrong with marriage today? During the past 50 years,the rate of divorce in the United States has exploded:almost 50%of marriages end in divorce now,and the evidence suggests it is going to get worse. If this trend continues,it will lead to the breakup of the family,according to a spokesperson for the National Family Association. Some futurists predict that in 100 years,the average American will marry at least four times,and extramarital affairs will be even more common than they are now.

But what are the reasons for this,and is the picture really so gloomy? The answer to the first question is really quite simple:marriage is no longer the necessity it once was. The institution of marriage has been based for years partly on economic need. Women used to be economically dependent on their husbands as they usually didn’t have jobs outside the home. But with the rising number of women in well-paying jobs,this is no longer the case, so they don’t feel that they need to stay in a failing marriage.

In answer to the second question,the outlook may not be as pessimistic as it seems. While the rate of divorce has risen,the rate of couples marrying has never actually fallen very much,so marriage is still quite popular. In addition to this,many couples now cohabit and don’t bother to marry. These couples are effectively married,but they do not appear in either the marriage or divorce statistics. In fact,more than 50%of first marriages survive. The statistics are deceptive because there is a higher number of divorces in second and third marriages than in first marriages.

So is marriage really an outdated institution? The fact that most people still get married indicates that it isn't. And it is also true that married couples have a healthier life than single people:they suffer less from stress and its consequences,such as heart problems,and married men generally consider themselves more contented than their single counterparts. Perhaps the key is to find out what makes a successful marriage and apply it to all of our relationships! 词汇:

divorce n.离婚 cohabit v.同居

evidence n.证据,迹象 effectively ad.实际上

futurist n.未来主义者 statistics n.统计,统计资料

explode v.激增,迅速扩大deceptive adj.迷惑的,骗人的

predict v.预言,预料,预报 outdated adj.旧式的,过时的

extramarital adj.婚外的 indicate v.表明,暗示

gloomy adj.阴暗的;令人沮丧的 consequence n.结果,后果

institution n.制度,习俗 contented adj.满足的,满意的

outlook n.展望,前景 counterpart n.对应的人(或物)

pessimistic adj.悲观的

注释:

National Family Association:美国国家家庭联合会

练习:

1.Which is true about the problem of marriage in the United States today?

A)Divorce leads to the breakup of the family.

B)Half of the married couples get divorced.

C)American people marry more than four times.

D)More and more people are getting divorced.

2.What does “this is no longer the case” in paragraph two mean?

A ) It is not necessary to get married any more.

B) Women do not need a husband any longer.

C) Women are not economically dependant any more.

D) Many wives do well-paying jobs outside home now.

3.Why may the outlook of marriage not be as gloomy as it appears?

A) Many people still like to get married.

B)The rate of divorce has actually decreased.

C)Over 50%of the marriages continue to exist.

D)The statistics of divorce is not quite true.

4.How do people usually feel in their marriage life?

A)They are much healthier.

B)They feel no longer single.

C)They are more satisfied.

D)They suffer a lot less.

5.Which of the following about marriage is NOT mentioned in the passage?

A)There will be more relationships outside marriage.

B)Many people try to get married again after divorce.

C)Marriage has long been partly an economical need.

D)It is a fact that most people choose to get married.

答案与题解:

1. D 从第一段里可以了解到选项A与C都是预计将来会发生的,而不是如今的情况。

B选项与第一段第二句“almost 50%of the marriages end in divorce”不符。第一段第二句里的“the rate of divorce in the United States has exploded”“the evidence suggests it is going to get worse”话语正好说明了D选项的情况。

2. C 第二段第四句、第五句说得很清楚,妇女们如今在外工作在经济上不再依赖她们的丈夫,因此觉得无需维持行将失败的婚姻。

3. A 从第二段里可以了解到离婚率并没有下降而是上升了,因此B选项不对。而C选项与第三段里“In fact,more than 50%of first marriages survive”所说不符,该选项没有提到是第一次婚姻。同样,D选项在文中也没有说到,文中第三段的最后一句只是说统计数据具有欺骗性,而没有说数据失实。

4. C 文中第四段第三句的后半句说得很清楚,结了婚的人比单身的人更满足。A,D选项提到的是实际情况而不是婚后人们的感觉,因此不对。文中并没有提到选项B所说的情况。

5. B A选项在第一段最后一句里提到了,C选项和D选项分别在第二段、第四段里提到了,而B选项却没有哪一段具体提到

第三十八篇

Excessive Demands on Young People

Being able to multitask is hailed by most people as a welcome skill,but not according to a recent study which claims that young people between the ages of eight and eighteen of the so-called Generation M1are spending a considerable amount of their time in fruitless efforts as they multitask. It argues that,in fact,these young people are frittering away as much as half of their time again as they would if they performed the very same tasks one after the other. Some young people are juggling an ever larger number of electronic devices as they study. At the same time that they are working,young adults are also surfing on the Internet,or sending out emails to their friends,and/or answering the telephone and listening to music on their iPods2 or on another computer. As some new device comes along it too is added to the list rather than replacing one of the existing devices.

Other research has indicated that this multitasking is even affecting the way families themselves function as young people are too wrapped up3 in their own isolated worlds to interact with the other people around them. They can no longer greet family members when they enter the house nor can they eat at the family table.

All this electronic wizardry is supposedly also seriously affecting young people’s

performance at university and in the workplace. When asked about their perception of the impact of modern gadgets on their performance of tasks,the overwhelming majority of young people gave a favour able response.

The response from the academic and business worlds was not quite as positive. The former feel that multitasking with electronic gadgets by children affects later development of study skills,resulting in a decline in the quality of writing,for example,because of the lack of concentration on task completion. They feel that many undergraduates now urgently need remedial help with study skills. Similarly,employers feel that young people entering the workforce need to be taught all over again,as they have become deskilled.

While all this may be true,it must be borne in mind4 that more and more is expected of young people nowadays; in fact,too much. Praise rather than criticism is due in respect of5 the way today’s youth are able to cope despite what the older generation throw at them.

词汇:

excessive adj.过多的,额外 interact vi.交流,沟通,互动

multitask vi.同时进行多个任务 wizardry n.魔力,法术

supposedly adv.据认为,据推测

hail vt.赞扬 performance n.表现,行为

claim vt.声称,主张 perception n.认识,看法,见解

considerable adj.相当大的,相当多的 impact n.影响,作用

gadget n.小巧的机械装置

fritter vt.消耗,浪费 overwhelming adj.压倒性的

juggle vt.耍弄,玩耍 majority n.大多数

electronic device n.电子装置,电子仪器 academic adj 学术的,学校的

decline n.下降,衰退

surf vi.(网上)冲浪,漫游,浏览 concentration n.专心,专注

indicate vt.表明,指出 remedial adj.补习的,补救的

affect vt.影响 deskilled adj.逐渐失去技能的

isolated adj.孤立的,与世隔绝的 due adj.应有的,适当的

注释:

1.Generation M:M代表multimedia。Generation M即“多媒体时代”,是指伴随着计算机和因特网的普及而成长起来的一代年轻人。他们多出生于1980年之后,热衷于计算机、因特网、视频游戏、智能手机。这些新媒体和传统媒体如电视、印刷品、音响制品结合起来,使得他们的世界异常丰富多彩。“多媒体时代”的另一特征就是可以multitask,即多项任务同时进行,如他们可以一边上网冲浪、一边听着音乐、一边看着电视里的MTV、一边和朋友短信聊天、同时还做着自己的家庭作业。

2.iPod:美国苹果公司的一款音乐播放器,除了可以播放MP3音乐外,iPod还可以作为高速移动硬盘使用,可以显示联系人、日历和任务,以及阅读电子书和聆听有声电子书以及播客(Podcasts)。

3.be wrapped up in„注意力完全集中于„„

4.bear in mind记住

5.in respect of关于,就„„而言

练习:

1. According to a recent study, what is probably true about the multitasking Generation M?

A)They are highly commended for being so effective and efficient.

B)They waste more time than they should save,contrary to common assumptions.

C)They should prioritize and focus on the most important tasks on hand.

D)They need to improve their organizational skills so as to complete all their tasks.

2.With the advent of new gadgets,what will happen to Generation M’s present e-devices?

A)They make way for the latest and greatest and are retired by the young people.

B)They are put away temporarily but stay in rotation for their owners to choose from.

C)They become part of the ever increasing collection of novelties.

D)They are either sold or traded so that their owners can update their toys and hobbies.

3.How will multitasking affect Generation M adversely?

A)It makes them feel lonely and pitiful.

B)It makes them aloof and elusive to family and friends.

C)It makes them selfish and possessive.

D)It makes them impolite and ungrateful.

4.What is the biggest problem for multitasking undergraduates in universities?

A)They should adjust their academic attitudes seriously.

B)They should seek psychological professionals for assistance.

C)They should take some crash courses to catch up with their classmates.

D)They should try harder to focus on one task before moving on to the next.

5.In dealing with today’s youth. what approach should parents take?

A) Be supportive and understanding.

B) Be realistic and lower their expectations

C) Be encouraging and let their children stick to their old habits.

D) Be patient and hope everything will work out just fine eventually.

答案与题解:

1.B 从第一段第一句话中的“a considerable amount of their time”“fruitless efforts”以及该段最后一句话中的“frittering away as much as„”可以进行同义替换,waste就是fruitless和fritter的同义词。

2.C从第二段的最后一句话中的“added to the list rather than replacing”可以判断出,这些年轻人的电子设备是越来越多,而不是A被取而代之、B被轮流使用、D被出售或交换以便买更新的产品。

3.B 答案A是文字游戏,原文中“isolated worlds”应该理解为孤立的世界,即独自

4.D 答案A认为是态度问题,把客观问题主观化。答案B是误导选项,试图用“remedial help”误导大家联想到remedy一词,故引出psychological professional的曲解。答案C把第五段第一句中的“later development”和“decline in the quality of...”表象化,认为应该抓紧赶上同学(catch up)。答案D才是正确答案,问题症结在于multitasking难以让人集中注意力,造成浪费时间、影响表现等后果,这些前文均已提过。

5.A答案A把praise替换成了相对隐性的近义词。答案B只针对最后一段的第一句话,断章取义。答案C前半部分encouraging还算接近正确答案,后半部分则成了鼓励“将错就错

第四十七篇

Spoilt for Choice

Choice,we are given to1 believe,is a right. In daily life,people have come to expect endless situations about which they are required to make decisions one way or another. In the main2,these

are just irksome moments at work which demand some extra energy or brainpower,or during lunch breaks like choosing which type of coffee to order or indeed which coffee shop to go to. But sometimes selecting one option as opposed to another can have serious or lifelong repercussions. More complex decision-making is then either avoided,postponed,or put into the hands of the army of professionals,lifestyle coaches,lawyers,advisors,and the like,waiting to lighten the emotional burden for a fee2.But for a good many4 people in the world,in rich and poor countries,choice is a luxury,not a right. And for those who think they are exercising their right to make choices,the whole system is merely an illusion,created by companies and advertisers wanting to sell their wares5.

The main impact of endless choice in people’s lives is anxiety. Buying something as basic as a coffee pot is not exactly simple. Easy access to a wide range of consumer goods induces a sense of powerlessness,even paralysis,in many people,ending in the shopper giving up and walking away6,or just buying an unsuitable item that is not really wanted in order to solve the problem and reduce the unease. Recent surveys in the United Kingdom have shown that a sizeable proportion

of electrical goods bought per household are not really needed. The advertisers and the shareholders of the manufacturers are,nonetheless,satisfied.

It is not just their availability that is the problem, but the speed with which new versions of products come on the market. Advances in design and production mean that new items are almost ready by the time that goods hit the shelves7.Products also need to have a short 1ifespan so that the public can be persuaded to replace them within a short time. The classic example is computers, which are almost obsolete once they are bought. At first,there were only one or two available from a limited number of manufacturers,but now there are many companies all with not only their own products but different versions of the same machine. This makes selection a problem. Gone are the days when one could just walk with ease into a shop and buy one thing8:no choice,no anxiety.

The plethora of choice is not limited to consumer items. With the greater mobility of people around the world,people have more choice about where they want to 1ive and work-a fairly recent phenomenon. In the past,nations migrated across huge swathes of the earth in search of food,adventure,and more hospitable environments. Whole nations crossed continents and changed the face of history. So the mobility of people is nothing new. The creation of nation states and borders9 effectively slowed this process down. But what is different now is the speed at which migration is happening.

词汇:

spoil vt.使某人扫兴 unease n.焦虑,不安

irksome adj.令人心烦的 sizeable adj.相当大的,颇大的

brainpower n.智能 proportion n.部分,比例

option n.选择 shareholder n.股东

repercussions n.(常指意料之外的)影响,后果 manufacturer n.制造商,厂家

complex adj.复杂的 nonetheless adv.然而,不过

postpone vt.&vi.延迟,延缓 availability n.可获得性,可使用性

professional n.专业人士adj内行的

version n.版本

coach n.教练员,指导 obsolete adj.过时的,被淘汰的

luxury n.难得的享受 plethora n.过多,过剩

illusion n.幻觉,想象 phenomenon n.现象

ware n.商品,货物 migrate vi.迁徙

jmpact n.影响 swathe n.大片土地

anxiety n.焦虑,不安 hospitable 有利的,适宜的

consumer n.消费者 skip v.跳过

induce vt.引起,导致 obese adj.肥胖的

paralysis n.麻痹 metabolic adi.新陈代谢的

unsuitable adj.不恰当的,不适适宜的 psychiatric adj.精神病的

abnormal adj.异常的

注释:

1.be given to:倾向于

2.in the main:大体上,基本上

3. More complex decision-making is then either avoided,postponed,or put into the hands of the army of professionals,lifestyle coaches,lawyers,advisors,and the like,waiting to lighten the emotional burden for a fee.对于情况更复杂的决策,人们或者回避、拖延,或者求助于各式各样的专业人士--生活方式指导人员、律师、咨询师等等,而他们也正等着你付费来缓解心理重负呢。put A in the hands of B由B为A做决策。the like等等,诸如此类的(人或物)。

4. a good many:也可说a great many, (用来强调所指数量)非常多的。

5.And for those who think they are exercising their right to make choices.the whole system is merely an illusion,created by companies and advertisers wanting to sell their wares.对那些自认为行使选择权的人来说,这整个体制不过是销售商和广告商为了卖货而制造出的一种幻觉而已。exercise one’S right行使权利。

6. Easy access to a wide range of consumer goods induces a sense of powerlessness,even paralysis,in many people,ending in the shopper giving up and walking away.购物更便捷,商品更丰富,但这却让很多人感到不知所措,甚至麻痹,最后只好放弃挑选,一走了之。access to„获得„的渠道。

7.hit the shelves:上架,上市

8.Gone are the days when one could just walk with ease into a shop and buy one thing.那种无它可选,轻松购物的日子一去不复返了。此句为倒装句。

9. nation states and borders:国家和疆域。

练习:

1. What is the difference between the decision to shop in a certain supermarket and the decision to drop out of college according to the first paragraph?

A)The former is a right while the latter is not.

B)The latter has more impact on life.

C)The former may happen for many times in life.

D)The latter requires a fee.

2.When people can not easily decide what to buy,what is the least possible choice?

A)Give up.

B)Walk away.

C) Buy an unsuitable item.

D) Seek advice.

3. Why do products have short lifespan nowadays?

A)They are more often replaced with better ones.

B)They have worse quality.

C)They have too many versions.

D) Computer technology advances too fast.

4.How does migration differ from the past?

A)People now migrate across the whole earth.

B)People now migrate for better life.

C)People now have more choice about where to migrate.

D)People now migrate for better environment.

5. Which is the best summary of the writer’s attitude towards choice in a commercial society?

A) More choice,more anxiety.

B)Better more choice than no choice.

C)Better no choice than more choice.

D) All choice is not easy.

答案与题解:

1. B根据文章第一句话,这两种选择都是权利,所以A不对,选项C本身没错但文中丝毫未提及,选项D有可能发生,但不是绝对的。选项B符合But sometimes selecting one option as opposed to another can have serious or lifelong repercussions的意思。

2. D第二段第三句提到了A、B、C三个选项,只有D没提到,这正是本题答案。

3. A第三段都是在讲商家为了销售更多的商品,不断推出新产品,老百姓不知不觉更换地更勤,所以一个商品的使用寿命就更短了。

4. C其它三个选项都不是新的特点,最后一段第三句话都有涉及。

5. A整篇文章都是在论述现代商品社会人们虽然选择更多了,但焦虑感也多了。其它三个选项文中都有提及,但不能代表作者整体的态度

完型填空新增文章(共3篇)

第五篇

Why People Use Pseudonyms

You can’t choose the name you are given at birth.but in many countries you can change it legally when you reach adulthood.Of course, most people never change their names 1

they feel unhappy about them.However, some people do 2 this course of action-particularly artists! What makes an artist want to change their name? Sometimes it’s for purely 3 reasons, such as the Nobel Prize winning poet from Chile,Neflali Reyes.He didn’t want his father to 4 he was writing poetry, so he changed his name to Pablo Neruda when he was a young man. 5 other times the reason may appear eccentric;take the case of the Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa, 6 wrote under 75 different names.The reason?“When I use a different name,I always write in a different way,”he explained.In most cases, 7 ,the reason is for social,historical,political,or cultural reasons.Here are some of the most 8 :

The person’s real name is just 9 long and difficult to remember.Let’s be honest, Madonna Louise Ciccone is not as 10 to remember as just plain “Madonna”.And short names are much easier to remember:William Bradley became Brad Pitt and Edson Arantes do Nascimento became Pele. Sometimes names are changed for marketing 11 .For example,if a name sounds too“foreign”,it may be changed to something that is more recognizable in a 12 .So in the film world,Ramon

Estevez adopted the name Martin Sheen.Or maybe the artist’s real name doesn’t sound very attractive-Chad Everett does 13 a lot better than Raymond Cramton.

Artists sometimes 14 the name of someone they admire.Robert Zimmerman changed his name to Boo Dylan because of his admiration for the Welsh poet,Dylan Thomas.

Another reason may be practicality:in the past,women found it very difficult to get published.To 15 this situation they sometimes gave themselves men’s names,so the English author Mary Ann Evans became George Eliot,and she did get her books published!

词汇:

pseudonym n.假名,笔名 recognizable adj.可辨认的,可识别的

legally ad.法律上,合法地

eccentric adj.古怪的,反常的 attractive adj.有吸引力的,引人注目的

Portuguese adj.葡萄牙的,葡萄牙人的,葡萄牙语的

adopt v.采取,采纳

plain adj.清楚的,明白的 admire v.赞赏,钦佩

marketing n.推销,营销

注释:

Nobel Prize:诺贝尔奖

练习:

1.A)as if B)as C)even if D)even

2.A)take B)make C)do D)have

3.A)private B)individual C)own D)personal

4.A)understand B)know C)recognize D)observe

5.A)At B)On C)In D)During

6.A)whom B)which C)who D)that

7.A)but B)although C)though D)however

8.A)popular B)common C)ordinary D)average

9.A)so B)too C)very D)much

10.A)easy B)short C)simple D)brief

11.A)aims B)ends C)goals D)purposes

12.A)market B)film C)country D)business。

13.A)look B)sound C)appear D)seem

14.A)choose B)give C)change D)get

15.A)admit B)assure C)avoid D)affect

答案与题解:

1.C 本句前半句提到“大多数人不会改名字”,因此可以判断是选有让步转折意义的“even if,,其他的选项都没有这个意思,尤其要注意even是副词,不可以这样用于句首引出从句。

2.A本句的意思是想说“有些人,尤其是艺术家们,会更改名字”。不过,本句没有直接说change their names而是说采取行动,那么只能用take与action进行搭配,其他动词都不合适。

3.D根据后面such as后所举的例子知道,某些人改名字完全出于个人的原因,故选择personal。private是指与公众无关的,私隐的;individual是与集体对立而言,个体的;而own则必须放在物主代词的后面一起来表达属于某人的。

4.B 本句是想说他改名字是为了不让父亲了解到他在写诗这件事,因此选know。understand是理解的意思,recognize是认出,observe是察觉、观察到的意思。

5.A本句里的times是时机、场合的意思,at other times是表示“其他的情况”,还有其他的固定搭配也是用at这个介词,如at all times,at the best of times等等,其他介词无此搭配。

6.C 本句是举葡萄牙人的例子来说明某些人更改名字的理由很奇怪,后半句是想说此人用过75个不同的名字。对本句结构做出分析后,应该是非限定性定语从句对此诗人做出补充解释,故用who。that不能用于非限定性定语从句,which则不能表示人,只能表示物,whom是用来做宾格形式只能作宾语不能作主语。

7.D 如果注意到了此空前后的逗号的话就应该知道需要填一个副词来表示转折了,四个选项中只有however是副词,所以其他的选项都不对。

8.B 前一句刚说到大家改名字有社会、历史、政治、文化等方面的原因,通过下面几段里所给出的例子可以知道本句是想说“下面是几种常见的原因”,所以选common用于指常常发生的情况,而popular是指大家都喜欢的,ordinary和average则都是指没什么特别的。

9.B 根据后文,本句是想说某些人的名字太长、太难不好记住,是一个too„to„的结构,表达“太„„而不能„„”的意思。

10.A根据上下文知道,本句是想说简单明了的Madonna更容易记住。从本句中的plain一词可以断定不是想说长短,所以short和brief都不对,而simple则是与复杂相对立的,因此选用easy一词与前句的difficult来对应,后一句话中的easier to remember也可以帮助我们选择easy。

11.D 此题四个选项都能表示目的,但各有不同,aim是偏重于想要取得的目标;end往往表示最终目的,而且常常用于指与手段相对应的目的;goal则更多的是指个人或者某群体决心要达到的目标,通常指一般的趋势或方向而没有最终的具体目标;而purpose则主要是指所向往的结果,是行为、行动的缘由。

12.A 根据前一句中的marketing purposes一词可以判断此句是想说把名字改成在市场上更好识记的,因此选market,而不是在某个国家、某部电影或者是某笔生意里更容易辨识。

13.B 根据前半句里的doesn’t sound可以判断此处应该选用sound来表示听上去怎样,其他三个选项里的词意上不恰当。

14.A 从后面一句可以推断此句是想说艺术家有时候根据自己所欣赏的人的名字给自己

取笔名或艺名。如果用give一词的话则必须有themselves来作间接宾语,不然就不是给他们自己取名字了。也不能用change,但如果是change into的话还可以表示把名字改成别的名字,而get则是“获得

15.C 本句是想说为了不让作品得不到出版的情况出现而取个男子的名字,因此选avoid。 admit是承认的意思,assure是确认的意思,affect则是影响的意思

第十二篇

Sport or Spectacle?

Muhammad Ali1 is probably the most famous sports figure on earth:he is recognized on every continent and by all generations.The diagnosis of his illness 1 Parkinson’s disease2 after his retirement fuelled the debate about the dangers of boxing and criticism 2 the sport.That,plus his outspoken opposition 3 women’s boxing,made people wonder how he would react when one of his daughters decided to take 4 the sport.His presence at Laila’s first professional fight, 5 ,seemed to broadcast her father’s support.Of course Muhammad Ali wanted to watch his daughter fight.The ring announcer introduced him as the “the greatest” and as he sat down at the ringside the crowd chanted.

Twenty-one-year-old Laila’s debut fight was a huge success and there was as much publicity for the fight 6 her father’s fights once attracted. 7 ,Laila’s opponent was much weaker than she was and the fight lasted just 31 seconds.Since then,Laila has won most of her fights by knocking out3 her opponent.“She knows 8 she’s doing,all right,”said one referee about her.“She knows about moving well.You can see some of her dad’s moves.”

Laila Ali4 would rather not compare herself 9 her father.She prefers to make her own 10 .Her father supports her decision to enter the sport but he has not spared her the details of what can happen.Laila realizes that her father wants her to understand the 11 possible scenario to

see 12 she still wants to go forward with it.She knows she’s going to get hit hard at times,that she may get a broken nose or a swollen face,but at least she is prepared for it.

Laila’s decision to start boxing 13 her father’s struggle with the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease has of course sparked a mixture of debate and 14 .But Laila is a feisty and determined individual and it is that as much as her famous last name that has made her a magnet for worldwide media attention. Of course, the 15 on the boxing scene of a woman with her family history attracts even more questions about whether women’s boxing is sport or spectacle.

词汇:

Spectacle n.场面;景象 chant vi.(反复地、有节奏地)欢呼

recognize vt.赏识;认可 debut n.(演员、运动员)首次亮相

continent n.洲,大陆 publicity n.宣传;公众的注意

diagnosis n.(医学)诊断法 attract vt.吸引;引起注意

retirement n.退役;退休 opponent n.对手;敌手

fuel vt.激起,加强,刺激 referee n.裁判员

debate n.辩论;讨论, compare vt.比较;对照

criticism n.批评;批判;指责’ spare vt.省去,免除

outspoken adj 直言的 scenario n.事态;局面

opposition n.反对 swollen adj.肿起的;浮肿的

react vi.做出反应;回应 symptom n.症状

presence n.出席;到场 spark vt.导致,激起

broadcast vt.传播(消息等) feisty adj.个性强而好争辩的

ring n.拳击台 magnet ]n.有吸引力的人

注释:

1. Muhammad Ali:穆罕默德·阿里,世界上最伟大的拳击运动员之一。1999年,他被《体育画报》杂志评为本世纪最佳运动员。退出拳坛后,阿里一直致力于宗教、慈善事业和维护世界和平的工作,受到许多国家上至总统下至普通百姓的拥戴。然而,职业拳击生涯中他头部受到的29000多次的重击,使阿里一直饱受帕金森综合症的困扰。

2.Parkinson’s disease:帕金森综合症,又称震颤麻痹,是一种中枢神经系统变性疾病,临床表现有癫痫、偏瘫、头痛、共济失调、眼球运动障碍、言语不清、体位性低血压、痴呆等。随着病情的发展,穿衣、洗脸、刷牙等日常生活活动都出现困难。

3. knock out: (拳击术语)一拳击倒

4.Laila Ali:莱拉·阿里,拳王阿里与他第三任妻子的女儿,1999年9月进入女子职业拳坛,并很快取得了较好的成绩。她曾说:“我不想拿自己和父亲作比较,我们是完全不同的。但有一点,作为他的女儿,我自然会有一些独特的拳击技术,这是别人不可能具备的。在现阶段,我认为自己棒极了!”一些商家看中了这对拳坛父女的商业价值,最近,一家运动品牌就利用电脑技术,让阿里父女在拳台上同场竞技。在这样的比赛中,我们看到的,并不是胜负,而是一种生命力的延续。

练习:

1. A)with B)for C)as D)by

2. A)of B)on C)for D)at

3. A)on B)to C)with D)at

4. A)after B)over C)along D)up

5. A)therefore B)however C)accordingly D)whereas

6. A)as B)like C)for D)to

7. A)Luckily B)Similally C)Undoubtedly D)Unfortunately

8. A)that B)what C)how D)why

9. A)as B)like C)to D)against

10. A)fight B)name C)success D)image

11. A)better B)best C)worse D)worst

12. A)if B)that C)what D)how

13. A)in spite B)spite C)despite D)despite of

14. A)argument B)criticism C)quarrel D)bickering

15. A)arrival B)birth C)departure D)attention

答案与题解:

1. diagnosis of „as 把某种疾病诊断为„„,类似的短语有 regard„as,consider...as和think of „as等。

2. A此题是对语法的考查,criticize由动词变为名词criticism,其逻辑上的宾语应由介词of引导。

3.B考查介词短语搭配,be opposed to 和opposition to, 固定搭配。

4.D take up 是从事某种职业,take after 是与某人长得相像,take over 是接手,take along是随身携带。

5.B根据上下文判断,前面讲拳王阿里反对女子从事拳击运动(his outspoken opposition to women’s boxing),随后又讲他亲自出席女儿的首场比赛,明显对比,故应选however。

6. A as much„as属于固定搭配。

7. D 首场比赛,备受媒体关注,不料比赛仅持续了31秒,难免令人失望,故应选unfortunately,因观众难以目睹拳王女儿的风采。

8. B she knows what she’s doing,此句型口语中较为常见,如某人说I know what I’m doing或I know what I’m talking about,则表示说话者本人对自己的言行很有信心。

9. C 对介词短语compare A to B或compare A with B 的考查。前者有比作、比拟的意思,后者表示把A和B作比较的意思。

10. B make one’s own name 表示成功、成名的意思。其他表示成功的短语还有make it,口语中更常见。答案C make one’s own success有中式英语Chinglish之嫌。

11. D 考查上下文,下文中“a broken nose or a swollen face”暗示拳击运动员受伤病困扰的苦恼,更不要说拳王本身正受帕金森综合症的折磨。另外,possible一词之前常出现形容词最高级。综合上文两处的解释,worst是最佳答案。

12. A 拳王表明拳击运动可能会造成严重的后果,意欲让女儿自己决定“是否”继续从事这项危险的运动。

13. C 此题考查易混淆短语in spite of 和介词despite,多一个of或少一个of,都不对。

14. B 对上下文的考查,文中第一段就有“fuelled the debate about the dangers of boxing and CRITICISM of the sport”。

15. A 对上下文的考查,文中多次提及拳王女儿是初登拳坛,如第一段中“His presence at Laila’s FIRST professional fight”,如第二段中的“Twenty-one-year-old Laila’s DEBUT fight”,都是暗示莱拉“出现”在拳坛,故arrival最合适。答案B的搭配应该是the birth of,而不是介词on。答案C的departure是离开拳坛。答案D的attention首先介词搭配应该是to,其次意思也不是甚为贴切 第十五篇

Life Expectancy in the Last Hundred Years

A hundred years ago,life expectancy in developed countries was about 47;in the early 21st century,men in the United States and the United Kingdom can expect to live to about 74,women to about 80,and these 1 are rising all the time.What has brought 2 these changes? When we look at the life 3 of people 1 00 years ago,we need to look at the greatest 4 of the time.In the early 20th century,these were the acute and often5 infectious diseases such as smallpox.Many children died very young from these diseases and others,and the weak and elderly were always at risk. In the 6 world these diseases are far 7 today,and in some cases have almost disappeared.A number of 8 have led to this:improvements in sanitation and hygiene.the discovery and use of antibiotics,which 9 bacterial diseases much less dangerous,and vaccinations 10 common diseases. 11 ,people’s general health has improved with improvements in our general environment:cleaner air, better means of preserving food,better and warmer housing,and better understanding of nutrition.

Genetically, we should all be able to live to about 85 but 12 people do live longer today,there are still some big killers around that are preventing US from consistently reaching that age.The problems that affect people today are the more chronic illnesses,such as heart disease and strokes,and those 13 by viruses,such as influenza and AIDS1.Of course,cancer is a huge killer as well.In most cases these diseases affect 14 people,but there are worrying trends in the developed world with problems such as obesity 15 more heart disease and illnesses such as diabetes at younger ages.

The killers today can be classed as“lifestyle diseases

词汇:

expectancy n.预期 preserve vt.保藏,防止(食物) 腐烂

acute adj.(疾病)急性的

infectious adj.传染性的 nutrition n.营养

smallpox n.天花 chronic adj.(疾病)慢性的

sanitation n.环境卫生 stroke n.中风

hygiene n.个人卫生 virus n.病毒

antibiotic n.抗生素 influenza n.流行性感冒

bacterial adj细菌性的 trend n.趋势,倾向

vaccination n.种痘,接种 obesity n肥胖

diabetes n.糖尿病 halt vt.使„停止

注释:

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome(AIDS):艾滋病,后天性免疫缺乏综合症

练习:

1. A)ages B)years C)lives D)countries

2. A)in B)about C)to D)with

3. A)length B)time C)duration D)span

4. A)people B)killers C)invention D)nation

5. A)more B)less C)high D)highly

6. A)developed B)less developed C)undeveloped D)developing

7. A)more deadly B)deadly C)less deadly D)fatal

8. A)improvements B)factors C)jobs D)measures

9. A)makes B)causes C)make D)cause

10.A)against B)for C)to D)from

11.A)And B)Therefore C)In addition D)Nevertheless

12.A)when B)yet C)however D)while

13.A)spread B)affected C)produced D)created

14.A)poor B)weak C)older D)young

15.A)and B)leading to C)from D)with

答案与题解:

1. A 通过上下文可知此处应为“年龄

2. B bring about意思是“带来”,bring in意为赚取,实现(一定利润),没有bring to这个短语,如果用with,此句话必须变成what has it brought with these changes才符合语法,但意思就不符合文章了。

3. D life span是一个固定搭配,意为寿命。

4. B 从下一句可以看出此处应指那些不治之症。

5. D 本句举了天花的例子,下一句指出很多孩子死于这些病,所以此处应为一个表严重的词。high是形容词,不能修饰后面的形容词。acute不是比较级,所以and后面也不应用比较级。

6. A 本句后部分说在一些国家这些病已经消失,通过常识得知应该是发达国家。

7. C 本句后部分说在一些国家这些病已经消失,整段都在说明情况好转,故选C。

8. B 冒号后面列举的内容不能统一用其他几个词概括,只能用factor。

9. C注意这里的which不是非限制定语从句中指代前面一句话的作用,而是指代前面两项内容:卫生的改善和抗生素的发明使用,所以which后的动词不用三单形式。cause没有这样的语法搭配。

10. A 该选项为固定搭配,意为对某种疾病的预防接种。

11. C 前面说的是对疾病的防范和控制加强,后面说的是整体环境的改善,两者为并列关系,但是And在书面语中不能这样使用,所以只能选in addition。

12. D整句话的意思是:从基因角度看,人都能活到85岁,但是虽然现在人们寿命

确实比以前长了,仍然有一些疾病使得我们不能都活到那个岁数。所以此处应该填一个转折副词。

13. A those指代流感和艾滋病等靠病毒传播的疾病,those后面的动词是过去分词作定语。spread的过去分词与原形相同。

14. C 本句最后指出一些病越来越年轻化,所以此处应选择younger的反义词。

15. B obesity是心脏病和糖尿病年轻化的重要原因,它和心脏病、糖尿病不是并列关系,而是因果关系,所以选择leading to,现在分词作结果状语

范文八:2015年新版职称英语教材新增文章

2015年新版职称英语教材新增文章系列之

理工类 阅读理解 第九篇

An Essential Scientific Process

All life on the earth depends upon green plants. Using sunlight, the plants produce their own food. Then animals feed upon the plants. They take in the nutrients the plants have made and stored. But that’s not all. Sunlight also helps a plant produce oxygen. Some of the oxygen is used by the plant, but a plant usually produces more oxygen than it uses. The excess oxygen is necessary for animals and other organisms to live. The process of changing light into food and oxygen is called photosynthesis. Besides light energy from the sun, plants also use water and carbon dioxide. The water gets to the plant through its roots. The carbon dioxide enters the leaves through tiny openings called stomata. The carbon dioxide travels to chloroplasts, special cells in the bodies of green plants. This is where photosynthesis takes place. Chloroplasts contain the chlorophylls that give plants their green color. The chlorophylls are the molecules that trap light energy. The trapped light energy changes water and carbon dioxide to produce oxygen and a simple sugar called glucose.

Carbon dioxide and oxygen move into and out of the stomata. Water vapor also moves out of the stomata. More than 90 percent of water a plant takes in through its roots

escapes through the stomata. During the daytime, the stomata of most plants are open. This allows carbon dioxide to enter the leaves for photosynthesis. As night falls, carbon dioxide is not needed. The stomata of most plants close. Water loss stops.

If photosynthesis ceased, there would be little food or other organic matter on the earth. Most organisms would disappear. The earth’s atmosphere would no longer contain oxygen. Photosynthesis is essential for life on our planet.

【词汇】

nutrient n.营养物

organism n.生物体,有机体

carbon dioxide n.二氧化碳

chloroplast n.叶绿体

molecule n.分子

vapor n.水蒸气

oxygen n.氧气

photosynthesis n.光合作用

chlorophyll n.叶绿素

glucose n.葡萄糖

cease v.停止

【注释】

1.Then animals feed upon the plants.动物以植物为食。

【练习】

1.In the first paragraph,the word “excess” means

A heavy.

B extra.

C green.

D liquid.

2.Which of the following does not move through a plant’s stomata?

A Carbon dioxide.

B Water vapor.

C Oxygen.

D Food.

3.In the title, the term Essential Scientific Process refers to

A photosynthesis.

B the formation of glucose.

C global warming.

D water getting to the roots of plants.

4.This passage is primarily developed by

A explaining a process.

B telling a story.

C comparing and contrasting.

D convincing the reader of plants’ importance.

5.Another good title for this passage would be

A Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide.

B Plants and Their Roots.

C How Photosynthesis Works.

D Why Our Earth Needs Water.

【答案与题解】

1.B 前文讲到,植物产生的氧气一部分被植物自身消耗了,但植物消耗的氧气量远小于它们产生的氧气,因此可以推测这句话的意思应该是剩余的氧气对于动物以及其他生物体的生存是至关重要的。excess在句中的意思是“超额的”,与extra“额外的”意思相近。

2.D 从第三段的第一、二句得知,二氧化碳、氧气和水蒸气都能从气孔中通过,唯一一个没有提到的是food“养分、食物”,因此该题选D项。

3.A 文章通篇都在讲Photosynthesis,即光合作頌钠作用和重要性,文章结尾又重申了Photosynthesis is essential for life on our planet,因此选A项。B项是光合作用的一个部分,

C、D项则毫不相干。

4.A 文章先是介绍了进行光合作用所需的原料和组织,又介绍了光合作用的过程,因此整个逻辑应该是解释过程,而不是讲故事或比较对比。D项是“向读者说明植物的重要性”,这确实是文章的一个目的,但不是文章的组织方式。

5.C 文章的主题是光合作用的基本原理,因此选项C。A、B项在文中有提及,但不是主旨,D项与本文无关。

2015年新版职称英语教材新增文章系列之

理工类 阅读理解 第二十二篇

Real World Robots

When you think of a robot, do you envision a shiny, metallic device having the same general shape as a human being, performing human like functions, and responding to your questions in a monotone voice accentuated by

high-pitched tones and beeps? This is the way many of us imagine a robot, but in the real world, a robot is not humanoid at all. Instead a robot often is a voiceless, box-shaped machine that efficiently carries out repetitive or dangerous functions usually performed by humans. Today’s robot is more than an automatic machine that performs one task again and again. A modern robot is programmed with varying degrees of artificial intelligence—that is, a robot contains a computer program that tells it how to perform tasks associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning, drawing conclusions, and learning from past experience.

A robot does not possess a human shape for the simple reason that a two-legged robot has great difficulty remaining balanced. A robot does, however, move from place to place on wheels and axles that roll and rotate. A robot even has limbs that swivel and move in combination with joints and motors. To find its way in its surroundings1, a robot utilizes various built-in sensors. Antennae attached to the robot’s base detect

anything they bump into. If the robot starts to teeter as it moves on an incline, a gyroscope or a pendulum inside it senses the vertical differential. To determine its distance from an object and how quickly it will reach the object,the robot bounces beams of laser light and ultrasonic sound waves off

obstructions in its path2. These and other sensors constantly feed information to the computer, which then analyzes the information and corrects or adjusts the robot’s actions. As

science and technology advance, the robot too will progress in its functions and use of artificial-intelligence programs.

【词汇】

envision v. 想象,预想

device n. 装置

accentuate v. 强调,重读

artificial intelligence n. 人工智能

limb n. 臂

antennae n. 天线

incline v. 倾斜

pendulum n. 钟摆

ultrasonic adj. 超声的

metallic adj. 金属的

monotone n. 单调的

humanoid adj. 像人的

axle n. 轮轴

rotate v. 旋转

swivel n. 旋转

teeter v. 摇晃

gyroscope n. 陀螺仪,回转仪

vertical n. 直立的

【注释】

1.To find its way in its surroundings...:为了在周围找到路……

2.the robot bounces beams of laser light and ultrasonic sound waves off obstructions in its path:机器人发射激光束和超声波,反射到障碍物上(以此来探知路径)。

【练习】

1.Another good title for this passage would beA Robots: Taking the Place of Humans.

B Artificial Intelligence Programs.

C Today’s Robots and How They Function.

D Modern-Day Sensors.

2.Artificial intelligence is

A the unnatural way in which robots move.

B a voiceless, box-shaped machine that performs

repetitive tasks.

C sensors such as antennae and a gyroscope.

D a computer program that imitates human intellectual processes.

3.The last paragraph suggests that future robots will beA more humanlike in behavior and actions.

B more like automatic machines.

C better able to move on inclines.

D better equipped with laser light sensors.

4.The writer begins the passage by comparingA the shape of a human being with a box.

B a modem robot with a fictional robot.

C an imaginary machine with a human.

D a computer program with artificial intelligence.

5.The word humanoid means

A lacking human characteristics.

B anything having the appearance of a humanoid.

C being void or vacant.

D having a human form or characteristics.

【答案与题解】

1.C 从文中得知,文章主要介绍了机器人和它们的运行方式,因此选择C选项。

2.D Artificial是“人工”的意思,intelligence是“智能”的意思。另外从文中得知,机器人使用artificial intelligence能够进行与人类类似的推理分析等活动,因此可知它是一种类似人类智能的计算机程序。

3.A 最后一段讲机器人的发展方向是更加智能,能够自己判断并修正行为,而不仅仅是完成重复性的工作。

4.B 文章开头的时候作者让读者描述他们脑海中的机器人概念,并随后介绍了实际的机器人是怎样的,因此选择B选项。

5.D 从humanoid的词根human可看出这个词是形容与人类有关的特征。另外根据文章对这个词的描述可以得出这个词是表示和人类类似的特征,不管是外形上,还是行为方式上。

2015年新版职称英语教材新增文章系列之

理工类 补全短文 第五篇

A Record-Breaking Rover

NASA’s Mars rover Opportunity has boldly gone where no rover has gone before—at least in terms of distance.

____1____On July 27, after years of moving about on Martian ground, the golf-cart-sized Opportunity had driven more than

24 miles, beating the previous record holder—a Soviet rover sent to the moon in 1973.

“This is so remarkable considering Opportunity was

intended to drive about 1 kilometer and was never designed for distance,” says John Callas, the Mars Exploration Rover Project Manager.

____2____ “But what is really importantly is not how many miles the rover has racked up, but how much exploration and discovery we have accomplished over that distance.”

OPPORTUNITY

The solar-powered Opportunity and its twin rover, Spirit, landed on Mars 10 years ago on a mission expected to last 3 months. ____3____Spirit stopped communicating with Earth in March 2010, a few months after it got stuck in a sand pit. But Opportunity has continued to collect and analyze Martian soil and rocks.

During its mission, Opportunity has captured, and sent back to Earth, some 187,000 panoramic and microscopic images of Mars with its cameras. ____4____MARATHON ROVER

The rover doesn’t seem to be ready to stop just yet. If Opportunity can continue on, it will reach another major investigation site when its odometer hits 26.2 miles.

____5____Researchers believe that clay minerals exposed near Marathon Valley could hold clues to Mars’s ancient environment1. Opportunity’s continuing travels will also help researchers as they plan for an eventual human mission to the Red Planet.

【词汇】

Mars rover n. 火星车

panoramic adj. 全景的

odometer n. 里程计

rack up v. 积累

microscopic adj. 微观的

【注释】

1.could hold clues to Mars’s ancient environment:含有与火星早期环境有关的线索。

【练习】

A It has also provided scientists with data on the planet’s atmosphere, soil, rocks, and terrain.

B He works at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

C Scientists call this site Marathon Valley, because

when the rover reaches the area, it will have traveled the same distance as the length of a marathon since its arrival on Mars.

D Opportunity has been working on Mars since January 2004.

E The objective of the rovers was to help scientists learn more about the planet and to search for signs of life,such as the possible presence of water.

F Since arriving on the Red Planet in 2004, Opportunity has traveled 25.01 miles, more than any other wheeled vehicle has on another world.

【答案与题解】

1.F 前文讲“机遇号”在距离上比之前的任何漫游车行进的距离都长,因此接下来应该讨论关于行进距离的问题。

2.B 前文引入了一个新人物John Callas,而后文是他说的一些话,因此这里应该填写的内容是对这个人的进一步介绍。

3.E 前文讲了同时被送入太空的两台漫游车“机遇号”和“勇气号”,因此下文应该对它们的情况进行介绍,而关于发射目的的介绍在这里是合适的。

4.A 前文讲到“机遇号”给地面传回了许多照片,而选项A中讲到它还给地面传回了许多其他信息,在这里是一致的。

5.C 前文讲漫游车在行进到26.2英里的时候会到达一个

地点,而后文提到了马拉松谷这个地方,因此这里应该是关于这个地点的介绍。

2015年新版职称英语教材新增文章系列之

理工类 补全短文 第九篇

Lightening Strikes

Three years ago a bolt of lightning all but destroyed Lyn Miller’s house in Aberdeen—with her two children inside. “There was a huge rainstorm,” she says, recalling the terrifying experience. “My brother and I were outside

desperately working to stop floodwater from coming in the house. Suddenly I was thrown to the ground by an enormous bang. ____1____ The door was blocked by rubble, but we

forced our way in and found the children, thankfully unharmed. Later I was told to be struck by lightning is a chance in a

million.” In fact, it’s calculated at one chance in 600,000. Even so, Dr Mark Keys of AER Technology, an organisation that monitors the effects of lightning, thinks you should be sensible. “I wouldn’t go out in a storm—but then I’m quite a careful person.” He advises anyone who is unlucky enough to be caught in a storm to get down on the ground and curl up into a ball, making yourself as small as possible.

Lightning is one of nature’s most awesome displays of sheer power. ____2____ 250 years ago, Benjamin Franklin, the American scientist and statesman,proved that lightning is a form of electricity, but scientists still lack a complete

understanding of how it works.

____3____ Positive electrical charges streaming upwards from trees or church spires may glow and make a buzzing noise, and people’s hair can stand on end. And if you fear

lightning, you’ll be glad to know that a company in America has manufactured a hand-held lightning detector which can detect it up to 70 kms away, sound a warning tone and monitor the storm’s approach.

Nancy Wilder was playing golf at a club in Surrey when she was hit by a bolt of lightning. Mrs Wilder’s heart stopped beating, but she was resuscitated and, after a few days in hospital, where she was treated for bums to her head, hands and feet, she was pronounced fit again. Since that time, she has been a strictly fair weather golfer1. ____4____ The best place to be is inside a car!

The largest number of people to be struck by lightning at one time was in September 1995 when 17 players on a football pitch were hit simultaneously. The most extraordinary aspect of the strike was the fact that 11 of the victims—seven adults and four children—had burn patterns of tiny holes at 3

centimetre intervals on each toe and around the soles of their feet.

Harold Deal, a retired electrician from South Carolina, USA, was struck by lightning 26 years ago. He was apparently unhurt, but it later emerged that the strike had damaged the part of the brain which controls the sensation of temperature. ____5____Animals are victims of lightning too2.Hundreds of cows and sheep are killed every year, largely because they go under trees. In East Anglia in 1918, 504 sheep were killed instantaneously by the same bolt of lightning that hit the

ground and travelled through the entire flock. Lightning is also responsible for starting more than 10,000 forest fires each year world-wide.

【词汇】

bolt n. (闪电)道

sheer adj. 绝对的

resuscitate v. 使复苏

flock n. 群

rubble n. 碎石

spire n. 尖顶,尖塔

instantaneously adv. 即刻,突如其来地

【注释】

1.she has been a strictly fair weather golfer:她变成了一个只在晴朗天气才打高尔夫的人。

2.Animals are victims of lightning too:动物也会受到雷击的伤害。

【练习】

A No wonder the ancient Greeks thought it was Zeus, father of the gods, throwing thunderbolts around in anger.

B In fact, a golf course is one of the most dangerous places to be during a thunderstorm.

C Lightning has long been hailed as one of the most

impressive displays of nature’s power.

D When I picked myself up, the roof and the entire upper storey of the house had been demolished.

E Occasionally there are warning signs.

F Since then the freezing South Carolina winters haven’t bothered Harold, since he is completely unable to feel the cold.

【答案与题解】

1.D 前文讲到“我”被爆炸击中,因此后文要讲被击昏然后醒来之后的事,D项符合。

2.A 前文讲闪电是大自然绝对力量最可怕的展现方式之一,而宙斯在古希腊是力量的化身,古希腊人认为雷电产生的原因是宙斯发怒并投掷闪电。

3.E 后文讲到闪电来临之前的一些征兆,还讲到有一种产品可以预告闪电。此处要填的是该段的主题句,即闪电到来之前会有一些征兆。

4.B 前面讲到在高尔夫球场上被雷击的一个事例,后文讲闪电来临之时最安全的地方是汽车里,因此要填的句子应该是讲在高尔夫球场不安全。

5.F 前文讲Harold因为雷击丧失了感受温度的能力,F选项中关于他再也不怕冬天的寒冷的描述符合要求。

2015年新版职称英语教材新增文章系列之

理工类 补全短文 第十三篇

Affectionate Androids

Computers are now powerful enough to allow the age of humanoid robots to dawn. And it won’t be long before we will see realistic cyber companions, complete with skin, dexterity, and intelligence. They will be programmed to tend to your every need.

Will we ever want to marry robots? Artificial intelligence researcher David Levy has published a book claiming

human-robot relationships will become popular in the next few decades. ____1____Will humans really be able to form deep emotional attachments to machines? It will, in fact, be relatively

easy to form these strong attachments because the human mind loves to anthropomorphize: to give human attributes to other creatures—even objects.

For example, researchers in San Diego recently put a small humanoid robot in with a toddler playgroup for several months. ____2____ The children ended up treating it as a fellow toddler. When it lay down because its batteries were flat,the kids even covered it with a blanket.

In a few decades, when humanoid robots with plastic skin look and feel very real, will people want to form relationships with them? What if the bots could hold a conversation? And be programmed to be the perfect companions—soul mates, even? ____3____ And like those toddlers in the experiment, they will be very accepting of them.

The next question, then, is whether there is anything wrong with having an emotional relationship with a machine. Even today there are people who form deep attachments to their pets and use them as substitutes for friends or even children. Few consider that unethical.

____4____ For those who always seem to end up marrying the wrong man or woman, a robotic Mr. or Ms. Right could be mighty tempting. As the father of artificial intelligence, Marvin

Minsky, put it when asked about the ethics of lonely older people forming close relationships with robots: “If a robot had all the virtues of a person and was smarter and more

understanding, why would the elderly bother talking to other grumpy old people?”

A robot could be programmed to be as dumb or smart, as independent or subservient, as an owner desired. And that’s the big disadvantage. Having the perfect robot partner will damage the ability to form equally deep human-human relationships. People will always seem imperfect in

comparison. When you’re behaving badly, a good friend will tell you. ____5____People in relationships have to learn to adapt to each other: to enjoy their common interests and to deal with their differences. It makes us richer, stronger, and wiser. A robot companion will be perfect at the start. However, there will be nothing to move the relationship to grow to greater heights.

【词汇】

affectionate adj. 深情的

dexterity n. 灵巧,敏捷

anthropomorphize v. 赋于人性,人格化

grumpy adj. 脾气暴躁的

cyber adj. 计算机的

tend v. 照料

bot n. 机器人

subservient adj. 屈从的,奉承的

【注释】

1.Computers are now powerful enough to allow the age of humanoid robots to dawn:计算机技术已经足够成熟,能够支持人形机器人的诞生和普及,进入人形机器人的时代。

【练习】

A It’s easier to have a robot companion instead of a human friend.

B But a sophisticated robot will probably be even more attractive.

C And if you want to go ahead and tie the knot with your special electronic friend,Levy said that such marriages will be socially acceptable by around 2050.

D However, few owners will program their robots to point out their flaws.

E Maybe your generation could resist, but eventually there will be a generation of people who grow up with humanoid robots as a normal part of life.

F The bot knew each child because it was programmed with face and voice recognition,and it giggled when tickled.

【答案与题解】

1.C 前文讲到David在书中认为人与机器人的关系在几十年后将变得普遍,因此接下来应该继续讲这种普遍性是怎样的。

2.F 前文讲在圣地亚哥的一个实验,研究人员将机器人放在儿童游乐园里,要填的句子应该是介绍这个机器人。

3.E 前文提了几个问题,是关于我们对人与机器人关系的看法,而后文讲“他们”会乐于接受,因此要填的句子应该是两类人的对比。E项讲我们这一代人可能会反对,但下一代人就不一定了,符合意思。

4.B 前文讲有人和宠物发展深厚关系,后面讲的是与机器人发展深厚关系的吸引人之处,因此这里应该讲机器人做伴侣的好处。

5.D 前文讲好朋友会在你犯错的时候指出来,这里应该是表示对比——机器人不会这么做。

范文九:2012年职称英语指定新版教材变化解析

2012年职称英语指定新版教材变化解析

来源:天星 更新日期:2012-02-07 点击: 123

2012年职称英语考试指定教材出炉,新增文章更加贴近生活,聚焦社会热点。

12月25日,2012年全国专业技术人员职称英语等级考试使用教材正式出炉,与2011年教材相比,2012的职称英语教材内容变化比较大,也是近年来变化最大的一次。除了职称英语阅读理解题型和完形填空题型发生变化之外,今年的阅读判断、概括大意与完成句子以及补全短文也增加了新文章,其主要集中在综合类文章中。值得强调的是,2012年职称英语新增文章变化最大的是综合类,希望报考综合类考试的考生提起注意。

为了帮助广大职称英语考生迎接这次挑战,第一时间将新教材变化情况与进行了细致的整理、总结,以帮忙广大考生更好的做好复习。同时,也提醒广大考生,当前距离2012年4月7日的考试时间只有两个月时间了,复习时间已经非常紧迫,希望广大职称英语考生尽快详细了解新教材的新增内容,从现在开始就要做好考试复习规划。

一、 新教材内容变化内容及数量【职称英语三个类别(综合类、理工类、卫生类)】

1. 职称英语三个类别中的只有综合类阅读判断、概括大意与完成句子、补全短文三个题型的文章篇目发生了改变:阅读判断更新了2篇文章,其中C级别1篇,B级别1篇;概括大意与完成句子更新了2篇,均为C级别文章;补全短文更新了2篇,其中C级别1篇,B级别1篇(较2011年相比)。

2. 职称英语三个类别中的阅读理解题型文章均发生了较大变化,其中综合类文章变化最大:综合类更新15篇文章,其中每个级别更新5篇(较2011年相比);理工类更新6篇文章,其中每个级别更新2篇(较2011年相比);卫生类更新5篇文章,其中A级别和C级别各更新1篇文章,B级别更新3篇文章,(较2011年相比)。

3. 职称英语三个类别中的完型填空文章均有变化,其中综合类文章变化最大:综合类更新15篇,其中每个级别更新5篇(较2011年相比);理工类更新6篇文章,每个级别更新2篇文章(较2011年相比);卫生类更新5篇文章,其中B级别和C级别各更新1篇,A级别更新3篇(较2011年相比)。

二、 2012年职称英语国家指定教材较2011年职称英语教材变化主要体现在以下4个方面:

1. 2012年职称英语教材较2011年教材中的文章的选材更加贴近生活,聚焦社会热点问题。如:

(1) 综合类:The Family 家庭

(2) 理工类:Making Light of1 Sleep不要太在意睡眠

(3) 卫生类:Eat Healthy健康饮食

这些话题都是来自我们平时的生活,另外一些文章是社会聚焦的热点话题和大事件,如:

(4) 综合类:“The Sahara 撒哈拉沙漠”,“Global Warming 全球变暖”,这两篇文章都是聚焦环境问题;

(5) 理工类:“Climate Change Poses Major Risks for Unprepared Cities气候变化给不备城市带来重大风险”这篇文章关注的是气候问题;“„Liquefaction‟Key to Much of Japanese Earthquake Damage „液化‟是日本地震破坏的关键”聚焦影响全球的日本地震事件;

(6)卫生类:“Life Expectancy in the Last Hundred Years 上世纪人类平均寿命的变化”

2. 去年的新增文章、文章题材较老的文章篇目大多数都被替换掉,三个类别新增文章的大多数篇目都是替换了去年的新增文章篇目。如:

(1) 综合类:“Why People Use Pseudonyms为什么人们用假名”被更换为“Traffic in Our Cities 城市的交通”

(2) 理工类:“Less Is More更少是更多”被更换为“Chicken Soup for the Soul: Comfort Food Fights Loneliness 心灵鸡汤:爽心食品排解孤独感”;“Young Adults Who Exercise Get Higher IQ Scores运动的年轻人智商更高”被更换为“„Liquefaction‟Key to Much of Japanese Earthquake Damage „液化‟是日本地震破 坏的关键”

(3) 卫生类:“Attitudes to AIDS Now对待艾滋病的最新态度”被更换为“Eat Healthy健康饮食”;“Homosexuals同性恋者”被更换为“A Health Profile 健康概貌”

3. 文章内容专业性更强,更明显,从2012年职称英语教材中理工类和卫生类的新增文章来看,都增加了各自专业的文章,使其文章内容的专业性更加突出。

(1)理工类:Graphene's Superstrength1 石墨烯的超强力量;“Life Form Found”on Saturn's Titan 土卫六上发现了生命迹象;Teaching Math, Teaching Anxiety 教数学,教焦虑;Solar Power without Solar Cells 没有太阳能电池的太阳能

(2)卫生类 Eat Healthy 健康饮食;Prolonging Human Life 延长人类生命;Sleep Lets Brain File Memories 睡眠促使记忆归档存储;Going on a diet 节食

4. 2012年教材新增文章变化的另一特点就是,三大类别均渗透了有关食品和健康安全的文章。

(1)综合类 School Lunch 学校午餐

(2)理工类 Chicken Soup for the Soul: Comfort Food Fights Loneliness 心灵鸡汤:爽心食品排解孤独感; Free Statins With Fast Food Could Neutralize Heart Risk 快餐加免费降胆固醇药物可以降低罹患心脏病的风险

(3)卫生类 Eat Healthy 健康饮食; A Health Profile 健康概貌

从上面的四个变化来分析,首先,2012年职称英语新教材的变化依然主要分布在阅读理解与完形填空两大题型的文章上,选择的题材更具有新闻价值、现代感、专业性,并加大了社会关注度,这在某种程度上来看,是考察考生对社会焦点问题的关注和了解,说明职称教材文章选材在不断提高与丰富。其次,2012年职称英语教材中的阅读判断、概括大意与完成句子以及补全短文也发生了变化,均体现在综合类文章中。这说明,考生在备考过程中,也要关注这几篇新增文章的学习。新东方在线网络课堂职称英语教研团队希望学员能在备考过程中,不但要掌握和了解教材中本类别的文章内容,更要关注一下当然的社会热点问题、大事件,同时在备考过程中掌握更多的解题技巧,才能“以不变应万变”,考出理想的成绩。

另外,根据职称英语考试具有“三分考知识,七分考技巧”的特点,老师在讲课的过程中着重传授职称考试各个题型的解题方法和技巧,来帮助考生灵活应对考试,帮助学员顺利通过考试。

范文十:2014版职称英语教材A级变动情况

2014版职称英语教材A级变动情况

一、2013、2014年职称英语(综合类)教材变化表

二、2014年教材文章变化详情 (一)阅读判断

1.第六、七、八、十篇从A级变成了B级; 2.第九篇 What Is a Dream?是B级的新增文章;

3.第十一篇Stage Fright是C级的新增文章;第十二篇从B级变成了C级。 (二)概括大意与完成句子

1.第六、七、九、十篇从A级变成了B级;

2.2013年教材C级第十三篇Screen Test变成了2014年B级第八篇; 3.第十一、十二篇从B级变成了C级;

4.第十三篇Ward off Travel Bugs 是C级的新增文章。 (三)阅读理解

1.第二十九篇I’ll Be Bach 是B级的新增文章;

2.第三十六篇Life as a Movie Extra是C级的新增文章。 (四)补全短文

1.第三篇Are Online Friends Real Friends?是C级的新增文章; 2.C级第六、七、八、九、十篇从A级变成了B级; 3.第十一、十二篇从B级变成了C级;

4.第十四篇 The Sanwich Generation是C级的新增文章。

注:考试大纲、词汇选项、阅读判断、完形填空部分均没有变化!