概念虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想，而不表示客观存在的事实，所 概念 说的是一个条件，不一定是事实，或与事实相反。虚拟语气通过谓语动词的特殊 形式来表示。英语中的语气分为陈述语气、祈使语气、虚拟语气三类。应用条 应用条 件 在表示虚假的、与事实相反的或难以实现的情况时用虚拟语气，表示主 观愿望或某种强烈情感时，也用虚拟语气。即当一个人说话时欲强调其所 说的话是基于自己的主观想法，而不是根据客观实际，就用虚拟语气。在 在 非真实条件状语从句中的用法 真实条件状语从句与非真实条件状语从句 条件句可分为两类，一类为真实条件句，一类为非真实条件句。非真实条 件句表示的是假设或实际可能性不大的情况，故采用虚拟语气。 例： If he doesn’t hurry up, he will miss the bus. 如果他不快点，他将 错过巴士。( 真实) If he is free, he will ask me to tell stories. 如果他是空闲的，他会要求我讲故事。 （真实） If I were you, I would go at once.如果我是你， 我马上就会去。（非真实， 虚拟语气） If there were no air, people would die. 如果没有空气，人就会死亡。 （非真实， 虚拟语气）用法及动词形式 用法及动词形式从句主句If+主语 +did If+ 主语+did 主语 与现在事实相反 were） （ be 动词 were ）主语+should/would/ 主语 +should/would/ could/might+do 主语+should/would/ 主语 +should/would/与过去事实相反If+主语 +had If+ 主语+had done 主语 could/might+have done 1.If+主语 1. If+主语 +did If+ 主语+did 主语+should/would/ 主语 +should/would/与将来事实相反2.If+主语 2. If+主语 +were to If+ 主语+were could/might+do 3.If+主语 3. If+主语 +should If+ 主语+should例句： 例句 ： 1、表示与现在事实相反的情况 ： 表示与现在事实相反的情况： 例： 1. If I were you, I would 表示与现在事实相反的情况 take an umbrella. 如果我是你，我会带把伞。 （事实：我不可能是你） 2.If I knew his telephone number, I would tell you. 如果我知道 他的电话号码，我就会告诉你。 （事实：不知道） 3.If there were no air or water, there would be no living things on the earth. 如 果没有水和空气，地球上就不会有生物。(事实：地球上既有空气也有水) 4.If I had any money with me, I could lend you some. 如果我带 钱了，我就会借给你些。 （事实：没带钱） 5.If he studied harder, he
might pass the exam. 如果他再努力些，就能通过考试了。 （事实：没 有努力） 例：1. If I had gotten 2 、 表示与过去事实相反的情况 there earlier, I should/could have met her. 如果我早到那儿，我就 会见到她。 （事实：去晚了） 2.If he had taken my advice, he would not have made such a mistake. 如果他听我的劝告的话，就不会 犯这样的错误了。 （事实：没有听我的话） 3、表示对将来情况的主观推测 ， 与将来事实相反 表示对将来情况的主观推测， 表示对将来情况的主观推测 例 ： 1.If he should come here tomorrow, I should/would talk to him. 如果他 哪天来这儿的话， 我就跟他谈谈。（事实： 来的可能性很小） 2.If there were a heavy snow next Sunday, we would not go skating. 如果下 周日下大雪，我们就不能去滑冰了。 （事实：不知能否下雪） 3.If she were to be there next Monday, I would tell her about the matter. 如果她下周一来这儿的话，我就会告诉她这件事的始末。 有时， 虚拟条件句中 4 、 有时 ， 虚拟条件句 中 ， 结果主句和条件从句的谓语动作若不是同时发 生时， 虚拟语气的形式应作相应的调整。 生时 ， 虚拟语气的形式应作相应的调整 从句的动作与过去事实相反， ① 从句的动作与过去事实相反 ， 而主句的动作与现在或现在正在发生的事 实不符。 如： If I had worked hard at school, I would be an 实不符 engineer, too. 如果我在学校学习刻苦的话，我现在也会成为一个工 程师了 If they had informed us, we would not come here now. 如 果他们通知过我们的话，我们现在就不会来这里了。 从句的动作与现在事实相反， 而主句的动作与过去事实不符。 如： ② 从句的动作与现在事实相反 ， 而主句的动作与过去事实不符 If he were free today, we would have sent him to Beijing. 如果 他今天有空的话，我们会已经派他去北京了。 If he knew her, he would have greeted her. 要是他认识她的话，他肯定会去问候她了。 可以省略， 5 、 当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有 were, should, had 时 ， if 可以省略 ， 这 倒装语序， 等词置于句首， 时条件从句要用倒装语序 时条件从句要用 倒装语序 ， 即将 were, should, had 等词置于句首 ， 这种 多用于书面语。 如： Should he agree to go there, we would send 多用于书面语 。 him there. 要是他答应去的话， 我们就派他去。 Were she here, she would agree with us. 如果她在这儿的话，她会同意我们的。 Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here. 如果他懂一些电脑知识的话，我们已经聘用他来这里工作了。 非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表达出来， 只暗含在副词、 介词短语、 6 、 非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表达出来 ， 只暗含在副词 、 介词短语 、 上下文或其他方式表示出来， 这种句子叫做含蓄条件句 在多数情况下， 含蓄条件句， 上下文或其他方式表示出来 ， 这种句子叫做 含蓄条件句 ， 在多数情况下 ， without… for… 条件会暗含在短语中 ， 如 without … ., but for … . 等 如： But for his help, we would be working now. 要不是他 的帮助，我们还会在工作呢。 Without your instruction, I would not have made such great progress. 要是没有你的指导，我不会取得如 此大的进步。 We didn’t know his telephone number; otherwise we would have telephoned him. 我们不知道他的电话号码，否则我们就 会给他打电话。 7、有时 ， 虚拟条件 句中 ， 主 、 从句可以省略其中的一个 ， 来表示说话人的 有时， 句中， 从句可以省略其中的一个， 有时 虚拟条件句中 一种强烈的感情。 一种强烈的感情 He would have finished it. 他本该完成了。 You could ① 省略从句
have passed this exam. 你应该能通过这次考试了。 If I were at home now. 要是我现在在家里该多好啊。 ② 省略主句 If only I had got it. 要是我得到它了该多好啊。 、 虚拟语气的其他用法 用在 wish 后的宾语从句 a、表示与现在 现在事实相反的愿望，谓语动词用过去 式 过去式 现在 过去 eg. I wish I had your brains. 我希望我有你那样的头脑。(事实： 我根本比不上你) b、表示与过去 过去事实相反的愿望，谓语动词：had+done had+done 过去 eg: I wish I had known the truth of the matter. 我希望我原来 知道这件事的真相。 （事实：原来不知道） c、表示将来 将来难以实现的愿望，谓语动词：should/would + 动词原形 将来 should/would eg. I wish I should have a chance again. 我希望我还能有一次这 样的机会。 （事实：很难再有这样的机会了） 也有相同用法） ( 注 ： if only 和 as if/as though 也有相同用法 ） 用在目的状语从句中 1.在 引导的从句中， 若用虚拟语气时， 1. 在 for fear that, in case, lest 引导的从句中 ， 若用虚拟语气时 ， 从句谓语为： 动词原形。 从句谓语为 ： should + 动词原形 。 并且 should 不能省略 eg.She examined the door again for fear that a thief should come in. 她又把门检查了一遍，以防盗贼的进入。 He started out earlier lest he should be late. 他很早就出发了以防迟到。 2、在 so that, in order that 所引导的目的状语从句中 ， 从句中的谓语 所引导的目的状语从句中， 在 动词原形。 为 ： can / may / could / might / will / would / should + 动词原形 。 eg.He goes closer to the speaker so that he can hear him clearer. 他走近说话的人以便能听得更清楚。 He read the letter carefully in order that he should not miss a word. 他把信读得很仔细以便不漏掉 一个单词。 其他用法 一想要(desire)二宁愿(prefer)三命令(order, command)四建议 (desire)二宁愿 (prefer)三命令 1 、 一想要 (desire) 二宁愿 (prefer) 三命令 (order, command) 四建议 propose)五要求 五要求(demand (advice. Suggest, propose) 五要求 (demand , require, request , desire , insist)中 从句的谓语动词都用： should insist) 中 ，无论主句谓语动词为何种时态 ，从句的谓语动词都用 “should 动词原形” 或只用“ 动词原形” 如： He suggested that we + 动词原形 ” 或只用 “ 动词原形 。 takethe teacher’s advice. He insisted that we (should) (should) take takethe teacher’s advice. take He demand that we (should) takethe take teacher’s advice. He ordered that we (should) take takethe teacher’ s advice. 如果翻译成坚持某种动作才用虚拟语气； 翻译成坚持某种观点 insist 如果翻译成坚持某种动作才用虚拟语气 ； 翻译成 坚持某种观点 就不用虚拟语气。 就不用虚拟语气 。 如：He insist he is a student. 他坚持说他是个学生。 这个语 句表示的是事实，因此在这个语句中不能使用虚拟语气。 意为“ 建议” 才用虚拟语气， 意为“ 暗示” 则不用虚拟语气。 suggest 意为 “ 建议 ” 才用虚拟语气 ， 意为 “ 暗示 ” 则不用虚拟语气 。
如： His face suggests that he looks worried . 他的表情暗含着 他很担心。 这个句子本身是事实，因此它就没有用到虚拟语气。 表情绪.观点的形容词或名词也要用虚拟语气. :necessary sary、 2 、 表情绪 . 观点的形容词或名词也要用虚拟语气 . 如 :neces sary 、 important、impossible、natural、strange、surprising、funny、right、 important 、impossible 、natural 、strange 、surprising 、funny 、right 、 wrong、 better、 wrong 、 better 、 a pity 句型： +主语从句 主语从句， should+原型 句型 ： It is.......that + 主语从句 ， 从句的谓语动词都要用 should+ 原型 或只用动词原型。 或只用动词原型 。 3、在 even if, even though 所引导的让步状语从句中 ， 可用虚拟语气 ， 所引导的让步状语从句中， 可用虚拟语气， 在 主句、 所引导的条件从句结构相同 构相同。如： Even if he 主句 、 从句的结构与 if 所引导的条件从句结 构相同 were here himself, he should not know what to do. 即使他亲自来 也不知该怎么办。 （事实：他没来） Nobody could save him even though Hua Tuo should come here. 即使华佗在世也救不了他。 （事实：华佗 不在世） 4、在 whatever ，whichever ，whenever ，whoever, wherever ，however, no wherever， 在 whatever，whichever，whenever， wh等引导的让步状语从句中 从句虚拟语气结构为： 指 matter wh - word 等引 导的让步状语从句中 ， 从句虚拟语气结构为 ： 现在或将来： may + 动词原形 +动词原形 动词原形。 如： We will finish it on time no matter what may happen. 不管发生什么事，我们都要按时完成。 We will find him wherever he may be. 无论他在哪里，我们都要找 到他。 I will wait for him no matter how late he may come. 不 管他来的多么晚， 我都会等他。 指过去： may + 完成 式 。 +完成 完成式 如： You ： mustn’t be proud whatever great progress you may have made. 不 管你取得了多么大的进步，你也不能骄傲。 We must respect him no matter what mistakes he may have made. 不管他犯过什么错误，我 们必须尊敬他。 5 、 一般 would rather, had rather, would sooner 等之后的宾语从句常 表示与客观事实不相符的一种愿望， 故使用虚拟语气。 表示与客观事实不相符的一种愿望 ， 故使用虚拟语气 。 其 虚拟语气的结构 为： 过去: had + 过去分词 ; 现在: 过去时(be 用 were ) ; 将来: 过去时(be 用 were ) 如： I’d rather you had seen the film yesterday. 我倒想你昨天 昨天看过了这场电影。 I’d rather you were here now. 我 昨天 倒想你现在 现在在这儿。 We’d rather you went here tomorrow. 我 现在 们倒想你明天 明天去那儿 明天 6、虚拟语气还可用在定语从句中 ， 表示 ： 早该做某事了 ” 时 ， 定语从 句 虚拟语气还可用在定语从句中， 定语从句 虚拟语气还可用在定语从句中 表示： 早该做某事了” “ 中的谓语动词须用虚拟语气， 其虚拟语气的结构为： 中的谓语动词须用虚拟语气 ， 其虚拟语气的结构为 ： It is (high / about) 主语+ 动词的过去式 过去式/ 动词原形， time that + 主语 + 动词的 过去式 / should + 动词原形 ， 即从句用虚拟过 去式。 如 It is time that I went to pick up my daughter at school. 去式 我该去学校接我的女儿了。 It is high time you should go to work. 你早该上班了。 7、简单句中的虚拟语气 简单句中的虚拟语气 （1） 说话时，为了表示客气、谦虚、委婉而有礼貌，言语常使用虚拟语气。 其虚拟语气的结构形式常为：would / could / might / should + 动词原 would 如： Would you mind my shutting the door? 我把门关 形。 起来你介意吗？ You should always learn this lesson by heart. 你要把这个教训牢记于心。 I should agree with you. 我应该同
意你的观点。 （2） 表示“祝愿”时，常用 may + 主语 + 动词原形 主语+ 动词原形。 如： May you have a good journey! 祝你一路顺风。 May your youth last for ever! 祝你青春永驻。 、 动词原形。 如： Long （ 3 ） 表示强烈的“愿望” “祝愿”时，常用动词原形 动词原形 live the Communist Party of China. 中国共产党万岁。 God bless us. 上帝保佑。 习惯表达中常用的虚拟语气。 （ 4 ） 习惯表达中常用的虚拟语气 。 提出请求或邀请。 Would you like to have a talk with ① 提出请求或邀请 。 如： us this evening? 今天晚上来跟我们聊天好吗？ Could I use your bike now? 我可以用一下你的单车吗？ 陈述自己的观点或看法。 ② 陈述自己的观点或看法 。 如： I should glad to meet you. 见到你我会很高兴。 I would try my best to help you. 我会尽力帮助你。 提出劝告或建议。 ③ 提出劝告或建议 如： You’d better ask your father first. 你最好先问一问你 的父亲。 You should make a full investigation of it first. 你 应该先全面调查一番。 提出问题。 Do you think he could ④ 提出问题 。 如： get here on time? 你认为他能按时来吗？ Do you expect he would tell us the truth? 你期望他会告诉我们真相吗？ ⑤ 表示对过去 情况的责备时， 常用虚拟语气。 其虚拟语气的结构为： 情况的责备时 ， 常用虚拟语气 。 其虚拟语气的结构为 ： 情态动词 + have + 过去分词。 如： You should have got here earlier. 你应该早 过去分词 。 就到这里了。 You should have returned it to him. 你应该把它还 给他了。 省略的虚拟条件句型 省略连词 if 有时可将条件从句的连词 if 省略，但此时应用倒装句型，即将从句中 的 were, should, had 等提到句首： Were I Tom, I would refuse. 如 果我是汤姆，我会拒绝。 I will go, should it be necessary. 假若 有必要，我会去的。 Had it not been for the bad weather we would have arrived in time. 若不是天气坏，我们就准时到达了。 【注】 ① 若条件从句为否定句，否定词 not 应置于主语之后，而 不能与 were, should, had 等缩略成 Weren’t, Shouldn’t, Hadn’t 而 置于句首。 ② 有时省略 if 后提前的 had 不是助动词： Had I time, I would come. 假若我有时间，我会来的。(=If I had time…) 省略条件句的主语和其后的动词 be 若主从句主语一致，且谓语部分包含 有动词 be，通常可将主语和动词 be 省略： If repaired earlier, the tractor would not have broken down. 要是早点儿修一下，拖拉机就 不会抛锚了。(=If it had been repaired earlier…) 省略“ it+be” 省略 “ it+be ” If necessary, I would send more farm-hands to help you. 如果需要的话我会派更多的民工去帮你。(=If it was necessary, I would…) 省略整个条件从句 省略整个条 件从句 这样的省略通常需要借助一定的上下文，即省略条件 从句后， 所剩下的主句的意思在一定的上下文中意思是清楚的： I might see her personally. It would be better. 我可以亲自去看她，这样好
一些。(=…If I saw her personally, it would be better.) 在含蓄条件句中的用法(1) 条件暗含在短语中。如： We didn’t know 在含蓄条件句中的用法 his telephone number; otherwise we would have telephoned him. 我 们不知道他的电话号码，否则我们就会给他打电话。 （暗含条件是 otherwise） Without your help, we wouldn’t have achieved so much. 没有你的帮助，我们不可能取得这么大的成绩。 （暗含条件是介词短 语 without your help） But for your help, I would not have succeeded in the experiment. 如果没有你的帮助，我的实验就不会成功。 （暗含 条件是 but for your help） It would cause great trouble not to lubricate the bearing immediately. 不立即润滑轴承就会引起很大 的故障。 （暗含条件是 not to lubricate the bearing immediately） (2) 条件暗含在上下文中。如： I would not have done it that way. 我是不会那么做的。 （可能暗含 if I were you） I was busy that day. Otherwise I would have come to help you. 我那天很忙。否则我会 来帮你的。 （可能暗含 if I hadn’t been so busy.） You might come to join us in the discussion. 你可以参加我们的讨论。 （可能暗含 if you wanted to） I would have bought the DVD player. 我是 会买下那台影碟机的。 （可能暗含 if I had the money） But for the storm, we should have arrived earlier. 要不是碰到暴雨，我们还 会早些到。 （可能暗含 if it had not been for the storm） 。
在虚拟语气中，除了记住一套与时态相对应的规范用法之外，以下几点也是不容忽视的： l 、名词性从句中要用过去时或 should+ 动词原型构成虚拟语气。如： It is time we went home ．
2 、 would rather ， had rather 后的从句动词用相当于陈述语气的过去时来表示现在或将来发生的动作。如： I would rather you went with her ．我宁愿你跟她走。只有当 would rather 后面动作的主体与前面主语一致时才可以用不带 to 的动词不定式，如： I'd rather take the important letter with me ．在这个句子中，rather 后面的主语为 I，和前面的主语一致，所以用的不是过去式，而是不带 to 的动词不定式。
3 、在 it is important ／ suggested ／ necessary ／ proposed 等结构后的主语从句中要用虚拟语气表示应该做什么事情，即用动词原形或 should+ 动词原型，如： It is important that you（should）be here on time ．再如： It is of the utmost importance that you _______here on time ．
A.be B.shall be
C.are to be D.must be
这个知识点是上文中的第三点，显然答案是 A ，其中的 should 被省略了。类似的可以引起主语从句为虚拟语气的形容词或过去分词还有 appropriate，advisable，better，imperative，insistent，natural，preferable，strange，urgent，vital，desirable，demanded，recommended，required 等。
4 、词组 but for 相当于 were it not for 或 had it not been for, 表示一种含否定意义的条件，后面一般加名词或名词短语，如： He might have been killed but for the arrival of the police ．要不是警察来了他本可能被杀死。
5 、在某些表示祝愿的句子里需要用虚拟语气，如： May you be happy all your life!
时间 从句谓语形式 主句谓语形式
should + 动词原形
were to + 动词原形
would / should / might / could + 动词原形
现在 动词过去式(be 用 were) would / should / might / could + 动词原形
过去 had +动词过去分词 would / should / might / could have + 动词过去分词
If he should go to Qing Hua University, he would make full use of his time. 如果他要上清华大学的话，他就会充分利用他的时间了。
If he were to come here, he would tell us about it. 如果他要来的话，他会通知我们一声。
If he were free, he would help us. 要是他有空的话，它会帮助我们的。
If he studied at this school, he would know you well. 如果他在这所学校学习的话，它会对你很熟悉。
If I had seen the film, I would have told you about it. 我如果看过这场电影，我会把电影内容告诉你了。
If I had got there earlier, I would have met Mr. Li. 如果我早点到那儿，我就会会到了李先生。
(1) 当从句的主语为第三人称单数时，谓语动词若是系动词be时，可用was代替were。但在倒装虚拟结构及if I were you, as it were中，只能用were。如：
Were I ten years younger, I would study abroad. 要是我还年轻十岁的话，我会去国外学习。
If I were you, I would try my best to grasp the chance. 要是我是你的话，我要尽力抓住这次机会。
①从句的动作与过去事实相反，而主句的动作与现在或现在正在发生的事实不符。如： If I had worked hard at school, I would be an engineer, too. 如果我在学校学习刻苦的话，我现在也会使工程师了
If they had informed us, we would not come here now. 如果他们通知过我们的话，我们现在就不会来这里了。
If he were free today, we would have sent him to Beijing. 如果他今天有空的话，我们会已经派他去北京了。
If he knew her, he would have greeted her. 要是他认识她的话，他肯定会去问候她了。 ③从句的动作与过去发生的情况相反，而主句的动作与现在正在发生的情况相反。如： If it had not been raining too much, the crops would be growing much better. 如果天不下太多的雨的话，庄家会长得更好。
If he had been working hard, he would be working in the office now. 要是他工作一直
(3) 当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有were, should, had时，if可省略，而将were, should, had等词置于句首。如：
Should he agree to go there, we would send him there. 要是他答应去的话，我们就派他去。
Were she here, she would agree with us. 如果她在这儿的话，她会同意我们的。 Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here. 如果她懂一些电脑知识的话，我们会已经聘用他来这里工作了。
(4) 有时，句子没有直接给出假设情况的条件，而须通过上下文或其他方式来判断。如： I would have come to see you, but I was too busy. 我本该来看你了，然而我太忙了。 But for his help, we would be working now. 要不是他的帮助，我们还会在工作呢。 Without your instruction, I would not have made such great progress. 要是没有你的指导，我不会取得如此大的进步。
He would have finished it. 他本该完成了。
You could have passed this exam. 你应该会通过这次考试了。
If I were at home now. 要是我现在在家里该多好啊。
If only I had got it. 要是我得到它了该多好啊。
(1) 在for fear that, in case, lest引导的目的状语从句中，若用虚拟语气时，从句谓语为： should + 动词原形。并且 should不能省略
She examined the door again for fear that a thief should come in. 她又把门检查了一遍，以防盗贼的进入。
He started out earlier lest he should be late. 他很早就出发了以防迟到。
(2) 在so that, in order that所引导的目的状语从句中，从句中的谓语为： can / may / could / might / will / would / should + 动词原形。如：
He goes closer to the speaker so that he can hear him clearer. 他走近说话的人以便能挺得更清楚。
He read the letter carefully in order that he should not miss a word. 他把信读得很仔细以便不漏掉一个单词。
(1) 在even if, even though 所引导的让步状语从句中，可用虚拟语气，主句、从句的结构与if所引导的条件从句结构相同。如：
Even if he were here himself, he should not know what to do. 即使他亲自来也不知该怎么办。
Nobody could save him even though Hua Tuo should come here. 即使华佗在世也救不了他。
(2) 在whatever， whichever，whenever，whoever, wherever，however, no matter wh-word 等引导的让步状语从句中，从句虚拟语气结构为：
① may +动词原形(指现在或将来)。如：
We will finish it on time no matter what / whatever may happen. 不管发生什么事，我们都要按时完成。
We will find him wherever / no matter where he may be. 无论他在哪里，我们都要找到他。
I will wait for him no matter how late he may come. 不管他来的多么晚，我都会等他。 ② may +完成式(指过去) ，主句结构不限。如：
You mustn't be proud whatever / no matter what great progress you may have made. 不管你取得了多么大的进步，你也不能骄傲。
We must respect him no matter what / whatever mistakes he may have made. 不管他翻过什么错误，我们必须尊敬他。
(3) 在though, although等引导的让步状语从句中，从句虚拟语气结构为 should +动词原形，主句结构不限。如：
Although / Though he should often be late, he is a good student. 尽管他经常迟到，他还是个好学生。
Although / Though he should be secretary, he must obey the rules. 尽管他是书记，他也必须遵守规定。
as if, as though引导的方式状语从句常用虚拟语气。虚拟语气的结构为：
发生在主句动作之前 had + 过去分词
与主句动作同时发生 过去时(be 用were )
发生在主句动作之后 would / could / might / should+原形动词
They began to talk warmly as if they had known each other for long. 他们开始热烈的谈论起来就好像他们已相互认识很久了。
He coughed twice as if someone should come. 他咳嗽两声就好像有人要来了。
amazed, angry, annoyed, astonished, disappointed, frightened, happy, pleased, proud, sorry, surprised, upset等后面的状语从句中常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为： ① should + 原形动词(指现在或将来)。如：
He was angry that you should call him by name. 他很生气，你竟然对他直呼其名。 I was astonished that he should not answer such an easy question. 我很惊讶他竟答不出如此简单的问题。
② should + 完成式, 指过去。如：
I'm very sorry that you should have failed the exam. 我很遗憾，你这次考试竟然失败了。
I was very surprised that Father should have known what I did yesterday. 我很吃惊，父亲竟指导我昨天所作的事情。三、宾语从句中的虚拟语气
1．英语中，如：advise, ask, demand, desire, decide, insist(坚决要求) , order, propose, request, suggest(建议) 表示请求、要求、命令或建议等意义的动词所接的宾语从句一般用虚拟语气，其虚拟语气的结构为：(should) + 原形动词。如：
The teacher advised that we should make good use of every minute here. 老师劝我们要好好地利用在这儿的每一分钟。
The Party asked that we should serve the people with our heart and soul. 党要求我们要全心全意地为人民服务。
Tom insisted that he hadn't stolen the watch. 汤姆坚持说他没有偷那块手表。
His smile suggested that he had succeeded in this exam. 他的微笑表明他在考试中成功了。
2. believe, expect, suspect, think, imagine等动词的否定句或疑问句中的宾语从句常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为： should + 原形动词。如：
Can you believe that he should kill a tiger? 你能相信他竟杀死了一只老虎？
Can you imagine that he should take the first place in the long jump contest? 你能想象得到他在跳远比赛中竟获得了第一名？
发生在主句动作之前 (1)had + 过去分词；
(2)would / could / might / should + have + 过去分词
与主句动作同时发生 过去时(be 用were )
发生在主句动作之后 would / could / might / should + 原形动词
例如：I wish I learnt English well. 我希望我已学好了英语。
I wish I had been there with them last week. 我希望上周跟他们一起在那儿。 He wishes we could go and play games with him. 他希望我们能去跟他做游戏。
4. 英语中，would rather, had rather, would sooner等之后的宾语从句常表示与客观事实不相符的一种愿望，故使用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为：
过去 had + 过去分词；
现在 过去时(be 用were )
将来 过去时(be 用were )
例如：I'd rather you had seen the film yesterday. 我倒想你昨天看过了这场电影。 I'd rather you were here now. 我倒想你现在在这儿。
We'd rather you went here tomorrow. 我么倒想你明天去那儿。
在表达惊异、惋惜、遗憾、理应如此等意义的主语从句中常使用虚拟语气，其虚拟语其的结构为： should + 动词原形，主句中的谓语动词形式不限。
(1) It is admirable / dreadful / extraordinary / odd / remarkable / sad / advisable / annoying / disappointing / surprising / upsetting / frightening / better / best / curious / desirable / important / strange / peculiar / proper / necessary / natural …that…
(2) It is a pity / a shame / no wonder…. that…
(3) It is suggested / requested / desired / proposed /…. that …
(4) It worries me that…
如：It is important that we should do well in our lessons first. 我们先把功课学好很重
It is strange that he should not come. 很奇怪，他竟没有来。
It is a pity that we should not meet last night. 真遗憾我们昨天晚上没有见过面。 It worries me that we should be blamed for that. 我们竟要受责备真让人烦恼。
英语中，表示请求、要求、命令、建议等名词advice, desire, decision, idea, instruction, order, plan, proposal, recommendation, request, requirement, suggestion, wish充当句子的主语而后面接表语从句或它们后面接同位语时，表语从表面上看几屗及同位语从句都须用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为：(should) + 动词原形。如：
We followed his advice that we should ask our teacher for help. 我们接受了他的建议：我们应该请求老师的帮助。
He told us his idea that he should go to university. 他告诉了我们他的想法：他想上大学。
His suggestion is that we should do our work more carefully. 他的建议就是我们的工作要更细心些。
Their plan is that they should build a new factory in their hometown. 他们的计划就是在家乡建一座新工厂。
英语中，表示："早该做某事了"时，定语从句中的谓语动词须用虚拟语气，其虚拟语气的结构为：It is (high / about) time that + 主语+ 动词的过去式/ should + 动词原形。如： It is time that I went to pick up my daughter at school. 我该去学校接我的女儿了。 It is high time you should go to work. 你早该上班了。
1. 说话时，为了表示客气、谦虚、委婉而有礼貌，言语常使用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构形式常为：would / could / might / should + 原形动词。如：
Would you mind my shutting the door? 我把门关起来你介意吗？
You should always learn this lesson by heart. 你要把这个教训牢记于心。
I should agree with you. 我应该同意你的观点。
2. 表示"祝愿"时，常用"may + 主语 + 动词原形 + 其他"。如：
May you have a good journey! 祝你一路顺风。
May your youth last for ever! 祝你青春永驻。
Long live the Communist Party of China. 中国******万岁。
God bless us. 上帝保佑。
Would you like to have a talk with us this evening? 今天晚上来跟我们聊天好吗？ Could I use your bike now? 我可以用一下你的单车吗？
I should glad to meet you. 见到你我会很高兴。
I would try my best to help you. 我会尽力帮助你。
You'd better ask your father first. 你最好先问一问你的父亲。
You should make a full investigation of it first. 你应该先全面调查一番。
Do you think he could get here on time? 你认为他能按时来吗？
Do you expect he would tell us the truth? 你期望他会告诉我们真相吗？
(5) 表示对过去情况的责备时，常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为："情态动词 + have + 过去分词"。如：
You should have got here earlier. 你应该早就到这里了。
You should have returned it to him. 你应该把他还给他了。
动词wish后接宾语从句时，从句谓语要用虚拟语气。若要表示与现在事实相反的愿望，从句谓语用一般过去时或过去进行时；若表示与过去相反的愿望，从句谓语用过去完成时或would / could+have +过去分词；若表示将来没有把握或不太可能实现的愿望，用would (could)＋动词原形。如：
I wish I were not so busy. 但愿我不那样忙碌。
I wish I were [was] better looking. 要是我长得漂亮些就好了。
She wished she had stayed at home. 她后悔的是她当时要是留在家里就好了。 I wish you would go with us tomorrow. 要是你明天同我们一起去就好了。
I wish you wouldn't look down on this kind of work. 我希望你不要看不起这种工作。 This watch has gone wrong. I wish I had bought a better make. 这只表坏了，我真愿意我买的是好一点的牌子。
I wish you wouldn't smoke any more. 我希望你不再抽烟了。
I wish you would be more respectful to your father. 我希望你对你父亲更尊敬些。 I wish I could be of some use. 我希望我能有什么用处。
I wish I were rich. 要是我现在有钱就好了。
I wish I had been rich. 要是那时我有钱就好了。
I wished I were rich. 当时我后悔自己没有钱。
I wished I had been rich. 当时我后悔自己曾经没有钱。
if only 与 I wish一样，也用于表示与事实相反的愿望，其后所虚拟语气的时态与 wish 后所接时态的情况相同：
If only she had had more courage! 她再勇敢一些就好了。
If only it would stop raining! 雨要是停了就好了。
If only he didn't drive so fast. 但愿他车没开得那么快。
If only I were [was] better looking. 要是我长得漂亮些就好了。
If only I had listened to my parents! 我要是当时听了父母的话就好了。
If only she would go with me! 她要是愿意和我一道去就好了!
【友情提示】if only 通常独立使用，没有主句。
I'd rather you went tomorrow (now). 我宁愿你明天(现在)去。
I'd rather you came next Saturday. 我宁愿你下星期六来。
I'd rather you were happy. 我愿你快乐。
I'd rather she sat next to me. 我宁愿她挨着我坐。
I'd rather Jack left on an earlier train. 我宁愿杰克乘前一班火车走。
You always go without me and l'd rather you didn't. 你总是不带我去，我可不愿意你这样。
"Shall I open the window? " "I'd rather you didn't. ""我要不要把窗子打开? " "我看不要打开好。"
I'd rather you hadn't said it. 我真希望你没有这样说过。
I'd rather you hadn't done that. 我宁愿你没这样做。
l'd rather you had been / hadn't been present。我 (宁) 愿你当时在场 / 不在场。 l'd rather he had told / hadn't told me about it 我 (宁) 愿他告诉了 / 未告诉我这件事。 Katie went by car and I'd rather she hadn't. 凯蒂是坐汽车去的，我宁愿地不坐汽车去。 as if (though) 从句用虚拟语气
以as if (as though)引导的方式状语从句或表语从句，有时用虚拟语气，若表示与现在事实相反，谓语动词用一般过去时；若表示与过去事实相反，用过去完成时；表示将来的可能性不大，用would (might, could)+动词原形：
He acts as if he knew me. 他显得认识我似的。
They treat me as though I were a stranger. 他们待我如陌生人。
He talks as if he had been abroad. 他说起话来好像曾经出过国。
It looks as if we'll be late. 我们似乎要迟到了。
This meat tastes as if it has already gone bad. 这肉吃起来似乎已经坏了。
I feel as if [as though] I'm floating on air. 他感到好像漂浮在空中。
The stuffed dog barked as if it is [were, was] a real one. 玩具狗叫起来像真狗。
(2) 注意 It isn't as if…的翻译：
It isn't as if he were poor. 他不像穷的样子(或他又不穷)。
It isn't as if you were going away for good. 又不是你离开不回来了。
否定或近似否定副词(往往是时间或频度副词，如never, rarely, seldom)，或是具有否定作用的副词，如 little, on no account 等。如：
Never / Seldom has there been so much protest against the Bomb. 这么强烈的反对原子弹的抗议活动从未 / 很少 / 有过。
Little does he realize how important this meeting is. 他对这个会议的重要性不甚了了。 On no account must you accept any money if he offers it. 他如要给你钱，你可绝不能接受。
There has never / seldom been so much protest against the Bomb. 从未 / 很少发生过这么强烈的反对原子弹的抗议活动。
He little realizes how important this meeting is. 他不甚明白这个会议的重要性。 另外，有些含有否定意义的介词短语置于句首时，其后也要用倒装。如：
In no case should you give up. 你绝不能放弃。
On no condition should we tell her about it. 我们绝不能把此事告诉她。
On no accounts must this switch be touched.这个开关是绝 不能触摸的。
In [Under] no circumstances will I lend money to him.无论如何我也不会再借钱给他了。 Under no circumstances should you lend him any money. 你无论如何都不该把钱借给他。
No way will I go on working for that man. 我不再给那个人工作了。
涉及not only…but also…的部分倒装
not only…but also…前后连接两个句子时，not only后的句子要用部分倒装，但but also后的分句不用倒装。如：
Not only did he come, but he saw her. 他不仅来了，而且还见到了她。
Not only does she speak Spanish, (but) she also knows how to type. 她不但会说西班牙语，还会打字呢。
Not only is he a teacher, but he is also a poet. 他不仅是一位教师，而且是一位诗人。 Not only did he speak more correctly, but he spoke more easily. 不仅他讲得更正确，也讲得更不费劲了。
Not only did they present a musical performance, but they also gave a brief
introduction to the history of Western brass instruments. 他们不但做了音乐表演，而且简短地介绍了西方铜管乐器的历史。
Only in this way can we learn English. 只有这样才能学会英语。
Only then did I understand what she meant. 只有到那时我才明白她的意思。
Only by shouting was he able to make himself heard. 他只有叫喊才能让别人听到他。 注意，在only后作状语的是从句时，从句不要用倒装，要部分倒装的是主句。如： Only when it rains do you feel cool. 只有下雨时才觉得凉爽一点。
Only when he returned home did he realize what had happened. 当他回到家里时，才知道出了什么事。
Only when we landed did we see how badly the plane had been damaged. 我们只是在着陆之后才看到飞机损坏的严重程度。
强调句型是英语语法考试经常涉及的一个考点，这类考题主要涉及以下几个方面： 一是考查强调句型的基本结构，即"It is + 被强调成分 + that / who +其他部分"；
二是考查强调句的疑问句形式，如强调句的一般疑问句形式"Is it + 被强调成分 + that / who +其他部分"以及特殊疑问句形式"疑问词+is it that+其他部分"；
三是考查not…until…的强调形式"It was not until….that…."。如：
It was from Betty that he first heard the news. 这消息他最早是从贝蒂那里听到的。 Was it you who broke the window? 窗子是你打破的吗?
It was not until the rain stopped that they started. 直到雨停他们才出发。
How long ago is it that you last saw her? 你上次看见她是多久以前的事?
英语中最常见的强调手段，也是我们必须要掌握的方法就是句型强调，即：强调句型。It is / was + 被强调的部分 + that (who)…如：
(1) It was in the room that Li Lei was born. 李蕾出生就在这间房子。
(2) It is Wei Fang who has broken the record. 就是魏方打破了纪录。
(A) 原句子是现在时或将来时，强调句用It is + 被强调的部分 + that (who)…; 若原句子是过去时，强调句用：It was + 被强调的部分 + that (who)…
(1) Li Lei's father will work in America. -It is in America that Li Lei's father will work. 李蕾的父亲的工作将就在美国。
(2) I studied at this school a few years ago. -It was at this school that I studied a few years ago. 几年前我就在这所学校读书。
(1) Tom and Lucy gave us much help. -It was Tom and Lucy that gave us much help. 正是汤姆和露西给了我们很多的帮助。
(2) I saw swans in the lake yesterday. -It was swans that I saw in the lake yesterday. 昨天我看到在湖里的就是天鹅。
(C) 强调人时，可用who 代替that, 但若强调时间、地点、原因、方式时，不能用when, where, why, how代替 that。如：
(1) It is our teacher who / that helps us make great progress. 正是我们的老师帮助我们取得了很大的进步。
(2) It is by bus that I go to school every day. 每天我就是乘公共汽车上学。
(D) 在强调not…until结构中的时间状语时，应将not移到until前，再将not until部分移到被强调的位置。如：
I didn't go to bed until twelve o'clock last night. - It was not until twelve o'clock last night that I went to bed. 昨天晚上我一直到十二点才睡。
(1) Do you like English?-It is English that you like? 英语就是你喜欢的吗？
(2) Will you go to London?-It is London that you will go to? 你要去的就是伦敦吗？ (F)特殊疑问句中只有疑问词可以被强调。句型为：特殊疑问词+be + it that+…? 如：
(1) What made him so angry?-What is it that made him so angry? 是什么东西使他如此生气？
(2) Why did she cry?-Why was it that she cried? 是什么原因使他哭了起来？ (G) 强调主语时，who 或that后面的谓语形式须与被强调的主语保持一致。如：
(1) Lily speaks Chinese very well. -It is Lily who / that speaks Chinese very well. 李丽的汉语讲得很好。
(2) Children like stories. -It is Children that like stories. 孩子们喜欢故事。
(H) 强调句中的be前可用表推测的情态动词：must, can, may等。如：
(1) It must be Piney that sent us this present. 肯定是Piney 给我们寄来了这件礼物。
(2) How can it be that he didn't pass the exams. 他考试没有通过怎么可能呢？ (I) 强调句型不用于强调谓语、表语、since, as等引导的原因状语从句。如：
He is better today since he can walk around without my help. 就不能有下列强调形式： It is better today that he is today since he can walk around without my help. (错) It is since he can walk around without my help that he is better today. (错)
在英语中，随着说话人意图的不同，动词需用不同的形式，称为语气。虚拟语气是三种语气中的一种。它既可以表达与事实相反的陈述或某种愿望与空想，也可以表达建议，要求，请求与命令等语气。虚拟语气是通过动词的时态与时间的不一致来体现的。虚拟语气主要有以下两类： 一、与事实相反的陈述或某种愿望与空想 它的表现形式为： 1、条件句中的虚拟语气 1）由if 引导的条件句，有可能是直陈语气，也有可能是虚拟语气。可根据以下两条来判断具体的语气。 a)根据含义。如果是纯粹假设的情况或是发生的可能性不大的情况，则是虚拟语气。如： If I were you , I would reconsider their proposal . If I had left a little earlier , I would have caught the train. b)根据时态与时间的矛盾。如果时间是将来，但是时态却是过去时，则是虚拟语气。 如： (1)If it________tomorrow, I would stay at home. (2)If it________tomorrow, I will stay at home. A. rain B. rainedC. rainsD. will rain 分析：在(1) 句中，主句的时态与时间不一致，所以判断是虚拟语气，答案是B。 在(2) 句中，主句的时态与时间一致，所以判断是直陈语气，再根据在条件状语从句中，要用一般现在时表达将来时间，所以答案为C。 2)条件句中的虚拟语气有以下三类： a)与现在事实相反，谓语动词如下： 从句：过去时 主句：would / should / could / might +动词原形。如：If I were you , I would ask our teacher for advice. b)与过去事实相反，谓语动词如下： 从句：过去完成时 主句：would / should / could / might have +过去分词。如： If I hadn’t taken the wrong bus , I wouldn’t have missed the contest. c)与将来事实相反，谓语动词如下： 从句：过去时 / should + 动词原形 / were to + 动词原形 主句：would / should / could /might + 动词原形 If I had enough money next month, I would buy the dictionary. 3)如果条件从句中包含有should, 动词be 或 have， 可把if省略,并把should,动词be或have 放在主语前面。 如： Had we made preparations , we might have succeeded. Should there be a flood , what should we do ? 2、Wish 引导的宾语从句 ，根据时间的不同，可分为以下三种； 1）与现在事实相反，从句动词用过去时。如 I wish I were as healthy as my cousin. 2）与过去事实相反，谓语动词用过去完成时。如： We wish we had paid more attention to our pronunciation. 3)与将来事实相反，谓语动词用would / could +动词原形。如： I wish I would try again. 3、as if 引导的从句。如： They talked as if they had been friends for years. It seems as if it were spring already. 4、以in order that, so that 引导的目的状语从句。如： The professor spoke slowly in order that the listeners could hear him clearly. 5、以 It is time 以及 would rather 引导的从句，从句中的动词都用过去时。如： It is time we stopped this practice I would rather you came tomorrow. 二、虚拟语气还可用来表示愿望，建议，命令等 1、在suggest , order , demand , ask , command，propose , request, insist 等表示建议,要求,请求,命令的动词引导的宾语从句中，谓语动词为：(should) +动词原形。如： We suggested that they (should ) make a trip to Hongkong next year. She insisted that we (should )take up the matter at the meeting. 2、在suggestion, propsal , order , plan 等引导的表语从句和同位语从句中，谓语动词为(should )+ 动词原形。如： My suggestion is that we (should )send a few comrades to help the other groups. My idea is that we (should )challenge the other groups to a friendly competition. 3、在 it is desired, it is suggested, it is requested, it was ordered, it was proposed. it is necessary, it is important, it has been decided等结构后的主语从句中，谓语动词为 ：(should) +动词原形。如： It is necessary that he (should ) be sent there at once. It is desired that we (should )get everything ready by tonight. 4、在 it is a pity, it is a shame, it is incredible, it is strange, it is no wonder等结构后的主语从句中， 谓语动词为：should +动词原形，以表示惊奇，怀疑，不满 等情绪。如： It is a great pity that he should be so conceited. It is strange that she should have failed to see her own shortcomings. (作者单位系甘肃省白银公司第一中学)
If the earth had no gravity，the moon would fly to the sun．假如地球没有引力，月球就要向太阳飞去。
If I were you ，I would reconsider their proposal．我要是你，就重新考虑他们的建议。
If I had left a little earlier，I would have caught the train．我要是早点动身就赶上火车了。
If she hadn't taken your advice， she would have made a serious mistake．她要不是听了你的劝告，就犯大错误了。
If he should fail，we would encourage him to try again．万一他失败，我们就鼓励他再试一次。
If I were to do it ，I would do it in a different way．要是我来做这件事，我会采用另一种做法。
Without air，there would be no wind or clouds．没有空气就不会有风，也不会有云。
In that case，we could have done the work better．如果那样的话，我们本可能把工作做得更好些的。
But for the storm，we should have arrived earlier．要是没有碰上暴雨，我们还会早一点到的。
Had he not been ill，he might have come．要不是生病，他会来的。
Should it rain tomorrow，what could we do？万一明天下雨，我们能做些什么呢？
It is necessary that ．．．（有必要……；……必须）
It is imperative that．．．（必须……；……是要紧的）
It is important that．．．（重要的是……；……是很重要的）
It is essential that．．．（必须……；……是必要的）
It is advisable that．．．（最好……；……是理想的）
It is better that．．．（最好……）
It is ordered that．．．（根据命令……；人们要求……）
It is proposed that．．．（人们建议……）
It is desired that．．．（最好……；需要……）
It is requested that．．．（人们要求……）
It is suggested that．．．（有人建议……）
It is recommended that．．．（有人推荐……）
It is demanded that．．．（根据要求……）
It is decided．．．（已经决定……）
It is arranged that．．．（业已安排……）
例如：It was arranged that they leave the following week．根据安排，他们下星期动身。
It is suggested that the meeting（should）be held at some other time．人们建议换一个时间开会。
在下列动词的宾语从句中，谓语动词用虚拟语气： suggest（建议），insist（坚持），recommend（推荐），order（命令），propose（提议），require（要求），request（要求），com- mand（命令），demand（要求）。例如：
He commanded that we（should）attack the enemy at once．他命令我们立即向敌人进攻。
They demanded that the right to vote be given to every adult．他们要求给予每个成年人选举权。
He gave the order that the results of the experiment（should）be rechecked．他命令对那次实验的结果重新核对。
My suggestion is that we（should）send a trade delegation to Malaysia．我建议派
I wish I knew both English and French．我要是既懂英文又懂法文就好了。 I wish I were as young as you．我要是像你一样年轻该多好。
I wished I hadn't made that mistake．我当时多么希望没犯那个错误。
If + had done, would / could / should / might have done
If you had worked hard, you would have passed the game.
If + did / were, would / could / should / might do
If I had money on me, I would lend you some. If the room were larger, we would hold the party there.
If + did / were to do / should do, would / could / should / might do
1. If we ____ here ten minutes earlier, we ___ the bus.
A. arrived/would catch B. arrived/would have caught
C. had arrived/had caught D. had arrived/would have caught
2. If I ____ more time, I would have gone with him.
A. had B. had had C. have had D. would have
3. Don’t touch the sleeping tiger. If he woke up, he _____ you.
A. would come to B. would come at C. would have come toward D. will come to
4. If he had not gone out in the storm _____.
A. he will be alive now B. he would be alive now
C. he would have been alive now
5. If it ___ tomorrow, what would we do?
A. rains B. were to rain C. would rain D. rain
6. If it ___ rain, we ___ get wet. If it rained tomorrow, I would stay at home. If it were to rain tomorrow, I would stay at home. If it should rain tomorrow, I would stay at home.
A. is to, should B. were to, would
C. were going to, would D. was going to, should
7. ---- I thought you would come back tomorrow.
---- I would if I ___ to attend a meeting.
A. don’t have B. didn’t have C. will not have D. would not have
8. It ___ very nice if it were possible.
A. will be B. would be C. is D. were
9. If I had hurried, I ___ the train.
A. would catch B. could catch C. would have caught D. had caught
10. If I had known that, I ___ so.
A. wouldn’t do B. wouldn’t have done C. won’t do D. have not done
a) If you had worked hard, you would have passed the game.
--- Had you worked hard,…
b) If I had money on me, I would lend you some.
c) If the room were larger, we would hold the party there.
--- Were the room larger, …
d) If it were to rain tomorrow, I would stay at home.
--- Were it to rain tomorrow, …
e) If it should rain tomorrow, I would stay at home.
--- Should it rain tomorrow,…
1. If I had listened carefully at that time, I ____ (could answer) the
2. If I had listened carefully at that time, I ____ (could answer) the
a) with, without, but for
i. With your help, I would have succeeded.
= If you had helped me, I would have succeeded.
ii. But for (必虚) / Without Tom, the plane would have crashed.
= If it hadn’t been for Tom, the plane would have crashed.
b) or , otherwise,*but that
He can’t have written to me, otherwise I would have got his
letter by now.
1. ____ to the doctor right away, he might have been alive.
A. If he went B. Were he gone C. Should he have gone D. Had he gone
2. He was very busy yesterday, otherwise he ____ to the meeting.
A. would come B. came C. would have come D. had come
3. Without electricity human life _____ quite different today.
A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be
4. If he ___ to the teacher attentively, he ___ the answer to the problem now.
A. had listened, would have known B. listened, would know
C. listened, would have known D. had listened, would know
5. But for the party, he ___ of hunger 30 years ago.
A. would have died B. would die C. must have died D. must die
6. ___ today, he would get there for holiday.
A. Was he leaving B. Were he to leave C. Would he leave D. If he leaves
7. I would have come earlier, but I ___ that you were waiting for me.
A. didn’t know B. hadn’t know C. would have known D. haven’t known
8. I was busy yesterday, otherwise I ___ your birthday party.
A. attended B. had attended C. would attend D. would have attended
9. We ___ our lives had it not been for the policeman.
A. would have lost B. should lose C. might lose D. could have lost
10. Without your help, our team ___ the last match.
A. won’t win B. will lose C. wouldn’t have won D. can’t win
11. ___, I would take an umbrella with me.
A. Had I been you B. I were you C. Were I you D. I had been you
1. , demand, require, order, propose, commend, advise, request, …+ (should) do
1) I suggest that he (should) be here now.
What he said suggested that he wouldn’t come.
2) She insisted that the doctor (should) be sent for.
He insisted that Tom was wrong.
3) I suggest that…+ (should) do
It is suggested that…+(should) do
My suggestion is that…+(should) do
That is my suggestion that ….+(should) do
2. I wish that…+ 时态退级
I wish that I were ten years younger.
I wish that I could fly.
3. If only…+ 时态退级
If only he had a sense of humor
4. I would rather…+ （两种情况）
5. It is important that…+ (should) do
1) It’s important that we (should) work hard.
2) We feel it important that we (should) work hard.
3) important, vital, essential, necessary, surprising, strange, natural…
6. It’s (about / high) time that…+ did / should do
1) It’s high time that we left now.
2) It’s high time that we should leave now.
1. How I wish I ____ to repair the watch! I only made it worse.
A. had tried B. hadn’t tried C. have tried D. didn’t try
2. He demanded that the laboratory report ___ immediately after the experiment
A. was written B. be written C. must be written D. would be written
3. The man insisted that he _____ there.
A. should send B. would be sent C. sent D. be sent
4. It is required that you ____ at six.
A. will arrive B. arrive C. arrived D. would arrive
5. If only I _____ how to operate an electronic computer as you do.
A. had known B. would know C. should know D. knew
6. The secretary suggested that they ____ the men in at once.
A. had brought B. should have brought C. brought D. bring
7. I wish I ____ able to tell him all about it last night.
A. was B. were C. had been D. should be
8. The Jade Emperor ordered that the Monkey King _____ right away.
A. would be arrested B. must be arrested C. be arrested D. had to be arrested
9. Jane’s uncle insisted ____ in this hotel any longer.
A. not staying B. not to stay C. that he not stay D. staying not
10. It’s high time that we ___ to school.
A. would to B. went C. go D. will go
11. I’d rather you ___ right away.
A. leave B. left C. will leave D. to leave
12. It is really strange that the girl ___ so early.
A. has been married B. has married C. be married D. would marry
13. The teacher agreed to the suggestion that the students ___ two weeks to
prepare for the exam.
A. give B. should give C. be given D. would be given
14. He insisted that he ___ me before.
A. see B. should see C. had seen D. saw
15. He wishes ___ mistakes.
A. he doesn’t always make B. he isn’t always making
C. he didn’t always make D. he wouldn’t always making
16. I wish I ___ what to do.
A. knew B. have known C. know D. would know
17. He insisted that John ___ it.
A. do B. does C. did D. would do
18. It is high time we ___ off.
A. are B. were C. be D. will be
19. It is important that I ___ with Mr. Williams immediately.
A. speak B. spoke C. will speak D. to speak
20. James wishes he ___ the football game instead of the film.
A. saw B. see C. had been seen D. had seen
21. I wish ___.
A. he left B. he leaves me alone C. he be left D. he would leave me alone
1. 方式状语从句--- as if (可虚可不虚) / as though （必虚）
1) It looks as if it is going to rain. (不虚)
2) The lady treats the boy well as if / as though he were her own son.
They talked as if they had been good friends for years.
2. 条件状语从句 --- in case / for fear that / lest
虚拟方式：in case + should do
In case I should fail, I would try again.
3. 目的状语从句 --- so that / in order that
虚拟方式：can / could / may / might
The man saved as much as he could in order that he might buy a house of his own.
4. *让步状语从句 --- even if / even though
虚拟方式：even if 后的从句同if 从句
Practice: Even if I were in his position, I wouldn’t go either.
1. He spoke in a quiet, distinct voice, as though his thought _____.
A. was far away B. had been far away C. were far away D. went far away.
2. The boy acted ____ he had never lived in Canada before.
A. as though B. even if C. as D. since
3. It seems as if it ___ rain.
A. will to B. is going to C. is to D. were going to
4. He is working hard for fear that he ___.
A. fails B. failed C. would fail D. fail
5. The two strangers talked as if they ___ friends for years.
A. were B. would be C. have been D. had been
6. He felt as if he ___ more time to study for the test.
A. needs B. were needed C. needed D. need
1. should (ought to) have done / shouldn’t have done
You should have studied harder.
2. could (might) have done / couldn’t have done
I could have done a better job if given more time.
3. needn’t have done
You needn’t have come to school yesterday, for it was holiday.
4. would have done / might have done
be to have done / would like to have done
They were to have come here, but they had a meeting at that moment.
1. had meant / intended to do sth. = meant / intended to have done sth.
I had intended to attend your birthday party, I was too busy then.
2. had planned to do / had expected to do / had hoped to do / had wanted to do /
had thought to do / had imagined to do
1.Without electricity human life__________quite different today. A.is B.will be
C.would have been D.would be(MET91) 2.I insist that a doctor__________immediately. A.has been sent for B.sends for C.had been sent for D.be sent for(MET88) 3.If it__________for the snow,we__________the mountain yesterday.
A.were not;could have climbed B.were not;could climb C.had not been;could have climbed D.had not been;could climb(MET91)
4.I wish I__________you yesterday. A.seen B.did see
C.had seen D.were to see(MET88)
5.The rice__________if you had been more careful. A.would not be burning B.would not burn C.would not have been burnt D.would not burnt (MET88) 参考答案及详解
5.C过去完成时。该题是表示与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,主句用“would have done”结构。,从句用 6.If my lawyer__________here last Saturday,he__________me from going.
A.had been;would have prevented B.had been;would prevent
C.were;would prevent D.were;would have prevented(MET89)
7.-If he__________,he__________that food. -Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. A.was warned;would not take
B.had been warned;would not have taken C.would be warned;would not have taken D.would have been warned;had not taken(MET93) 8.I didn't see your sister at the meeting.If
she__________,she would have met my brother. A.has come B.did come C.came D.had come(NMET94) 9.When a pencil is put in a glass of water,it looks as if it__________. A.breaks B.has broken
C.were broken D.had been broken (NMET95) 10.You didn't let me drive.If we__________in turn,you__________so tired.
A.drove;didn't get B.drove;wouldn't get (NMET96) C.were driving;wouldn't get D.had driven;wouldn't have got
7.B虽然没有明确的时间状语。该题通过一组对话来考查虚拟语气的用法。,但答句中的时态可提示考题干生这仍是一个与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句。 8.D息都可以提示考生这是一个与过去事实相反的虚拟条。前句中的时态和后句中的would have met两个信件句。
9.C从句中的谓语动词所表达的动作同时发生。as if(though)所接的从句常用虚拟结构,as if,如主句和后接一般过去式;如从句的动作在主句之前发生,则用过去完成时。
If I were you,I should stay at home.
If the peasants could farm the land themselves,food production would be much higher.
If fewer cash crops were grown,more food could be produced and there would be less or no starvation. 2)表示与过去事实相反:
If you had come yesterday,you would have met him. If the hurricane had happened during the daytime,there would have been many deaths.
3)would have the meeting. 表示与将来事实相反:If you came tomorrow,we
If it were to/should rain tomorrow,the meeting would be put off.
If it should rain,the crops would be saved.
4)生的时间不一致时当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发,动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间来调整。例如:If you had followed the doctor's
advice,you would be quite all right now.(去,主句指的是现在。)
从句说的是过5)装句式以上句型可以转换成下列形式"were,had,should+主语"。例如:①从句省略:Were I in school if,用倒again,I would work harder. Had you been here earlier,you would have seen him. Should there be a meeting tomorrow,I would come.件状语从句。例如:Without air, there would be no living ②用介词短语代替条things. I would not have succeeded but for your help. 2.虚拟语气用于宾语从句
1)"wish+可惜„„宾语从句"、"„„就好了"表示不能实现的愿望"、"悔不该„„,汉语可译为"、"但愿„„""去式等。表示现在不能实现的愿望;表示将来不能实现的愿望,,用从句的谓语动词用过"would(could)+动词原形";表示过去不能实现的愿望,用"had+过去分词"或"(could)would+have+过去分词"。例如: I wish we could go to the seaside today. I wish you told me earlier.
We wish we had arrived there two hours earlier.
等后面的宾语从句中,用"(should)+I suggested that the meeting(should)be put off. The doctor ordered that she(should)stay in bed for a few days.
They demanded that the black people should be treated as well as white people.
Mike insisted that he had never stolen anything. I insisted that you give me my money back. 3.虚拟语气用于表语从句、同位语从句
advice,idea,order,demand,plan,proposal,suggestion,request拟语气的结构等名词的表语从句和同位语从句"(should)+动词原形"。例如,其谓语动词要用虚: We all agreed to his suggestion that we(should)go to Beijing for sightseeing.
My idea is that he (should)do exercises first.
as if(as though)引导的表语从句或如果从句表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时;表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用"had+过去分词";表示与将来事实相反,谓语动词用
"would(might,could)+动词原形"。例如: He looked at me as if I were mad.
He speaks English so fluently as if he had studied English in England. It looks as if it might rain.
但as if(as though)后的从句也常用陈述语气,这是因为从句中的情况往往是可能发生的或可能被设想为真实的。例如:
It looks as if our side is going to win. 5.虚拟语气用于主语从句
necessary(important,natural,de-sirable,advisable,strange,etc.)that we should clean the room every day.
It was a pity(a shame,no wonder,etc.)that you should be so careless.
It will be
desired(suggested,decided,ordered,requested,proposed,etc.)that she should finish her homework this afternoon. 在上述三种主语从句中,should意为"应该"、"竟然",可以省去,但不可换用would。主句所用动词的时态不限。 注意:这种从句表示的是事实。如果说话人对这种事实表示惊奇,就可用虚拟语气。反之,如果不表示惊奇,that从句也可用陈述语气。例如:
It is strange that he did not come yesterday. It is a pity that you can't swim. 6.虚拟语气用于定语从句
这种从句常用在"It is(high)time(that)..."句型中,定语从句的谓语动词用过去式,或"should+动词原形(should不能省略,be用were)"来表示,意为"(现在)该„„"。例如: It's time that I went and picked up my little girl from school.
It is high time we were going.
If only I had taken his advice.我要是听他的话就好了。
If only I were a bird!我如果是一只鸟就好了。
8.虚拟语气用于If it were not for...
If it were not for the rain,the crops should(would)die. If it had not been for...同过去事实相反的假设。例如意为"如果当时没有„„:
",表示If it had not been for your timely help,I would have failed.
I'd rather you paid me now.(从句用过去时指现在) I would rather they came tomorrow.(来)
从句用过去时指将I'd rather she hadn't done that.(去)(此句中的would可看作是表愿望的实义动词从句用过去完成时指过) 10.虚拟语气用于简单句
有礼貌,使语气委婉,常出现It would be better for you not to stay up too late. Would you be kind enough to open the door. 2)用于一些习惯表达法中。例如: Would you like a cup of tea. You had better go now.
3)于句首。例如用"may+动词原形: ",表示"祝愿"、"但愿"。may须置May you be happy! May you succeed! 11.含蓄条件句
在某些虚拟语气结构中没有if条件句,虚拟条件是用其它形式表示出来,这种现象在语法上称为"含蓄条件句"。含蓄条件具体分为以下几种情况: 1)通过动词不定式短语表示条件。例如: You would be a fool to refuse his offer.
(=If you should refuse his offer,you would be a fool.)
But for the storm I would have arrived much earlier.
(=If it had not been for the storm...)
otherwise,or,but,that,though,once等表达条She came to town yesterday,otherwise/or I would not have met her.
昨天她到城里来了,不然我就不会遇见她了。 (otherwise/or=if she hadn't come)
I would have attended the meeting,but I have been too busy.
(=...if I had not been too busy) 我本来要参加会议的,只是太忙了。
4)表达条件。例如通过Were it not for...:
或Had it not been for...等句式Were it not for(=If it were not for) the leadership of the Party,we could not live a happy life.
Had it not been for(=If it had not been for) the leadership of the Party,we should have failed. 若不是有党的领导,我们早就失败了。 (与过去事实相反)
Given more attention,the trees could have grown better.倘若给予更多的关心,这些树本来可以生长得更好的。 (=If they had been given more attention...) 6)无词句暗示条件。例如:
Such mistakes could have been avoided.这种错误本来可以避免的。
(暗含条件从句if we had been more careful) It was so quiet,you could have heard a pin drop.是那样的安静,掉根针你都听得见。
(暗含条件从句if it had dropped to the ground)
真实条件句用于陈述语气，假设的情况可能发生，其中 if 是如果的意思。
句型： 条件从句 主句
一般现在时 shall/will + 动词原形
if he comes, he will bring his violin.
the volleyball match will be put off if it ___.
a. will rain b. rains c. rained d. is rained
1） 在真实条件句中，主句不能用be going to表示将来，该用shall, will.
(错) if you leave now, you are never going to regret it.
(对) if you leave now, you will never regret it.
2） 表示真理时，主句谓语动词便不用shall (will) +动词原形，而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。
句型 ： 条件从句 主句
一般过去时 should( would) +动词原形
if they were here, they would help you.
句型： 条件从句 主句
过去完成时 should(would) have+ 过去分词
if she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.
the rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful.
if my lawyer had been here last saturday, he would have prevented me from going.
if he had come yesterday, i should / would have told him about it.
含义：he did not come yesterday, so i did not tell him about it.
if he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress.
含义： he was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress.
句型： 条件从句 主句
一般过去时 should+ 动词原形
were+ 不定式 would + 动词原形
if you succeeded, everything would be all right.
if you should succeed, everything would be all right.
if you were to succeed, everything would be all right.
if you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now.
if it had rained last night (过去), it would be very cold today (现在).
虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有were, should, 或had, 可将if省略，再把were, should或had 移到从句句首，实行倒装。
were they here now, they could help us.
=if they were here now, they could help us.
had you come earlier, you would have met him
=if you had come earlier, you would have met him.
should it rain, the crops would be saved.
=were it to rain, the crops would be saved.
if i were you, i would go to look for him.
if he were here, everything would be all right.
_____ to do the work, i should do it some other day.
a. if were i b. i were c. were i d. was i
答案c. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词，通常将if省略，主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意，在虚拟条件状语从句中，省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说 were i not to do., 而不能说 weren't i to do.
1） it is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用should 加动词原形， should 可省略。
it is (2)important that…+ (should) do
(3) a pity
(1)suggested, ordered, proposed, required, demanded, requested, insisted； + (should) do
(2)important, necessary, natural, strange
a pity, a shame, no wonder
(3)it is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
it is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.
order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do
i suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
he insisted that he (should ) be sent there.
注意： 如suggest, insist不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时"，即它们用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时，宾语从句用陈述语气。
the guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules.
（错） you pale face suggests that you (should) be ill.
(对) your pale face suggests that you are ill.
(错) i insisted that you ( should) be wrong.
(对) i insisted that you were wrong.
在suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气，即（should）+动词原形。
my idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.
i make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
从句动作先于主句动词动作 现在时 过去时
从句动作与主句动作同时发生 过去时 过去完成时
（had + 过去分词）
将来不大可能实现的愿望 将来时 would/could +
i wish i were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。
he wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他没讲那样的话。
i wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。
2）wish to do表达法。
wish sb / sth to do
i wish to see the manager. = i want to see the manager.
i wish the manager to be informed at once. (= i want the manager to be informed at once.)
16.7 比较if only与only if
only if表示"只有"；if only则表示"如果……就好了"。if only也可用于陈述语气。
i wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了，我才会醒。
if only the alarm clock had rung. 当时闹钟响了，就好了。
if only he comes early. 但愿他早点回来。
16.8 it is (high) time that
it is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形，但should不可省略。
it is time that the children went to bed.
it is high time that the children should go to bed.
16.9 need "不必做"和"本不该做"
didn't need to do表示： 过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做。.
needn't have done表示： 过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了。
john went to the station with the car to meet mary, so she didn't need to walk back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽，所以她不必步行回家了。
john went to the station with the car to meet mary, so she needn't have walked back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽，所以她本不必步行回家了。 (mary步行回家，没有遇上john的车。)
there was plenty of time. she ___.
a. mustn't have hurried b. couldn't have hurried c. must not hurry d. needn't have hurried
答案d。needn't have done. 意为"本不必"，即已经做了某事，而时实际上不必要。
mustn't have done 用法不正确，对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为couldn't have done, "不可能已经"。 must not do 不可以（用于一般现在时）。
如：France lies on the wind-ward side of Europe.
如：Make yourself at home
请别客气！ Don’t be late!
③ 虚拟语气：表示说话人所说的话是一种主观的愿望，假想或建议等。 如：1. We only wish ue wuld help
2. Lf there were no graity （地心引力）we sheul not be able to walk.
3. He suggests that ue shoald all go to see the film.
① eg: If we left now. we shoudd arrite in good limo
② If I uere you, I should refused the money.
③ Euen if he had the money, he wouldn’t buy it.
如：① We should have dmpped the by if we had had tim.
② If they hadn’t gone on vacation, their house souldn’t have been broken into. 注：1. “Were”也可以用来表示与过去事实相反
Eg: If I weren’t busy ,I would haoe gone.
eg: You can imagine（设想）what would have happened to her if she should have
told the truth.
eg: If these sleeplessness （失眠）would have been allowed to go on, she would have collapsed（崩溃）
虚拟语气用在与将来事实相反的条件句中时，条件从句的谓语动词使用动词的过去式形式（be的过去或用were），结果主句用“should / would+V”
如：① If you dropped the glass, if would break.
② What would happen if I put the paper on the fire?
注：1. 在无上下文时，下面的“rained”e 歧意，可能是虚拟语气，也可能是表示过去习惯的直陈语气。
eg：If it rained, we would stay indoors playing cards.
2.在与将来事实相反的条件句中，其条件从句的谓语也可以用“were to +V”.这种虚拟形式比较正式，多用于书面语。
eg：① If he were to come, what would we sag to him?
② If you were to come tomorrow, I might have time to see you.
eg: ①If he should see me, he would know me.
②If we should catch the ringleaders, it would be a remarkable（卓越的）a chieoement（成就）
eg: ①If it should rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the match.
②If he should go away, I shoud be grieoed （悲伤）
eg：If you would be interested, I should be very glad to send you a copy of my
如：① Were you in my position（位置），you would do the same.
（=If you were in my position, you would do the same）
② Had he been in your position, he woald probably have done the same.
（＝If he had been in your position he would probably hace done the same）
③ Should they attack（攻击）us, we would wipe （消灭）them out completely（完全地）
（＝If the should attack us……）
注：在虚拟形式中除了“were / had / should”可移至主语之有以外，“did / would /wuld”等也可移至主语之前构成省略“计”的倒装形式。
如：① If I had spoken to him yesterday , I should know what to do now.
② If father hadn’t sent me , I shouldn’t be here
注：在条件句中如果使用“If I were……”形式，结果主句可以使用表示任何时间的虚拟形式。
eg: If I weren’t busy, I would have come were 用来表示过去。
If I were you, I would go （were用来表示现在）
1.条件句暗含在短语中 withoutgraoity地心引力Wecouldn'tlive如： iftherewerenograoityontheeath条件暗含在介词短语中：without gravity
But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the experiment（实验）
暗含条件是：but for your help
I am really very busy, otherwise（否则）I would certainly go there with you 条件暗含在“other wise……”中
如：I wouldn’t have done it （可能暗含“If I were you”）
I would have bought it （暗含条件是“If I had had the monay”）
eg: I could go on for another two hours
如：If only you would to listen reason 你要是讲理就好了
② If only he were here 他要是在这儿就好了
③ If only I had never married
④ If only I could smash the ground with my fist and make the oil flow
如：① If I hadn’t wonder you, you could have been killed
② I couldn’t be angry with him if I tried
③ May you live a long and happy life
虚拟条件句中的条件句，除了用“if”外，还可以用when /unless/suppose /as if （就像……一样）/ for fear / in case等引出。
如：① The peasants prepared to feed the city
② When it should be freed（解放）
③ Unless I were well I couldn’t be at school
④ Suppos you uere given a choice to study in
America, would you aceept?
虚拟语气除了用在状语从句之外，也可用在主语从句中，虚拟语气的形式应该是“should+V. /shoutd+have+-ed”（在美国英语中should 可省略）, “should”在此是时态助动词，本身无实际意义，这样的主语从句一般由“that”引导，常用在以“it”作为形式主语的“it+is / was+important / necessary / desirable（称心的，直得向往的）/imperative（绝对必要的）/ advisable（可取的，行当的）＋that……句型中 如：① It is important that we should speak politely
② It is imperative that we （should）practise critictsm and self-criticism. ③ It isn’t necessary that everyone be a scientist.
eg：It was important that he made a successful experiment last week.
（1）用于动词“wish”之后，这样的句子常省略that来表示愿望。宾语从句的谓语用过去时，表示与现在事实相反，使用过去完成时，表示与过去事实相反。 如：① I wish I were you （与现在事实相反）
② She wishes she hadn’t said that （与过去事实相反）
③ I wish you would stay a little longer（would表示一种希望或请求）
注：“would rather （宁愿）/sooner”可以代替wish表示愿望来引出虚拟语气。 eg:① I would rather you came tomorrow
② I would sooner she left the hoaoy end of the cork to someone else
（2）用于demand（要求）/ suggest /propose（提议）/ order（命令）/arrange（安排）/insist（坚持）/ command（指挥）/ require / requst（请求）/ desire（希望）等动词的宾语。这种虚拟语气一般由that所引导，谓语动词使用“should+V”（should可省略）
如：① I desire the patient （should）have a bath every day
② He suggested that we （should） leave early
③ The detective insisted that he （should）have a look
④ They require that I （should）go at once
注：1.有些动词如think/expect/believe,其否定形式的宾语，从句也可用“should+V” eg：I never thought he should refused
He dien’t expect that you should come
eg: A few maids were seen waiting in the hall for whon they should be wanted ② 宾语从句也可用“should+be+Ving”
eg: Sometimes she would suggest I should be saving some of the money
eg: Some people suggest that it would be better to start teaching English in kindergarten（幼儿园）
He suggested that we studied English together
如：① I was glad that he should go
② I am ashamed that you should have done such a thing
③ I am sorry that you should have to done
如：① My suggestion is that we should tell him
② Our only request is that these should be settled（解决）as soon as possible.
如：There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team 虚拟语气用于定语从句中
虚拟语气还可以用在宾语从句中，这种从句常常用在“It is me （that）……”句型中，定语从句常用虚拟语气的过去式形式。
如：It is time we left
It is time we went bed
eg: If it rain I shall not go
If I were you, I'd take them away. 如果我是你的话，我就会带走他们。 If I had met Li Hua, I could had told him. 如果我碰见了李华，我就告诉他了。
If I had time, I could come to help you. 如果我有时间，我会来帮助你的。 He suggested that our class should be divided into five groups. 他建议说我们的班应该分成五个小组。
He speaks to us as if he had been there. 他给我们讲的好象他去过那儿。 虚拟(条件)语气中，主句与从句中谓语动词的形式可分为下面四类
1) 虚拟语气用在简单句中，表示祝愿，命令。 May you be happy. 祝你幸福。 May you have a good time. 祝愿你玩的痛快。 May the friendship between us last long. 祝愿我们的友情天长地久。 Have a good journey! 祝愿你旅途愉快！ You go out！ 你出去！
2) 虚拟语气用在宾语从句中。 动词 wish, suggest, order, insist, propose, advice,maintain, suggest (建议),
recommend (推荐), advise (劝告), propose (建议) insist (坚持), consent (允诺) decide (决定), order (命令)request (要求), demand (要求), desire (期望), ask (要求)maintain (主张), urge (催促) “should+动词原形” 等词后面的宾语从句表示的是一种虚拟语气，宾语从句中的动词动作表示的只是一种愿望、要求。
I wish she would be on my side. 我希望她能站在我一边。 I wish I could help him. 我希望我能帮助他。 He insisted that all of us should be there on time by any means. 他坚持要我们大家想尽办法按时去那儿。 动词 demand, suggest, order, insist, propose 后面的从句中，"should" 可以省略。
The teacher suggested that we (should) clean the blackboard after class. 老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。 He ordered that the students wash the clothes every week by themselves. 他要求学生每周都要自己洗衣服。
3) 虚拟语气用在主语从句中。 在句型 "It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... " 中，that 后面的从句中的谓语动词用： should + 动词原形 It's necessary that we should have a walk now. 我们有必要出去散散步。 It's natural that she should do so. 她这样做是很自然的。 It's important that we should take good care of the patient. 重要的是我们要照顾好病人。
4) 虚拟语气用在状语从句中。 虚拟语气最多地用在表示条件的状语从句和表示结果的从句中。在表示与事实相反的虚拟语气时，动词有三种时态形式，即现在、过去和将来。
A．与现在事实相反的： If I (we, you, he, they)+ 动词过去式.. if I (he, she) were... I (we) should + 动词原形。 He (you, they) would + 动词原形。 B．与过去事实相反的： If I(we, you ,he, they)+ had + 过去分词 I(we)should + have+ 过去分词。 He (you, they) would + have + 过去分词。 If I were you, I should buy it. 如果我是你，我就买了它。 If I had time, I would study French. 如果我有时间，我会学习法语的。 If she knew English, she would not ask me for help. 如果她懂英语的话，她不会找我帮忙的。
If you had got up earlier, you could have caught the train. 如果你早一点起床，就会赶上火车的。
If it were fine tomorrow, I would go shopping. 如果明天天气好，我就去买东西。
1) 有时if引导的状语从句可以省略if，而把从句中的动词 were, had 或 should 移到主语前面。 Were she younger, she would do it . 如果她年青点， 她就会干的。 Had he known her address, he would had gone to visit her. 如果他知道她的地址，他会去看她的。
I could help you. 我本来可以帮助你。 If I had time. 我要有时间该多好啊！ She should have come to the party. 她应该来参加聚会。 If he had much more money. 如果他有更多的钱就能...。
3) 虚拟语气中，条件从句的动词动作可以和主句的动词动作时态不一致。 If they had studied hard, they could do it easily now. 如果他们以前努力学习的话，现在干的就会容易些。 If he had not taken my advice, he wouldn't do it much better like this. 如果他不听取我的建议，他就不会干得这样好。
1. I suggest that we (should 可省略,下同) start the meeting at once.
(suggest, should + start) (表示建议立即开会)
2. The doctor suggested that he (should ) try to lose his weight.
(suggested, should + try) (表示建议你应该减肥喔)
3. He insisted that all of us (should) be there on time by any mains.
(insisted, should + be) (表示坚持,无论如何都要准时到那儿。你再讲也没用哩！)
4. He insisted that we (should) tell him the news.(insisted, should + tell) (表示非要你告诉他不可)
5. He ordered that the students (should) wash the clothes every week by
themselves. (ordered, should + wash) (表示命令学生们每周自己洗衣服)
1. 用在与without, but for, but, otherwise短语连用的句型中：
The ship would have sunk with all on board but for efforts of the captain.
The rescue arrived in time, otherwise They would have been frozen to death.
2. 用在It’s time 句型中：It’s time that 主语+动词过去式„„
It’s time that I went to school and picked up my daughter.
3. 在句型…as if /though+主语+动词过去式/were/had done„„
He looked at me as if I were mad .
“I wish people would find out the facts,” she says, “ and not act as if I were a bad or dangerous person.”
It looks as if it’s going to rain.
4. 用在If only 句型中：表示：要是„„该多好啊！
（1）If only you hadn’t told Jackie what I said, everything would have been all
（2）If only you would listen to reason.
2009-06-27 22:31:41| 分类： 英语语法
If I were you, I should(would ,could, might)tell him the truth.
If she had time, she would(could, might)help
If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I should(would,
could, might)have telephoned
If you had taken my advice, you wouldn’t(couldn’t) have failed
in the exam.如果你听了我的建议，你就不会考试不及格。（事实上你根本没听我的。）
If it should rain, the crops would(could, might)be saved.
注：在表示与将来事实可能相反的条件从句中，were to + 动词原形比较正式，常用于书面语中。
If you were to go to Beijing, you would (could, might) have a
chance to visit Tian An Men Square.
在“It is important (strange, natural, necessary)
“(should)+动词原形”结构，表示某事是“重要”，“奇怪”，“自然”，“必要”等意义。如：It is important that
every Beijinger (should) be able to speak English.
It is necessary that he (should) be sent to hospital at once.
I wish I knew the answer to the question.
I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year
around.但愿我的家乡四季如春。（只是愿望，实际根本不可能实现。） b.表示对过去情况的虚拟：从句动词用 had+过去分词。如：
I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.
He wishes (wished) he hadn’t lost the chance.
I wish it would stop raining.但愿雨能停止。
I wish you would be quiet.我希望你安静一些。
（2）在suggest（建议）, demand(要求), order(命令), propose(建议), insist（坚持要做）,
command(命令), request(要求), desire(希望)等动词后的宾语从句中，谓语动词用
I suggest that we (should) start the meeting at once.我建议马上开会。 The undergraduate insisted that he (should) go to work in the
His silence suggested that he agreed with my
He suggested that I (should) stick to my decision.他建议我坚持自己的决定。 He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people’s
He insists that he (should) do morning exercises every
当主语为advice, suggestion, order,
My advice is that you should practise speaking English as often
The order from the commander was that the troops should set off
for the front immediately.司令官的命令是部队立即开拔去前线。
由as if 或as
The teacher treats the student as if he were her own child.
He speaks as if he had been to the United States.他说得好象他真的到过美国似的。
（2）在It is time (that) …; I’d rather
It is time that we did something to stop
It is time that Father picked up Lily from the
I’d rather you told me the truth.我真希望你告诉我真相。
I’d rather I didn’t see you again.我宁愿不再见着你。
在名词advice, suggestion, order, proposal等后接的同位语从句中，谓语动词用虚拟语气，起形式为
“(should)+动词原形”，说明“建议”，“劝告”，“命令”等的具体内容。如： The order came that the work should be finished two days ahead of
Reluctantly she accepted their proposal that she should be operated
If you had followed my advice, you would be able to finish the work
If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party.
如果我是你，我就去参加她的生日晚会了。（从句说明现在，主句说明过去。） If you hadn’t lent me some money, I couldn’t have bought the new
house and most likely I would be still living in the dangerous house
(1)W hat would I have done without you?
(2) It would be easier to do it this way.
这样做会比较容易。(条件暗含在不定式短语to do it this way中)
(3) This same thing, happening in wartime, would lead to a
同样的事，如发生在战时，就会酿成大祸。(条件暗含在分词短语happening in wartime中)
(4) But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the
如果没有你的帮助，我们的实验是不会成功。 (暗含条件是but for your help)
(5) He must have the strength of a hippopotamus, or he never
could have vanquished that
(6) Alone, he would have been terrified.
Had I seen the film, I would have discussed it with them last
Were I a bird, I could fly freely. 假如我是一只小鸟，我就能自由翱翔。 Should it rain next week the farmers would have a good harvest.