如：France lies on the wind-ward side of Europe.
如：Make yourself at home
请别客气！ Don’t be late!
③ 虚拟语气：表示说话人所说的话是一种主观的愿望，假想或建议等。 如：1. We only wish ue wuld help
2. Lf there were no graity （地心引力）we sheul not be able to walk.
3. He suggests that ue shoald all go to see the film.
① eg: If we left now. we shoudd arrite in good limo
② If I uere you, I should refused the money.
③ Euen if he had the money, he wouldn’t buy it.
如：① We should have dmpped the by if we had had tim.
② If they hadn’t gone on vacation, their house souldn’t have been broken into. 注：1. “Were”也可以用来表示与过去事实相反
Eg: If I weren’t busy ,I would haoe gone.
eg: You can imagine（设想）what would have happened to her if she should have
told the truth.
eg: If these sleeplessness （失眠）would have been allowed to go on, she would have collapsed（崩溃）
虚拟语气用在与将来事实相反的条件句中时，条件从句的谓语动词使用动词的过去式形式（be的过去或用were），结果主句用“should / would+V”
如：① If you dropped the glass, if would break.
② What would happen if I put the paper on the fire?
注：1. 在无上下文时，下面的“rained”e 歧意，可能是虚拟语气，也可能是表示过去习惯的直陈语气。
eg：If it rained, we would stay indoors playing cards.
2.在与将来事实相反的条件句中，其条件从句的谓语也可以用“were to +V”.这种虚拟形式比较正式，多用于书面语。
eg：① If he were to come, what would we sag to him?
② If you were to come tomorrow, I might have time to see you.
eg: ①If he should see me, he would know me.
②If we should catch the ringleaders, it would be a remarkable（卓越的）a chieoement（成就）
eg: ①If it should rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the match.
②If he should go away, I shoud be grieoed （悲伤）
eg：If you would be interested, I should be very glad to send you a copy of my
如：① Were you in my position（位置），you would do the same.
（=If you were in my position, you would do the same）
② Had he been in your position, he woald probably have done the same.
（＝If he had been in your position he would probably hace done the same）
③ Should they attack（攻击）us, we would wipe （消灭）them out completely（完全地）
（＝If the should attack us……）
注：在虚拟形式中除了“were / had / should”可移至主语之有以外，“did / would /wuld”等也可移至主语之前构成省略“计”的倒装形式。
如：① If I had spoken to him yesterday , I should know what to do now.
② If father hadn’t sent me , I shouldn’t be here
注：在条件句中如果使用“If I were……”形式，结果主句可以使用表示任何时间的虚拟形式。
eg: If I weren’t busy, I would have come were 用来表示过去。
If I were you, I would go （were用来表示现在）
1.条件句暗含在短语中 withoutgraoity地心引力Wecouldn'tlive如： iftherewerenograoityontheeath条件暗含在介词短语中：without gravity
But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the experiment（实验）
暗含条件是：but for your help
I am really very busy, otherwise（否则）I would certainly go there with you 条件暗含在“other wise……”中
如：I wouldn’t have done it （可能暗含“If I were you”）
I would have bought it （暗含条件是“If I had had the monay”）
eg: I could go on for another two hours
如：If only you would to listen reason 你要是讲理就好了
② If only he were here 他要是在这儿就好了
③ If only I had never married
④ If only I could smash the ground with my fist and make the oil flow
如：① If I hadn’t wonder you, you could have been killed
② I couldn’t be angry with him if I tried
③ May you live a long and happy life
虚拟条件句中的条件句，除了用“if”外，还可以用when /unless/suppose /as if （就像……一样）/ for fear / in case等引出。
如：① The peasants prepared to feed the city
② When it should be freed（解放）
③ Unless I were well I couldn’t be at school
④ Suppos you uere given a choice to study in
America, would you aceept?
虚拟语气除了用在状语从句之外，也可用在主语从句中，虚拟语气的形式应该是“should+V. /shoutd+have+-ed”（在美国英语中should 可省略）, “should”在此是时态助动词，本身无实际意义，这样的主语从句一般由“that”引导，常用在以“it”作为形式主语的“it+is / was+important / necessary / desirable（称心的，直得向往的）/imperative（绝对必要的）/ advisable（可取的，行当的）＋that……句型中 如：① It is important that we should speak politely
② It is imperative that we （should）practise critictsm and self-criticism. ③ It isn’t necessary that everyone be a scientist.
eg：It was important that he made a successful experiment last week.
（1）用于动词“wish”之后，这样的句子常省略that来表示愿望。宾语从句的谓语用过去时，表示与现在事实相反，使用过去完成时，表示与过去事实相反。 如：① I wish I were you （与现在事实相反）
② She wishes she hadn’t said that （与过去事实相反）
③ I wish you would stay a little longer（would表示一种希望或请求）
注：“would rather （宁愿）/sooner”可以代替wish表示愿望来引出虚拟语气。 eg:① I would rather you came tomorrow
② I would sooner she left the hoaoy end of the cork to someone else
（2）用于demand（要求）/ suggest /propose（提议）/ order（命令）/arrange（安排）/insist（坚持）/ command（指挥）/ require / requst（请求）/ desire（希望）等动词的宾语。这种虚拟语气一般由that所引导，谓语动词使用“should+V”（should可省略）
如：① I desire the patient （should）have a bath every day
② He suggested that we （should） leave early
虚拟语气的语法>③ The detective insisted that he （should）have a look
④ They require that I （should）go at once
注：1.有些动词如think/expect/believe,其否定形式的宾语，从句也可用“should+V” eg：I never thought he should refused
He dien’t expect that you should come
eg: A few maids were seen waiting in the hall for whon they should be wanted ② 宾语从句也可用“should+be+Ving”
eg: Sometimes she would suggest I should be saving some of the money
eg: Some people suggest that it would be better to start teaching English in kindergarten（幼儿园）
He suggested that we studied English together
如：① I was glad that he should go
② I am ashamed that you should have done such a thing
③ I am sorry that you should have to done
如：① My suggestion is that we should tell him
② Our only request is that these should be settled（解决）as soon as possible.
如：There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team 虚拟语气用于定语从句中
虚拟语气还可以用在宾语从句中，这种从句常常用在“It is me （that）……”句型中，定语从句常用虚拟语气的过去式形式。
如：It is time we left
It is time we went bed
eg: If it rain I shall not go
2009-06-27 22:31:41| 分类： 英语语法
If I were you, I should(would ,could, might)tell him the truth.
If she had time, she would(could, might)help
If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I should(would,
could, might)have telephoned
If you had taken my advice, you wouldn’t(couldn’t) have failed
in the exam.如果你听了我的建议，你就不会考试不及格。（事实上你根本没听我的。）
If it should rain, the crops would(could, might)be saved.
注：在表示与将来事实可能相反的条件从句中，were to + 动词原形比较正式，常用于书面语中。
If you were to go to Beijing, you would (could, might) have a
chance to visit Tian An Men Square.
在“It is important (strange, natural, necessary)
“(should)+动词原形”结构，表示某事是“重要”，“奇怪”，“自然”，“必要”等意义。如：It is important that
every Beijinger (should) be able to speak English.
It is necessary that he (should) be sent to hospital at once.
I wish I knew the answer to the question.
I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year
around.但愿我的家乡四季如春。（只是愿望，实际根本不可能实现。） b.表示对过去情况的虚拟：从句动词用 had+过去分词。如：
I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.
He wishes (wished) he hadn’t lost the chance.
I wish it would stop raining.但愿雨能停止。
I wish you would be quiet.我希望你安静一些。
（2）在suggest（建议）, demand(要求), order(命令), propose(建议), insist（坚持要做）,
command(命令), request(要求), desire(希望)等动词后的宾语从句中，谓语动词用
I suggest that we (should) start the meeting at once.我建议马上开会。 The undergraduate insisted that he (should) go to work in the
His silence suggested that he agreed with my
He suggested that I (should) stick to my decision.他建议我坚持自己的决定。 He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people’s
He insists that he (should) do morning exercises every
当主语为advice, suggestion, order,
My advice is that you should practise speaking English as often
The order from the commander was that the troops should set off
for the front immediately.司令官的命令是部队立即开拔去前线。
由as if 或as
The teacher treats the student as if he were her own child.
He speaks as if he had been to the United States.他说得好象他真的到过美国似的。
（2）在It is time (that) …; I’d rather
It is time that we did something to stop
It is time that Father picked up Lily from the
I’d rather you told me the truth.我真希望你告诉我真相。
I’d rather I didn’t see you again.我宁愿不再见着你。
在名词advice, suggestion, order, proposal等后接的同位语从句中，谓语动词用虚拟语气，起形式为
“(should)+动词原形”，说明“建议”，“劝告”，“命令”等的具体内容。如： The order came that the work should be finished two days ahead of
Reluctantly she accepted their proposal that she should be operated
If you had followed my advice, you would be able to finish the work
If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party.
如果我是你，我就去参加她的生日晚会了。（从句说明现在，主句说明过去。） If you hadn’t lent me some money, I couldn’t have bought the new
house and most likely I would be still living in语法13虚拟语气 the dangerous house
(1)W hat would I have done without you?
(2) It would be easier to do it this way.
这样做会比较容易。(条件暗含在不定式短语to do it this way中)
(3) This same thing, happening in wartime, would lead to a
同样的事，如发生在战时，就会酿成大祸。(条件暗含在分词短语happening in wartime中)
(4) But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the
如果没有你的帮助，我们的实验是不会成功。 (暗含条件是but for your help)
(5) He must have the strength of a hippopotamus, or he never
could have vanquished that
(6) Alone, he would have been terrified.
Had I seen the film, I would have discussed it with them last
Were I a bird, I could fly freely. 假如我是一只小鸟，我就能自由翱翔。 Should it rain next week the farmers would have a good harvest.
真实条件句用于陈述语气，假设的情况可能发生，其中 if 是如果的意思。
句型： 条件从句 主句
一般现在时 shall/will + 动词原形
if he comes, he will bring his violin.
the volleyball match will be put off if it ___.
a. will rain b. rains c. rained d. is rained
1） 在真实条件句中，主句不能用be going to表示将来，该用shall, will.
(错) if you leave now, you are never going to regret it.
(对) if you leave now, you will never regret it.
2） 表示真理时，主句谓语动词便不用shall (will) +动词原形，而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。
句型 ： 条件从句 主句
一般过去时 should( would) +动词原形
if they were here, they would help you.
句型： 条件从句 主句
过去完成时 should(would) have+ 过去分词
if she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.
the rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful.
if my lawyer had been here last saturday, he would have prevented me from going.
if he had come yesterday, i should / would have told him about it.
含义：he did not come yesterday, so i did not tell him about it.
if he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress.
含义： he was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress.
句型： 条件从句 主句
一般过去时 should+ 动词原形
were+ 不定式 would + 动词原形
if you succeeded, everything would be all right.
if you should succeed, everything would be all right.
if you were to succeed, everything would be all right.
if you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now.
if it had rained last night (过去), it would be very cold today (现在).
虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有were, should, 或had, 可将if省略，再把were, should或had 移到从句句首，实行倒装。
were they here now, they could help us.
=if they were here now, they could help us.
had you come earlier, you would have met him
=if you had come earlier, you would have met him.
should it rain, the crops would be saved.
=were it to rain, the crops would be saved.
if i were you, i would go to look for him.
if he were here, everything would be all right.
_____ to do the work, i should do it some other day.
a. if were i b. i were c. were i d. was i
答案c. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词，通常将if省略，主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意，在虚拟条件状语从句中，省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说 were i not to do., 而不能说 weren't i to do.
1） it is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用should 加动词原形， should 可省略。
it is (2)important that…+ (should) do
(3) a pity
(1)suggested, ordered, proposed, required, demanded, requested, insisted； + (should) do
(2)important, necessary, natural, strange
a pity, a shame, no wonder
(3)it is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
it is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.
order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do
i suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
he insisted that he (should ) be sent there.
注意： 如suggest, insist不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时"，即它们用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时，宾语从句用陈述语气。
the guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules.
（错） you pale face suggests that you (should) be ill.
(对) your pale face suggests that you are ill.
(错) i insisted that you ( should) be wrong.
(对) i insisted that you were wrong.
在suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气，即（should）+动词原形。
my idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.
i make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
从句动作先于主句动词动作 现在时 过去时
从句动作与主句动作同时发生 过去时 过去完成时
（had + 过去分词）
将来不大可能实现的愿望 将来时 would/could +
i wish i were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。
he wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他没讲那样的话。
i wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。
2）wish to do表达法。
wish sb / sth to do
i wish to see the manager. = i want to see the manager.
i wish the manager t语法--虚拟语气o be informed at once. (= i want the manager to be informed at once.)
16.7 比较if only与only if
only if表示"只有"；if only则表示"如果……就好了"。if only也可用于陈述语气。
i wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了，我才会醒。
if only the alarm clock had rung. 当时闹钟响了，就好了。
if only he comes early. 但愿他早点回来。
16.8 it is (high) time that
it is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形，但should不可省略。
it is time that the children went to bed.
it is high time that the children should go to bed.
16.9 need "不必做"和"本不该做"
didn't need to do表示： 过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做。.
needn't have done表示： 过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了。
john went to the station with the car to meet mary, so she didn't need to walk back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽，所以她不必步行回家了。
john went to the station with the car to meet mary, so she needn't have walked back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽，所以她本不必步行回家了。 (mary步行回家，没有遇上john的车。)
there was plenty of time. she ___.
a. mustn't have hurried b. couldn't have hurried c. must not hurry d. needn't have hurried
答案d。needn't have done. 意为"本不必"，即已经做了某事，而时实际上不必要。
mustn't have done 用法不正确，对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为couldn't have done, "不可能已经"。 must not do 不可以（用于一般现在时）。
I would like you to answer this question. （我想请你来回答这个问题。）
这里的would like to （想），就是虚拟语气，相当于want to：
Would you mind my smoking here?（我在这里抽烟你不介意吧？）
It might a good idea to wait and see.（观望或许是个好主意。）
Could you tell me where the post office is?（能告诉我邮局怎么走吗？）
You'd better bring an umbrella with you; it's thundering. （你最好带上雨伞；天在打雷。）
I'd rather stay at home in such bad weather.（这种恶劣天气我宁可呆在家里。）
If only there had been a doctor at the moment. （当时有个医生就好了。- 实际情况是当时没有医生）
第一类：should 型虚拟式 第二类：were 型虚拟式
1.should 型虚拟式：should + 原形动词（往往省去should, 特别是在考试时）
（1） It is necessary that…的主语从句中，如：
It is necessary that the chief should be present personally at the meeting.（主任有必要亲自参加这次会议。）
essential （必要的） / important（重要的） / necessary（必要的） / imperative（迫切的）/ impossible（不可能的）/ natural（自然的）/ preferable（更好的）/ advisable（合理的）/ desirable（理想的）/ urgent（紧迫的）/ incredible（难以想象的）
（2） order （命令） / recommend（推荐）/ suggest（建议）/ demand（要求） / command（命令）/ propose（建议）/ require（要求）/ request（请求） / insist（坚持认为）/ urge（主张） / advise（劝告）/ ask（要求）/ prefer（宁愿）/ desire（愿望）/ move（提议）/ vote（提议）
It was ordered that the medicines （should） be sent there by plane at once. （主语从句）
The order was that the medicines （should） be sent there by plane at once.（表语从句）
The chief ordered that the medicines （should） be sent there by plane at once.（宾语从句）
The order that the medicines （should） be sent there by plane at once was sent to the branch office.（同位语从句）
（3） 在 in case / lest = for fear that（以免… / 以防…）结构中，例如：
He took a raincoat with him in case it should rain （或用真实语气：…in case it rained）
She put a wool blanket over the child for fear that （lest） he should catch a cold. （她把一条毛毯盖在孩子身上，以防他感冒。）
就解题而言，考生要注意：1）A的位置往往安排干扰项，如使用must, may, might, could等类词进行干扰；2）句中往往省去should, 直接用否定词not + 原形动词的形式，以"迷惑"考生，例如：
The housemaster（男舍监）was very strict.He asked that we ______ television on week nights.
A. must not watch
B. not watch
C. should not have watched
D. not be watching
（4）在it is surprising, disappointing, a pity, a shame, no wonder, simply a miracle + 从句的结构中，表示惊讶、高兴或遗憾，例如：
It is surprising that she should look so miserable. （真是奇怪，她竟看上去如此不高兴。）
It is a great pity that you should miss such a good film. （你要是错过了这样好的电影那真是遗憾。）
真实条件句是指真实的或可以实现的条件句，例如：If we work together, we are sure to finish the task in time. （如果我们大家一起努力，就一定能按时完成任务），动词使用的是真实的时态和形式。
非真实条件句是指对已经发生过的事情，或对不可能发生或实现的事进行假设，例如："如果当时有医生在，这个孩子就有可能得救了"，显然，这是对已发生的事情的一种假设，该句的英语表达为：If there had been a doctor available, the child might have been saved.
if条件句：had done / had been
结果句：would have done / been
If there had been a doctor available, the child might have been saved.
倒装：Had there been a doctor available, the child might have been saved
if条件句：did / be动词用were
结果句： would do （be）
If I were you, I would accept his offer. （如果我是你的话，我就接受他的提议。）
倒装：Were I you, I would accept his offer.
If I knew the fact, I would tell you. （我要是知道，我就会告诉你）
should do （be） / were to
结果句：would do （be）
If it should rain tomorrow, we would stay at home. （一旦明天下雨，我们就呆在家里。）
倒装：Should it rain tomorrow, we would stay at home.
If he were to come this evening, I would ask him to help solve the problem. （要是他晚上会来，我就请他帮助解决这个问题。）
倒装：Were he to come this evening, I would ask him to help solve the problem.
（A） 当 "if "省略后，要采用倒装形式，如举例所示；
If I were you, I would have taken his advice. （要是换了我，我就采纳他的意见了。）
（C） 结果句中的would 可以根据内容需要，使用might, could或should，例如：If she had known that you were there, she might have come.（要是她知道你在哪儿，她或许会来的。）但是"将来"虚拟式条件句中的should是将来时的"标志词"，不能用would代替，不要搞错了。
（D） 关于含蓄虚拟式：含蓄虚拟式是指虚拟的条件用一种比较含蓄的方式加以表达的虚拟语气，如："我昨天很忙，要不就来参加你的生日派对了".其中的"我很忙"是真实情况，"要不就来参加你的生日派对了"则是虚拟的：I was very busy yesterday, or I would have come to your birthday party.
所以，注意句子中出现的：but, or（否则）, otherwise（否则）, without（要不是）,with（要是有），but that（要不是）, but for（要不是）, if it were not for / 过去：if it had not been for（要不是 ） 等用来引出含蓄虚拟式的词或短语，例如：But for （或without） your cooperation, we would not have completed the experiment so smoothly.（要不是你们的合作，我们不可能那样顺利地完成这个实验。）
（2） were型虚拟式的其他用法 （同样要遵守"过去、现在、将来"的虚拟规则）：
I wish that he had not made so much fuss about it.（真希望他不要把那事搞大了。- 过去）
I wish that I were a doctor. （我希望我是个医生就好了。- 现在）
（注：这个句型中也可以用I wish that I was a doctor.）
I wish that the rain would stop. （真希望雨能停下来。将来）
If only you hadn't offended him. （你当时不惹他就好了。- 过去）
If only I had some money on hand now. （我现在手头有些钱就好了。-现在）
If only he could come tomorrow. （他明天能来有多好啊。-将来）
●It is （about / high） time that….（是…的时候了）
It is high time （that） we began to work. （咱们该开始工作了。）
●As if （though）…（似乎…）
She loves the children in the kindergarten as if they were her own. （她象自己孩子一样热爱幼儿园的孩子门。 - 现在）
He talked about China as if he had been there. （他谈起中国来好象去过那里。）
It looks as if it is going to rain.（看来天要下雨。- 陈述语气）
●Would （had） rather, would just as soon, would sooner, would prefer + 从句结构
I'd rather she stayed at home in such a bad health condition. （她身体这么差，我倒希望你呆在家里。- 现在）
I would just as soon you had returned him the money yesterday. （你还不如昨天就把钱还给他了。- 过去）
I would prefer he didn't stay there too long. （我倒不希望他不要在那儿呆得时间太长。）
I would prefer that she act the young lady. （我倒认为她演哪个年轻女子比较合适。- 表示建议，用 "should型虚拟式"）
can / may / should / ought to / must / need等动词称为情态动词。情态动词有三大特征：一是无人称和数的变化，二是后面跟的动词不带"to"，三是后面 + not构成否定式，比较：
He needn't go there so early. （他不需要去那么早。- 情态动词）
You do not need to be an expert to make this simple design. （这么简单的设计不一定非要专家来做。- 动作动词）
He must be a doctor. （他准是个医生。）
否定：He can't be a doctor. （他不会是个医生。- 注意：一般不用must' be ）
又如：They can't be working now.（现在他们不可能在工作。）
May I go now?
回答：Yes, please. / Please don't. （或：No, you mustn't）
have to 与 must
1） 当强调"外界原因"时，2）当与"将来时"结合时，用have to，
Since it is raining, we have to sty indoors.
You will have职称英语语法――虚拟语气 to hurry if you want to catch the 9:30 train. （你要是赶9:30的火车，得赶紧。）
All men must die. （人固有一死。）
can 与be able to
can表示能力，但不一定做了或做成了；be able to 表示有能力并且做成了，相当于succeed in doing, 例如：
The patient is able to walk now. （说明病人原来是丧失了走的能力的，现在自己能走了）
The patient can walk now. （可能的情况是，病人是能走的，但医生不让他走，如急性心梗后医生不让病人走动。）
Shall I / we（第一人称）…? 表示征求对方意见；（第二、三人称） + shall…表示"允诺"或"警告，例如：
Shall I fetch a doctor for you? （要我为你请个医生来吗？）
You shall be sorry for what you have done. （你会为你所做的事后悔的。）
Will you….? 表示请求， 例如：
Don't' be late for the meeting next time, will you? （下次开会别迟到了，好吗？）
比较：I would remind you that smoking is forbidden here. （表示"婉转的建议或请求"：我想提醒你，这里不能抽烟。）
You needn't see him, but I must. （你不必去看他，但我得去。）
cannot but + 原形动词（意思相当于have to）， 例如：
I cannot but tell you the truth. （我不得不给你说实话。）
情态动词的一般式用于表达"现在"或"将来"的情况，而情态动词的完成式则用来表达"已经发生的事情"，例如："你不应该来得那么晚。"这是对已经发生的事情（你来晚了）表示自己的看法：You shouldn't have come so late.
must （not） have done
It must have rained last night; the ground is wet.（昨晚准是下雨了，地上湿漉漉的。）
should （not） have done / ought （not） to have done
The baby was cut badly; she shouldn't （oughtn't to） have let him play with the scissors. （孩子伤得很厉害；她不该让他玩剪刀。）
may / can （not） have done
She may have known the news; she is crying. （她可能已经知道那个消息了；她在哭。）
need （not） have done
You needn't have bought that dictionary; I have got a spare one. （你实际上没有必要买那本字典；我有一本多余的。）
由于在没有情景的情况下很难区分情态动词一般式和完成式，例如"你不该去"，究竟是You shouldn't go there. 还是 You shouldn't have gone there, 因此考试的时候往往会给出情景，这对判题非常重要，如上面表格例子中的"the ground is wet"，"the baby was cut badly"，"she is crying", 都是题目所给的情景。
I wouldn’t have known what these were for if I hadn’t been told.
If you were to see Jane, what would you tell her?
This kind of world is hard and dangerous. But if you should succeed, you would become rich.
Were I to meet him tomorrow (=If I were to meet him tomorrow), I should ask him about it.
Had I had the money last year (=If I had had the money last year), I would have bought the house.
If I were you, I would have taken his advice.
If her husband had not been killed in the war, she would not be helping others with the housework now.
4．用介词短语或其他方式表示含蓄的虚拟条件：without, but for, but that, otherwise, or, but eg. Under such circumstances I would probably have done the same.
Without your help (=If we had not had your help), we could not have succeeded.
But for electricity (=If there were no electricity), there would be no modern industry.
He felt very tired yesterday, or (otherwise) he would have helped you.
I ought to have remembered to tell them the decision this morning, but I was so busy that I forgot to do so. But that he was short of money (=If he had not been short of money), he would have bought it for his wife.
This same thing, happening in wartime, (=If the same thing happened in wartime, it) would amount to disaster. Any man in his position would have done like that.
You should (ought to) have returned the book earlier.
5．“If it were (had been) not for….”：要不是…… eg. If it were not for peace, we could not be living a
happy life today. If it had not been for your advice, I would not have accepted the job.
用被动语态的主语从句中；以及③使用这些动词演变而来的名词的表语从句和同位语从句中：ask, advise, determine, decide, command, insist, intend, move, prefer, propose, order, recommend, request, require, suggest, urge, demand, desire, direct… eg.
The general directed that the troops (should) attack. They moved that all civilians should be evacuated. It was suggested that he should join the club activities.
The proposal that he be invited was rejected. Her suggestion is that we (should) give up the plan. 但：Are you suggesting that I am not suited for the job? He insisted that he was innocent. （不是上述意思）
7．It is + 形容词或过去分词 + 主语从句（谓语动词：should+动词原形）：appropriate, advisable, better,
desirable, essential, imperative, important, insistent, natural, necessary, preferable, strange, urgent, vital （这些形容词的句式也可改为it作形式宾语，形容词后的宾语从句中使用虚拟语气） eg. It is imperative that you (should) take the medicine. It is essential that we (should) win the voters’ hearts. We think it advisable that he (should) think deeply before acting.
I consider it imperative that a meeting (should) be held immediately.
8．某些动词后的宾语从句中使用虚拟语气：expect, believe, think, suspect (否定句或疑问句), wish eg.: I never thought that he should be such a brave young soldier.
We didn’t expect that the problem should have been solved that way.
I wish I could have seen her last night. I wish I were a bird.
9．动词be, intend, mean, plan, want, hope等句中（had hoped表示过去未完成的愿望，意为“想要，希
望”，从句中使用“would + 动词原形”） eg.:
I intended to have told him the matter, but I forgot. I was to have come yesterday, but I couldn’t. She had meant to see you last week, but she was ill. We had hoped that you would stay for some time.
10．would rather, would sooner, would just as soon; in case, lest, for fear that; as if, as though; had hoped
后从句中使用虚拟语气。 eg.: I’d rather we didn’t go to see the film this evening.
I’d just as soon you had returned the book yesterday. He took his raincoat with him in case it should rain. He handled the instrument with care for fear that it (should) be damaged.
She always talks to me as if she were my sister. They talked as if they had been friends for years.
但：She looks as if she is going to cry. It seems as if we’ll have to walk home. （系动词后用陈述语气）
11．在It is (high/ about) time that…句型中和if only（要是，但愿）引起的感叹句中。eg.:
It is time (that) we went home. It is time that the buy (should) go to school.
If only he were here! If only she had not been ill last week.
注：If only I had more money, I could buy a car.
1. He didn’t go to the party, but he doe swish he ________ there.
A. had been B. has been C. would have been D. would be
2. We desire that the tour leader _________ us immediately of any danger in plans.
A. inform B. informs C. informed D. has informed
3. I’d rather you ________ those important documents with you.
A. don’t take B. won’t take C. didn’t take D. not take
4. It was essential that the application forms _________ back before the deadline.
A. must be sent B. would be sent C. be sent D. were sent
5. It’s time _________ about the traffic problem downtown.
A. something was done B. everything is done C. anything will be done D. nothing to be done
6. My cat wouldn’t have bitten the toy fish _________ it was made of rubber.
A. if she has known B. she should have known C. if she knows D. had she known
7. If places ________ alike, there would be little need for geographers.
A. being B. are C. be D. were
8. Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I _______ your advice.
A. follow B. had followed C. would follow D. have followed
9. But for the help of my teachers, I _________ such progress.
A. hadn’t made B. couldn’t make C. haven’t made D. couldn’t have made
10. My order is that nobody _________ here later than 8:00 tomorrow morning.
A. get B. will get C. is to get D. gets
11. ________ before we depart the day after tomorrow, we should have a wonderful dinner party.
A. Had they arrived B. Would they arrive C. Were they arriving D. Were they to arrive
12. Had he worker harder, he _________ through the exams.
A. must have got B. would have got C. would get D. could get
13. Sometimes I wish I _________ in a different time and a英语语法：虚拟语气 different place.
A. be living B. were living C. would live D. would have lived
14. I don’t think it advisable that Tom _________ to the job since he has no experience.
A. is assigned B. will be assigned C. be assigned D. has been assigned
15. You _________ him so closely; you should have kept your distance.
A. shouldn’t follow B. couldn’t have been following
C. mustn’t follow D. shouldn’t have been following
16. He was punished _________ he should make the same mistake again.
A. unless B. lest C. if D. provided
17. The millions of calculations involved, had they been done by hand, _______ all practical value by the tiem
they were finished.
A. had lost B. would lose C. would have lost D. should have lost
18. _________ today, he would get there by Friday.
A. Would he leave B. Were he to leave C. Was he leaving D. If he leaves
19. Your examination results were quite satisfactory, but __________ if you had spent less time in playing
A. wouldn’t they be better B. won’t they be better
C. wouldn’t they have been better D. won’t they have been better
20. He talks as if he ________ there.
A. were really B. had really been C. has really been D. would really be
21. Tom might have come to school in time for the lecture __________.
A. if he got up earlier B. unless he had got up earlier
C. but he got up rather late D. but he had gotten up late
虚拟语气（the subjunctive mood），又称假设语气，是谓语动词的一种形式，表示说话人叙述的内容与事实相反，在现实中并不存在，或实现的可能性很小。
陈述语气一般用来叙述事实或就事实提出询问，主要用于陈述句、疑问句和某些感叹句。 Where there is a will, there's a way. 有志者事竟成。
Can you help me carry the box upstairs 你能帮我把箱子搬到楼上吗？
How I missed the life in the countryside! 我多么想念乡村的生活啊！
Come this way, please! 请这边走。
Don't make any noise, will you 别吵，行吗？
Do be careful when crossing the street. 过马路时一定要小心。
虚拟语气表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实，而是说话人的主观愿望、假设或推测等。 If I were a bird, I could fly in the air. 如果我是一只小鸟，我就能在空中飞行。
I wish it were spring all the year round. 但愿四季如春。
May good luck be yours! 祝你好运！
真实条件句表示的假设是可能发生或实现的，主句和从句的谓语动词都要用陈述语气。 If he doesn't come at 8, we won't wait for him. 如果他八点不来，我们就不等他了。
If a flood happened in the past, there was usually a great loss of life and property. 过去发生洪水的话，常有很大的生命和财产损失。
We shall go there unless it rains tomorrow. 如果明天不下雨，我们将去那里。
I'll let you use my bike on condition that you keep it clean. 如果你能保持车子干净，我就让你用我的自行车。
与现在事实相反 if条件句的谓语：were did
主句的谓：would (couldshouldmight) + do
与过去事实相反 if条件句的谓语：had done
主句的谓：would(couldshouldmight) + have done
主句的谓：should do would (couldshouldmight) + do were to do
条件从句用动词的过去式（be动词用were），主句用should（第一人称）或would（全部人称）+动词原形。可用情态动词could, might代替should, would表示情态。
If it were Sunday tomorrow, I would go and see my friends. 明天要是星期天的话，我就去看望我的朋友。
If I were you, I should go and try. 我要是你，我就去试试。
If wishes were horses, beggars might ride.
would go if they treated me like a slave. 要是他们把我当奴隶对待，我就走。
条件从句用动词的过去完成时，主句用should（第一人称）或would（全部人称）+have done，也可用could, might代替should, would。
If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I would have telephoned you. 如果昨天我知道你的电话号码，我就给你打电话了。
If it had not rained this morning, I should have gone shopping. 今天早上要是没下雨，我就去买东西了。
The flood might have caused great damages to the people if we had not built so many reservoirs. 倘若我们没有修建这么多的水库，洪水就会使人民遭受巨大的损失。
条件从句用动词的过去式（be动词用were），主句用should（第一人称）或would（全部人称）+动词原形。也可用could, might代替should, would。
If he were here tomorrow, I would speak to him. 明天如果他在这里的话，我就和他谈谈。 If you dropped the glass, it would break. 你要是把杯子掉下来，会打碎的。
If she had time, she could help me. 她要是有时间，就会帮我了。
② should do
If it should rain, the crops could be saved. 假如下雨，庄稼可能就有救了。
We would trust him if he should be honest. 如果他真是诚实的，那我们就相信他。 ③ were to do
条件从句用were + to do。这种形式比较正式，常出现在书面语中，其假设成份很大，实现的可能性很小。
If I were to do the work, I should do it in a different way. 要是我做这项工作，我就会以不同的方式去做。
If the headmaster were to come, what would we say to him 假如校长来了，我们对他说什么呢？
If it snowed tomorrow, I would stay at home. 如果明天下雪的话，我就留在家里。 （常用形式）
If it should snow tomorrow, I would stay at home. 如果明天下雪的话，我就留在家里。 （可能性较小）
If it were to snow tomorrow, I would stay at home. 如果明天要下雪的话，我就留在家里。（可能性最小）
在书面语中，非真实条件句中有were, had, should时，可以省略if，而把were, had, should
Were it necessary, I might go without delay. 如果需要的话，我可以立即去。（= If it were necessary......）
Had you taken my advice, you wouldn't have failed in the exam. 你要是听了我的建议，就不会考试不及格了。（= If you had taken my advice......）
Should I have time, I would call on her. 要是有时间，我就去看她。（= If I should have time......）
If you hadn't watched TV yesterday, you wouldn't be so sleepy now. 如果你昨天不看电视，你现在也就不会这么困了。（从句yesterday说明过去，主句now说明现在）
If they had left home early this morning, they would arrive in half an hour. 如果他们今天一早就离开家的话，再过半小时他们就该到了。（从句说明过去，主句说明将来。）
If you hesitated this moment, you might suffer in the future. 如果你此刻犹豫不决，你将来会吃苦头的。（从句说明现在，主句说明将来）
在很多情况下，我们也可以用was来代替当主语是第一人称或第三人称单数时的were。 If were here tomorrow...
也可以说成：If he was here tomorrow...
I wish I were a bird.
也可以说成：I sish I was a bird.
Were I in your position,I would not do it.如果我处在你的位置，我是不会干这件事的。 E．含蓄条件句
He would not get such a result without your help. 没有你的帮助，他就不会有今天的成果。(条件暗含在介词短语without your help中)
But for you, I could not be recovered so soon. 要不是有你，我就不会恢复得这么快。(条件暗含在But for you中)
This same thing, happening in the past, would lead to a disaster. 同样的事，如发生在过去，就会酿成大祸。(条件暗含在分词短语happening in the past中)
He must have been there, or he never could know the place so well. 他一定是去过那儿，否则他绝不会对那个地方如此熟悉。(暗含条件是连词or)
It would do you no good. 这可能会对你没好处。(条件可能是if you should give up the job 如果你放弃这项工作的话)
They could have won. 他们本来是会赢的。(条件可能是if they had been patient 如果他们有耐心的话)
Such mistakes could have been avoided. 这种错误完全能避免。（条件可能是if you had been more careful 如果你更加小心一点的话）
Why didn't you tell me about it I should have helped you. 为什么你不告诉我？我会帮助你
的。（条件可能是if you had told me about it 如果你当时告诉我的话）
--- Did you go to see him yesterday 你昨天去看他了吗？
--- I would have, but someone dropped over to my house for a visit. 原想去的，但有人到我家来玩了。（条件是if no one had dropped over to my house for a visit 如果没人到我家来玩的话）
She was ill, otherwise she would have been present at the meeting. 她病了，否则的话就会出席会议了。（条件通过连词otherwiseor表示出来 If she had not been ill...）
I told him to go there himself, but perhaps I should have gone together with him. 我让他自己去那里，但也许我应该和他一道去。（连词but暗示条件）
Suppose you were in my shoes, what would you do 假若你站在我的立场上，你会怎么办？（用supposesupposingproviding等词表示if）
To talk with her, you would know she could not hear well. 如果你同她交谈，你就会知道她的听力不好。（动词不定式带有假设的意思，相当于 If you should talk with her...）
Left to himself, he could not have finished the work. 要是放任他的话，他是不可能完成工作的。（动词的-ed形式表示条件 If he had been left to himself...）
You wouldn't know. 你不会知道。
I would like to go with you. 我愿意和你一起去。
主语从句通常用于“It is + 形容词名词动词的-ed形式 + that ...”结构。主语从句中是否用虚拟语气取决于所用的形容词或动词的-ed形式，其谓语动词常用 “should + 动词原形”（美国英语常省略should，只用动词原形）。
It is important that we (should) work out a study plan. 重要的是我们要制订出一个学习计划。 It will be better that we (should) meet some other time. 最好我们在另一个时间见面。
It is suggested that each student (should) sing a song in English. 有人建议每个学生都要唱一首英文歌曲。
It is demanded that he should leave at once. 要求他立刻离开。
It is strange that he should have failed to see his own shortcomings. 真奇怪他竟看不到自己的缺点。
It is a pityshame that I should be at school instead of lying here in hospital. 真可惜，我应当在学校而不是躺在医院里。
It is natural that you should forget it first. 你起先记不住是很自然的。
形容词：important, necessary, urgent, essential, vital, natural, strange, proper等
动词的-ed形式：arranged, suggested, ordered, required, desired, demanded, proposed等
It is necessary that the program (should) be loaded into the computer. 有必要把程序输入电脑。 It is strange that he should have learned so much in such a short time. 很奇怪他竟然在如此短的时间内学了那么多的东西。
It is desired that we (should) get everything ready by tonight. 希望一切在今晚前准备就绪。
①在suggest（建议）, order(命令), propose(建议), insist（坚持要做）, command (命令)，request（要求），advise（建议）等动词后的宾语从句中，谓语动词用 should + 动词原形 （美国英语常省略should）。
The examination instructor asked that the students (should) not use a calculator. 考官要求学生不要使用计算器。
The workers demanded that their wages (should) be raised by 10 percent. 工人们要求增加百分之十的工资。
They requested that he (should) sing a song. 他们要求他唱一首歌。
His silence suggested that he agreed with my decision.他的沉默暗示他赞同我的决定。（暗示） He suggested that I (should) stick to my decision.他建议我坚持自己的决定。（建议） insist作“坚决要求”解时，用虚拟语气，作“坚持认为”解时，用陈述语气。
He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people's health. 他坚持认为做早操对健康有益。（强调）
He insists that he (should) do morning exercises every day.他坚持每天都要做早操。（要求） ②在动词wish后的宾语从句中用虚拟语气，表示不可能实现的愿望。
I wish I were a bird. 但愿我是一只小鸟。
I wish I knew the answer.我要是知道答案就好了。
过去完成时 had done 表示过去不可能实现的愿望
I wish she had taken my advice.那时她要是接受我的建议就好了。
I wish that I had seen her yesterday.真希望我昨天见过她。
过去将来时 wouldcould do表示将来没有把握或不可能实现的愿望
I wish you would stay an hour longer. 我希望你再呆一个小时。
I wish it could stop raining.但愿雨能停。
The students hope that their football team will win the game. 学生们希望他们的足球队获胜。 （可能实现）
I wish I could see him now. 我希望现在就能看到他。（不可能实现）
在表示建议、劝告、命令等含义的名词后的表语从句和同位语从句中，谓语动词要用“should + 动词原形”结构。
My advice is that you (should) practise speaking English as often as possible.我的建议是你尽可能经常地练习说英语。
The demand is that the composition (should) be written on one side only. 按照要求作文必须单面誊写。
It is my desire that all the members of the family (should) gather once a year. 我的愿望是所有家庭成员一年团圆一次。
The suggestion that education (should) be reformed is reasonable. 教育要改革的建议是合理的。
由as if 或as though引导的状语从句可以用陈述语气表示可能符合事实的情况，也可以用虚拟语气表示与事实不符或与事实相反的情况。
The teacher treats the pupil as if he were her own child. 这位老师对待这位学生就像自己的亲生孩子一样。（这位学生并不是她的亲生孩子）
I felt as though we had known each other for years. 我感觉我们好像认识多年了。（其实并没有认识多年）
It looks as if it might rain. 天看上去好像要下雨。（不大可能下雨）
He looks as if he is young. 看样子他好像很年轻。（他就是年轻）
He looks as if he were young. 看样子他好像很年轻。（实际上他不年轻）
a. 由in case, lest, for fear that引导的目的状语从句，动词用“should + 动词原形”结构，表示忧虑或目的。
Please remind me of it again tomorrow in case I (should) forget. 请你明天再提醒我这件事，以免我忘记。
She emphasized it again and again, lest he (should) forget. 她一再强调这一点免得他忘记。 We had a meeting and talked the matter over face to face for fear that there
should be any misunderstanding.
b. 在in order that和so that引导的目的状语从句中，往往用can(could)或may(might)。 I shall write down your telephone number so that I may not forget. 我要把你的电话号码记下来，以免忘记。
They worked harder than usual in order that they could finish the work ahead of time. 为了能提前完成工作，他们比往常更加努力。
We will tell you the truth so that you can judge for yourself. 我把真实情况告诉你，使你能自己作出判断。
Though he (should) fail, there would still be hope. 即使他失败了，仍有一线希望。 I should say the same thing even if he were here. 即使他在这里，我还是要这么说。
Whether he (should) succeed or fail, we shall have to do our part. 不管他成功还是失败，我们还是要做好自己的事。
However hard it might rain rains, we shall go there together. 不管雨下得多么大，今晚我们还是要去那里。
No matter what his social position (might) be, a man is equal in the eye of the law. 一个人不论其社会地位如何，在法律面前都是平等的。
在It is (high) time (that) ...结构中，定语从句的谓语动词用过去式，表示“到某人该做某事的时间了”。
It is time that英语语法——虚拟语气 the children went to bed. 到孩子们睡觉的时间了。
It is high time that we began the meeting. 正是我们开会的时间了。
A． If only......
If only he knew the answer. 他要是知道答案就好了。（用过去时表示现在）
If only I could speak several foreign languages！我要是能讲几种外语就好了！（用wouldcould表示将来）
If only you had told me the truth before. 要是你以前告诉我真相就好了。（用过去完成时表示过去）
If only it would rain. 但愿天能下点儿雨！= How I wish it would rain.
If only I had known her earlier! 要是我早点儿认识她就好了！= I wish I had known her earlier.
would rather, would prefer, would sooner 等后接从句，表示“宁愿”，动词用过去时表示当时和将来的情况，用过去完成时表示过去的情况。
I would rather you left today. 我宁可你今天走。
I would prefer he didn't stay here too long. 我倒希望他不要在这儿呆得太久。
I would rather I hadn't seen that film yesterday. 我宁愿昨天没有看那场电影。
would rather 主要有两种用法。
I'd rather play tennis than swim. 我宁愿打网球，也不愿游泳。
I'd rather not go to the movies. 我宁愿不去看电影。
Which would you rather have, tea or coffee 你喜欢喝茶，还是咖啡
I'd rather you went home now. 我希望你现在就回家。
I would rather my daughter attended a public school. 我希望我的女儿能上公立学校。
Long live the People's Republic of China! 中华人民共和国万岁！
May you be happy! 祝您快乐！
God bless you! 上帝保佑你！
Success attend you! 祝你成功！
The Lord save us! 愿主救我们！
部分情态动词的过去形式（could, might, should, would），可以用于非真实条件句以及其他结构中表示虚拟语气。
If I could speak French, I would teach you. 如果我会说法语，我就能教你。（我不会，所以不能教你）
If you phoned him right now, you might get the matter settled. 如果你现在给他打电话，你就可以把问题解决了。
There could be something wrong with the tape recorder. 这台录音机可能出毛病了。 He might have said so. 他可能这样说过。
Could he have done such a foolish thing 他会做这样的傻事吗？
虚拟语气（could, would, might + 动词原形）可使说话者的口气变得委婉客气。 You could answer this email for me. 你可以替我回这个电子邮件。
Could you leave me your telephone number and address 你能将电话号码和地址留给我吗？ Would you mind opening the window 劳驾把窗子打开，好吗？
You might as well put off the discussion till next week. 你们不妨把讨论推迟到下个星期。 比较：
would lide to do
would lide to have done
I would like (to have) a word with you.我想和你谈一谈。(现在想)
I would like to have talked with you.我原本想和你谈一谈的。（没有谈成）
Given more time, we could have done better. 如果给我们更多时间，我们能够干得更好些。（我们并没有得到更多的时间）
You could have got up a little earlier！ 你完全可以早点儿起来！（实际上没有早起）
It was cold yesterday. I should have worn a heavy coat. 昨天很冷，我该穿件厚外套的。（但我没穿）
This wall shouldn't have been pained blue. 这墙不应该漆成蓝色。（但已漆了）
He suggested that I went to the hospital at once. 他建议我们立刻去医院。（原应用should go） We shall write down the address lest we forget. 我们要把地址记下来，以免忘记。（原应用should forget）
Imagine you are an astronaut. 设想你是个宇航员。（原应用were）
上传: 宋焘 更新时间：2012-7-22 8:39:07
①there are two sides to every question.每个问题都有两个方面。
②were you busy all day yesterday? 昨天一整天你都很忙吗？
③how good a teacher she is! 她是多好的一位老师啊！
①never be late again!再也不要迟到了。
②don’t forget to turn off the light.别忘了关灯。
⑶、虚拟语气：表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实，而是说话人的主观愿望、假设或推测等。如： ①if i were a bird, i could fly in the air.如果我是一只小鸟，我就能在空中飞行。
②i wish i could pass the examination.我希望我能通过考试。
③may you succeed!祝您成功！
⑴.would you be kind enough to show me the way to the post office?请你告诉我去邮局的路好吗？ ⑵.it would be better for you not to stay up too late.你最好别熬夜到很晚。
1、常用“may+动词原形”表示祝愿，但愿，此时may须置于句首（多用于正式文体中）。 ⑴、may good luck be yours!祝你好运！
⑵、may you be happy!祝你快乐！
⑶、may you do even better!祝你取得更大成就！
⑷、may you have a good time. 祝愿你玩的痛快。
⑸、may the friendship between us last long. 祝愿我们的友情天长地久。
⑹、may you be happy. (注意那个be ) 祝你幸福。
（7）may the world be filled with love! 让世界充满爱！
(1).long live the people! 人民万岁！
(2).“god bless you,”said the priest.牧师说：“愿上帝保佑你！”
(3).have a good journey! 祝愿你旅途愉快！
(1).god save me．
(2).heaven help us．
3.虚拟语气动词用一般现在时态(simple present)，如：work, be , go
(1). work !
(2). work harder !
(3). be more alert ! (虚拟语气动词be)
(4). you go out !
(5). do not work so hard. (do not 表示否定的虚拟语气)
(6). don't be afraid. (口语中常用don't 代替do not)
(1).you’d better set off now.你最好现在就出发。
(2).i’d rather not tell you the secret.我情愿不告诉你这个秘密。
1. i wish (that可省略,下同)i knew the answer to the question.(wish, 动词过去式knew)我希望知道这个答案。(事实上是不知道)
2. i wish it were spring in my hometown all the year around.(wish, were)但愿我的家乡四季如春。(事实上不可能)
3. i wish i were a bird.(wish, were)但愿我是只小鸟。(事实上不可能)
4. when she was at the party,she wished she were at home.(wished,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不在家)
5. now that he is in china, he wishes he understood chinese.(wishes,过去虚拟动词understood)
6. when we begin the trip, they will wish they were with us.(will wish,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不和我们在一起)
用wish表示对过去事情的遗憾。其句子结构为：宾语从句的谓语用过去完成时，或would, could, might+现在完成时。例：
1. i wish (that可省略，下同)i hadn't wasted so much time.
2. he wishes he hadn't lost the chance.
3. we wished he had spoken to us.
(wished，had + spoken)(事实上他并没同我们讲)
4. i wish you had called earlier.
(wish, had + called)(事实上已迟了)
5. they will wish they had listened to us sooner.
(will wish,had + listened)(事实上并不如此)
例题分析：i wish i ______ longer this morning, but i had to get up and come to class.
a. could have slept b. slept c. might have slept d. have slept
动词wish后面接从句，表达不可能实现或与事实相反的情况时，谓语动词要用虚拟语气，即用过去式（表示现在发生的动作）或过去完成式（表示过去发生的动作）。本题后半句谓语动词have用的是过去时had to get up and come, 所以前面要用过去完成时表示过去发生的动作。所以, 选项a)could have slept是答案
从句动词"would/should/could/might + 动词原形"(时间上较后)(请注意：主句和从句的主语不相同)。用wish表示对将来事情的愿望。例：
1. i wish it would stop raining.(虚拟动词would+动词原形stop)
2. i wish you would be quiet.(would + be)
3. you wished she would arrive the next day.(would + arrive)
4. i wish she would change her mind.(would + change)
5. he will wish we would join him the following week.(would + join)
1.如果将wish改为过去式wished, 其后that 从句中的动词形式不变。例如：
i wished i hadn't spent so much money. 我要是那时没有花掉那么多钱就好了。
2. 如果that 从句中用would , 一般表示对现状不满或希望未来有所改变或请求
i wish he would answer my letter.
i wish prices would come down.
i wish you would help me.
i wish you would stop asking silly questions.
表示“要求”的：ask, desire, request, demand, require, beg
表示“提议、劝告、建议”的：move, prpose, suggest, recommend, advise, vote
1.the doctor suggested that he (should) try to lose his weight.
2.he insisted that we (should ) tell him the news.
3.when i suggested that he try shaving cream, he said, “the razor and water do the job. ”(当我建议他用刮胡膏时，他说“剃刀和水就行了”。)
4.he pursued various theories for several days until i suggested we take the toy apart to see how it did work. (他费了几天功夫寻找理论根据，直到我建议拆开看看它是如何转动的。)
5.one can suggest that students should spend two or three years in an englishspeaking country. (我们建议学生应在说英语的国家呆上两三年。)
order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist +... (should) do
6.i suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
7.he insisted that he (should ) be sent there.
但注意：在insist 后的从句中, 如果是坚持自己, 用陈述语气, 坚持别人做什么事情, 用虚拟语气.
8.she insists that she is right.
9.she insisted that i should finish the work at once.
10.the guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules.
(错)11. you pale face suggests that you (should) be ill.
(对)12. your pale face suggests that you are ill.
(错)13. i insisted that you ( should) be wrong.
(对)14. i insisted that you were wrong.
例题分析：15.it is politely requested by the hotel management that radios ______ after 11 o'clock at night. a. were not played b. not be played
c. not to play d. did not play
全句意思是：“旅馆管理部门恳请客人晚上11点后不要打开收音机”。句中的谓语动词request（请求）所引出的从句应当用虚拟语气，即动词原形或“should＋动词原形”。本句的主语从句中，主语radio是谓语动词play 的客体，谓语应当用被动语态。所以，答案是c) not be played。在上述这类句子中不能用动词过去时形式表示虚拟语气，所以a)不正确。选项b) not to play是动词带to的不定式，不能在句中作谓语。选项d)did not play也是动词play的过去时形式，同样不能在本句中作为虚拟语气来使用。而且，它是主动语态形式，而本题要用被动语态。
16). the chairman requested that .
［a］the members studied more carefully the problem
［b］the problem was more carefulnessly studied
［c］with more carefulness the problem could be studied
［d］the members study the problem more carefully
17). the committee recommends that the matter at the next meeting .
［a］would be discussed
［b］will be discussed
［d］may be discussed
18). the doctor insisted that his patient .
［a］that he not work too hard for three months
［b］take it easy for three months
［c］taking it easy inside of three months
［d］to take some vacations for three months
三、在expect, believe, think, suspect等动词的否定或疑问形式后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气
在expect, believe, think, suspect等动词的否定或疑问形式后的宾语从句中，我们经常用“should＋动词原形(或完成形式)”，表示惊奇，怀疑，不满等。
i never thought that he should be such a brave young soldier.
1) that the time will soon be ripe for intervention in iran，they would be faced by a large army?
［a］it is believed
［b］should they believe
［c］they would believe
［d］if they would believe
2) i think it advisable that he for tokyo soon.
四、would rather ， would sooner，had rather， would (just) as soon ，would prefer之后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气
would rather , would sooner, had rather, would (just) as soon，would prefer（希望）也用来表达主观愿望，它们之后的宾语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用过去式表示现在或将来，用过去完成式表示与过去事实相反。表示” 宁愿做什么”或"对过去做的事的懊悔"。
(1).i would rather he came tomorrow than today.
(2).john would rather that she had not gone to the party yesterday evening.
(3).don' t live in the world, i would rather( i would just as soon) you die.
(4).i would rather you go tomorrow.
(5).i would rather everything hadn' t happened in the past.
(6).the manager would rather his daughter did not work in the same office．经理宁愿她女儿不与他在同一间办公室工作。
(7).to be frank，i'd rather you were not involved in the case．坦率地说，我希望你不要卷入这件事。
(8).you don't have to be in such a hurry．i would rather you went on business first．你没有必要这么着急，我宁愿你先去上班。
(9).i'd rather you didn't make any comment on the issue for the time being．我倒希望你暂时先不要就此事发表意见。
(10).frankly speaking ，i'd rather you didn't do anything about it for the time being．坦白地说，我宁愿你现在对此事什么也不要做。
(11).wouldn't you rather your child went to bed early？为什么你不愿让你的孩子早点上床呢？
(12).i would just as soon you had returned the book yesterday．我真希望你昨天把这本书还了。 注：①若某人愿自己做某事，would rather后用动词原形
i would rather stay at home today．
i would rather stay at home than go out today．
用“had hoped”表示原来希望做到而实际上未能实现的事情，其宾语从句的谓语用“would+动词原形”。 i had hoped that she would go to the u.s. and study there, but she said she liked to stay in china.我原本希望她到美国去念书，但她说她喜欢留在中国。
一、“it is (was)+形容词（或过去分词）+that……”结构中的虚拟语气
在形如“it is (was)+形容词（或过去分词）+that……”结构中，使用某些表示愿望、建议、请求、命令、可能、适当、较好、迫切、紧近、重要等形容词后的主语从句的谓语也用虚拟语气。其表达形式为should ＋动词原形或省略should直接用动词原形（美国英语中省去should）
常用的形容词：* natural (自然的), appropriate (适当的),advisable (合适的), preferable (更可取的), better (更好的)* necessary (必须的), important (重要的), imperative (急需的), urgent (急迫的), essential (本质的), vital (必不可少的)* probable (很可能的), possible (可能的)* desirable (极好的)advisable（合理的），compulsory（必须的），crucial（紧急的），desirable（理想的）， essential（必要的），imperative（迫切的），incredible（惊人的），necessary（必要的），possible（可能的），strange（奇怪的），urgent（紧迫的）。
常用的过去分词(past participle):* required (需要的), demanded (要求), requested (被请求的), desired (高中英语虚拟语气语法要求)* suggested (建议), recommended (推荐)* orderd (命令)
1. it is necessary that we (should 可省略,下同）have a walk now.(necessary, should + have) (表示有需要去散步)
2.it was necessary that we (should) make everything ready ahead of time.(necessary, should + make) (表示有必要事先做好准备)
3. it is required that nobody (should) smoke here.(required, should + smoke) (表示要求不要在此抽烟)
4. it is important that every pupil (should) be able to understand therule of school.(important, should + be) (表示重要的是学生都能了解校规)
5. it's important that we (should) take good care of the patient.(important, should + take) (表示重要的是照顾好病人)
6. it is natural that she should do so. (形容词natural, should+动词原形do)
7.it is essential that these application forms be sent back as early as possible．这些申请表应尽早地寄回，这是很重要的。
8.it is vital that enough money be collected to fund the project．重要的是募集足够的钱，为这个项目提供资金。
9.it is desired that we（should）get everything ready this evening．希望我们今晚一切都准备就绪。 注：在上述所列形容词后面用that引出的宾语从句中，谓语动词也要用虚拟语气。
10.i don't think it advisable that tom be assigned to the job since he has no experience．汤姆缺乏经验，指派他做这项工作我认为是不恰当的。
二、在it is ＋名词＋that…的主语从句中的虚拟语气
在it is ＋名词＋that的主语从句中，常用虚拟语气，表示建议、命令、请求、道歉、怀疑、惊奇等。这类名词
有：advice ，decision ，desire ，demand ，idea，motion ，order，pity ，preference ，proposal，recommendation ，
⑴、it is my proposal that he be sent to study further abroad．我建议派他去国外进一步学习。
demand (要求), desire (请求),requirment (要求)
advice (劝告), recommendation (建议),suggestion (建议)
necessity (必要地), preference (优先)
proposal (计划), plan (计划), idea (办法)，
we are all for your proposal that the discussion be put off．我们都赞成你提出的将讨论延期的建议。 the suggestion that the mayor present the prizes was accepted by
⑴、 the advice is that we (should 可省略，下同) leave at once.
(名词advice，should + leave) (表示加以劝告)
⑵、 my idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.
(idea, should + get) (表示做出主意)
⑶、 i make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
(proposal, should + hold) (表示做出计划)
⑷、 the judge assented to the suggestion that .
［a］both of the criminals will soon be set freedom
［b］some of the criminals there are of guilt only
［c］the girl was to be paroled in the custody of a welfare society
［d］the prisoner be sentenced to death
句 型 条件从句 主句
一般现在时 shall/will + 动词原形
例如：If he comes, he will bring his violin. 如果他来，会带小提琴来的。 典型例题
The volleyball match will be put off if it ___.
A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is rained
1）在真实条件句中，主句不能用be going to表示将来，该用shall, will.
（错） If you leave now, you are never going to regret it.
（对） If you leave now, you will never regret it.
2）表示真理时，主句谓语动词不用shall （will） +动词原形，而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。
1）虚拟语气可以表示过去，现在和将来的情况，时态的基本特点是时态往后推移。 a. 与现在事实相反的假设
一般过去时（be用were） should（would）等 +动词原形
例如：If they were here, they would help you. 如果他们在这儿，会帮助你的。 含义：They are not here, they can’t help you.
过去完成时 should（would）等+ have+ 过去分词
例如：If he had come yesterday, I should / would have told him about it.如果他昨天来的话，我会把这件事告诉他的。
含义：He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it. c. 表示对将来不大可能发生的事情的假想
一般过去时 should/would等 + 动词原形
例如：If you succeeded, everything would be all right. 如果你将来成功了，一切都会好的。
If you should succeed, everything would be all right.
If you were to succeed, everything would be all right.
含义：You are not likely to succeed, everything will be what it is now.
If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now. 如果你昨天问过他，今天就知道做什么了。
If it had rained last night（过去）, it would be very cold today （现在）.如果昨晚下过雨，今天就会很冷了。
虚拟条件句的从句部分含有were, should, 或had时, 可省略if，再把were, should或had 移到从句的句首，实行倒装。例如：
Were they here now, they could help us. =If they were here now, they could help us.他们现在在的话，就会帮助我们了。
Had you come earlier, you would have met him. =If you had come earlier, you would have met him.你来得早一点，就碰到他了。
Should it rain, the crops would be saved. =Were it to rain, the crops would be saved.假如下雨，庄稼就有救了。
If I were you, I would go to look for him. 如果我是你，就会去找他。
If he were here, everything would be all right. 如果他在这儿，一切都会好的。 典型例题
_____ to do the work, I should do it some other day.
A. If were I B. I were C. Were I D. Was I
答案C. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词，通常将if省略，主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意，在虚拟条件状语从句中，省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说 Were I not to do, 而不能说 Weren\'t I to do。
It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…等结构的主语从句，谓语动词用should 加动词原形，should 可省略。
It is 可用的词有三类 that （should）do
suggested, ordered, required, proposed, demanded, requested, insisted等 important, necessary, natural, imperative, strange等
a pity, a shame, no wonder等
在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中，像order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + （should） do等。例如：
I suggest that we （should） hold a meeting next week. 我建议下周召开个会议。 He insisted that he （should ） be sent there.他要求被派到那儿去。
注意：如suggest, insist不表示\"建议\" 或\"坚持要某人做某事时\"，即它们用于其本意\"暗示、表明\"、\"坚持认为\"时，宾语从句用陈述语气。
判断改错： （错） You pale face suggests that you（should）be ill.
（对） Your pale face suggests that you are ill.
（错） I insisted that you（should）be wrong.
（对） I insisted that you were wrong.
suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气，即（should）+动词原形。例如：
My idea is that we（should）get more people to attend the conference.我的想法是让更多的人来参加会议。
I make a proposal that we（should）hold a meeting next week.我提了个建议，下周我们开个会。
从句动作先于主句动词动作（be的过去式为 were） 现在时 过去时
从句动作与主句动作同时发生（had + 过去分词） 过去时 过去完成时
将来不大可能实现的愿望 将来时 would/could +动词原形
例如：I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。
He wished he hadn\'t said that. 他希望他没讲过那样的话。
I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。
2）wish to do；wish sb / sth to do。例如：
I wish to see the manager. = I want to see the manager. 我希望见一见经理。 I wish the manager to be informed at once. （= I want the manager to be informed at once.）我希望经理能马上得到消息。
only if表示\"只高中语法虚拟语气有\"；if only则表示\"如果……就好了\"。If only也可用于陈述语气。例如：
I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了，我才会醒。
If only the alarm clock had rung. 当时闹钟响就好了。
If only he comes early. 但愿他早点回来。
It is （high） time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形，但should不可省略。例如：
It is time that the children went to bed. 孩子们该睡觉了。
It is high time that the children should go to bed.
didn\'t need to do表示过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做。
needn\'t have done表示过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了。例如：
John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she didn\'t need to walk back home.
John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she needn\'t have walked back home.
There was plenty of time. She ___.
A. mustn\'t have hurried B. couldn\'t have hurried C. must not hurry D. needn\'t have hurried
答案D。needn\'t have done. 意为\"本不必\"，即已经做了某事，而时实际上不必要。 Mustn\'t have done 用法不正确，对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为couldn\'t have done, \"不可能已经\"。 must not do 不可以（用于一般现在时）。
高二英语语法讲义 U7-8 by Allan Young 11/29-12/18/2004 虚拟语气（式）
The Subjunctive Mood
mood n. Grammar = A set of verb forms or inflections used to indicate the speaker's attitude toward the factuality (实在性) or likelihood (可能性) of the action or condition expressed. In English the indicative mood (=expressing a fact or action) is used to make factual statements, the imperative mood to express a command, the interrogative mood to express a question, and the subjunctive mood to indicate a doubt, wish or unlikelihood. (--AHD & LDOCE)
语气（mood）其实是动词的一种形式变化。它是区别说话人以何种口气说话的动词形式。这和中文中的语气是不太一样的。中文“语气”[tone; manner of speaking]义为“说话的口气”，如“用友好的语气说”、“语气凌人”。英文中“语气”[mood] 表示陈述、疑问、祈使、感叹等语法范畴。它表示说话者对所指动词或状态所持的态度，而且，这种语气在谓语动词上有所体现，而中文没有这种体现。英语的“语气”一般用不同的声调和语调来表达。这是另一个范畴的知识了。
英语中语气有三种（可细分为四种）：陈述语气（Indicative mood）、疑问语气（Interrogative mood）、祈使语气（Imperative mood）和虚拟语气（Subjunctive mood）。
1）陈述语气 表示讲话人陈述一个事实或提出一个看法，有肯定、否定、感叹和疑问等形式。 There are two sides to every question．每个问题都有两个方面。
The girl becomes more and more beautiful.
2）疑问语气 表示讲话人提出质疑或疑问。（可认为是从陈述语气中细分出来） Have you finished the project? What are you working on?
Don't be late for class．上课不要迟到。 Please come earlier next time.
4）虚拟语气（the Subjunctive Mood）表示说话人所说的话不是事实而是一种假设、愿望等。 subjunctive adj.=Of, relating to, or being a mood of a verb used in some languages to express doubt, wishes etc. or for contingent (可能的) or hypothetical (假设的) action, action viewed subjectively, or grammatically subordinate statements. For example, in “if I were you”, the verb “to be” is in the subjunctive. (--AHD)
虚拟语气实际上是一种特殊的谓语动词形式，如：I were，He be，She return等(时动词不再有人称、数和时态的相应变化，而是用规定的动词型表示特定的意念或情况)，用来表示说的话不是事实，或者是不可能发生的情况，而是表示一种难实现主观愿望、建议、命令、要求、请求、猜测、可能、空想、懊悔、遗憾、委婉的批评或与事实相反的一点残余。只有在特定的语境才会出现，实际很简单，容易掌握，它在现代英语中已不是重要的语法范畴，但在实际运用可执行多种交际功能，表达上述诸多内容，故应用较广，实用性强，仍需理解掌握常见句型和词汇用法，如此即可。
一）虚拟语气的动词型 (verb forms)
二）虚拟语气在简单句中 (In simple sentences) BE型虚拟语气
例：Would you be kind enough to help me with these problems? 委婉
It would be better for you not to stay up late. 建议 You had better leave now. 劝告 Would you like a cup of tea? May you be happy in the future！祝愿 God bless you！一路平安（送别时用语）。 God damn you! 该死！Heaven forbid! 天理难容。 So be it. 就这样吧。/但愿如此。 *Long live our friendship！„„万岁!
三）虚拟语气在复合句中 (In compound sentences)
（一）．副词性从句Adverbial Clause ——状语从句
1 (Conditional Sentences)
1）真实条件句 Real conditional sentences
一般现在时 将来时shall/will +动词原型
例：If I have thirty dollars, I shall/ will buy a good dictionary.
If she comes, she will explain her plan for this project.
I shall not succeed unless (=if…not…) I count on your help.
【注意】：表示不变的事实或真理时，主句谓语动词应同样使用一般现在时，不用将来时。 例：If a rectangle has equal sides, it is a square (不能说it will/ shall be a square).
2）非真实条件句 Unreal conditional sentences
If it were not raining, we should go for a picnic.
If he came here, he might be able to help you.
If I were you, I should do it. 如果我是你的话，我就要做这件事。（与现在事实相反，还如下面例句） If I were you, I would study hard. If it rained, I would not be（2）与过去事实相反的假设的动词形式（从句和主句）
例：She would have gone to the party if she had been invited.
If she hadn't called me, I would have overslept
If he had come a few minutes earlier, he would have met me.（与过去事实相反）
If the doctor would have saved.
If I had not studied hard, I would have failed（3）与将来事实相反的假设的动词形式（从句和主句）
例：If I were to be twenty years old next year, I would take the course of computer science. If you were to come tomorrow, I should ask you to help me with my work.（与将来事实相反） If I were to go to the moon one day, I could see it with my own eyes.
If it should fail, I would try again. 要是失败了，我会再试一次。
If it should rain tomorrow, we would stay at home.
If you missed the film to night, you would feel sorry.
♣ If条件句的特殊结构：“If it were not for…”或“If it had not been for…”，“If it were not for…”或“If it had not been for…”相当于but for或without（►见隐含条件句）。
If it weren't for your help，he could never go to college．
B．用完成进行时替换相应的完成时，如用过去完成进行时替换过去完成时，仍表示与过去事实相反。 If it had been raining yesterday，I would not have come here．
例：If he had followed the doctor's advice, he would be all right now. （主句与现在事实相反）
例：If he could pass the exam now, he would have passed it last time.
他要是现在考试及格，那他上次就及格了。 （从句与过去事实相反） He would pass the test if he had taken my advice.
例：The work would be finished next week. （主句与将来事实相反）
If he were here now, he was to start off with us tomorrow.
If I had a bike (now), I would have lent it to you yesterday.
I am very sorry if I had done anything wrong to you, but I am sure that it was unintentional. 如果我当时对你作错了什么事，我向你表示抱歉。但我敢保证我不是故意的。
按照上表，主句和条件从句中的谓语动词形式是相互呼应的，有着固定的搭配关系。 但是，有时假设的情况也可以并不以条件从句表示出来，而是通过一个介词短语来表示，或通过上下文或其他方式表示出来。这些情况包括用动词不定式、比较级、介词without（或with no）, but for (如果不是因为), but that…(如果不是因为„), in case of, under more favourable condition，supposing,等等表示“如果没有”的介词或词组表示让步假设。 例：We could have done better under more favorable conditions.
Without air, we would not live even for five minutes. 没有空气，我们连五分钟都活不了。 Without you, I would never know him.
But for air and water，nothing could live．要是没有空气和水，也就不能有生命。
But for your cooperation, we wouldn’t have done the work so well.
But that she was afraid (=If she had not been afraid), she would have said no.
① 省略if的虚拟条件句（也称“倒装虚拟句”）：如果虚拟条件句的谓语部分有were, were to, had和should时，可省略if，把were，had和should放到从句主语前面去，构成部分倒装（见“倒装”讲义）。
例：Had you not helped me，I should have failed. I would go, should it be necessary. Had the doctor come last night, the boy would have saved.
Were John here at present, I would explain the whole matter to you all.
Should it rain tomorrow, we would stay at home.
Were they to go skiing, they would call for me in advance.
Were I to go to the moon one day, I would see it with my own eyes.
● 如果had不作助动词而是谓语动词，则不能倒装。If I had money,…;→Had I money(×) ● 一般If I were you…不能说 Were I you,….
② 条件从句的省略：He could not fly（if he tried）．（即使他试的话）他无论如何不能飞。 ③ 条件主句的省略：If only I had more money！要是我有更多的钱就好了！
④ suppose (that…) 或 supposing（=if）
例：What if supposing it were so?（=Supposing it were so, what would happen？）
Suppose that it rains, what shall we do? (suppose that=if, 表示真实条件，用陈述语气。) Suppose that it rained, what should we do? (suppose that=if, 表示非真实条件，对将来之假想。)
有时条件概念通过跳过一层含义而含蓄表达出来，如用连词but, 以及or, or else, otherwise, on condition that等常暗含含蓄条件的连词或短语等手段来表示虚拟条件还可以根据内容的需要来应用虚拟语气。
例：A true friend would have lent a hand.(If he dad been a true friend, he would have lent a hand) I would not have acted as you did. (If I had been you, I would…)
I would be most glad to help you, but I’ am busy now.
I would have come to the party yesterday, but I was working.
She would have come here，but she was too busy with her homework．
◆or, otherwise 之后用虚拟，主句陈述事实。
I am busy now, otherwise I would do you the favor!
He worked very hard; otherwise he might have failed. 他刻苦工作，不然他就失败了。
注意：*Seize the chance, otherwise you will regret it. 抓住机会，否则你要后悔的。（可实现的情况）
2 (clauses of manner)
由as if或as though引导的方式状语从句的谓语动词常常使用虚拟语气动词形式，但动词形式取决于说话人的意图，在某些语境中,如不表假设意义，则不必用过去式，尤其有迹象表明之时。其特点是：现在使用过去式；过去使用过去的过去；将来使用过去将来，不管主句谓语动词形式如何。as if所引导的从句可充当状语，也可以充当表语，常用于look和seem之后。as if常用作与事实相反的比喻。对它后面从句时态的理解与wish同理：即注意分析主句和从句发生的时间先后关系。 例：He spoke/ speaks as if he were a foreigner. （同时发生）
She loves the children as if they were hers.
When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as though it were broken.
He spoke/speaks as if he had done something wrong. （“好像以前作错了事”——先于主句发生） Alan talked about Rome as if he had been there.
They look rather puzzled as if they didn't know anything about it.
I feel as if I was/ were going to faint. (好像要…) I feel as if I am going to faint. (真的就要„) *It looks as if it is going to rain. It seems as if we will have to go home on foot.
3．虚拟语气在让步状语从句中的应用 (concessional sentences)
Be the problem easy or difficult, this method works. 不管问题容易还是难，这种方法都起作用。
2）though, although, even though/if 可用来引出虚拟让步句，把让步作为假设。
Though he studies hard, he cannot pass the test.
Though he study hard, he cannot pass the test. （假设，事实是没有用功。）
Though he blame me, yet I will trust him.
Even if he were here, he could not solve the problem at once, either.
3）otherwise，or else或 or否则，不然 (参见上面隐含虚拟句)
4 (clauses of purpose)
由so that/ in order that（为了„„）引导的从句中的谓语动词常常使用情态动词，如 might/ could/ would/should等。还有表示消极目的的目的状语从句连词词组for fear that（以免），lest（以免，免得，惟恐，正式书面用语），for fear that（免得，），和in case（惟恐,以免万一）引导目的状语从句的谓语多用（should）＋动词原形。
例：He tried his best to study in order that he might pass the exams.
I got there earlier than usual so that I could be the first one to enter the church.
He’s working hard for fear that he should fail in the exam. 他加紧学习唯恐考试不及格。 He studies very hard，lest he fail in the examination．他学习很刻苦，惟恐考试不及格。 We dare not play jokes on Mr. Wang lest he should become angry.
He hurried on, lest he should drop out in the forced match. 他加紧步伐，生怕在急行军中掉队。 Every attention must be paid to him lest he (should) feel that he is inferior to my other guests. 我对他特别关照，唯恐他感觉到比我的其他客人低人一等。
He hid the receipts somewhere for fear that it be taken away.
You’d better leave the key at home in case one of us think of coming back.
（二）．名词性从句Noun Clause ——主语、宾语、表语、同位语从句
1. 虚拟语气在主语从句中的应用 (Subject clause)
虚拟语气用在主语从句中表示主张、要求、命令、愿望、建议等概念，在此概念结构后的主语从句或逻辑上的主从结构(如下列形容词作宾语从句的补足语时，这时宾语从句一般用it来代替)，这时that所引导的主语从句中的谓语动词常用“should ＋ 动词原形”或省略should，只用动词原形。下面分为三种情况讨论。
1）主语从句的常见句型“It +is +形容词+that引导的主语从句”，从句谓语用“should +动词原形”或动词原形。
用于本句型的形容词是表示提议、要求、命令等动词有关的形容词，有：important，essential(重要的)，vital(极重要的，不可缺少的)，reserved（保留的），impossible，proper(适当的)，obligatory (必须的)，appropriate(合适的)，fitting (合适的), imperative(必须的)等；还有如desirable（←desire今人满意的，值得的），urgent（←urge紧要的），advisable（←advise应该的），preferable（←prefer）等。
[句型]：It's natural/ important/ strange/ necessary/ surprising/ funny/ possible/ probable/ imperative/ better that…(很自然/重要的是/奇怪的是/必要的是/令人吃惊的是/有趣的是/很可能/很可能/迫切的是/最好„„)
例：It is necessary that he listen to the radio frequently. 他很有必要常听收音机。
It's strange that he should say so. 他那样说话，令人吃惊。
It's important that we should learn some useful expressions by heart.
It's important that we（should）work out a plan. （带有“要求”的含义）
It's better that he go at once. （带有“建议”的意思）
2）用于“it + is +过去分词+that引导的主语从句”句型，可用“（should）+动词原形”真正主语从句的谓语动词用should +动词原形或省略should。
[句型]：It's (was, has been) suggested/ demanded/ requested/ required/ desired/ arranged/ planned/ ordered/ proposed/ decided that…（有人建议/请求/要求/要求/希望/安排/计划/命令……）例：It has been suggested that the meeting（should）be put off．有人建议推迟会议。 It was required that the crops should be harvested at once.
3）用于“it + is +名词+that引导的主语从句”句型，可用“（should）+动词原形”，真正主语从句的谓语动词用should +动词原形或省略should。这一句型还可以表达惊讶、喜悦、遗憾、惊讶、意外、谦逊、客气等情绪、感情。
[句型]：It's a pity/ a matter of regret/ (no) wonder/ shame that….
例：It’s pity that you should not come to my birthday party last weekend. (遗憾)
It’s a shame that the overcoat should be so cheap.
It's a pity that you should leave so soon.（惋惜）
It's right that you should think that way. (should用法，表赞赏）
It's surprising that Alice should have married her. （惊讶）
♣ 注意】：许多人认为这种句型后一定要接should型虚拟语气，其实这是种误解。如果说话人并不表达他的这些感情，而只是对某种事实的陈述，上述句型谓语动词则不用should 型虚拟语气,而用陈述语气。这要由说话人的意图和语境来决定。
It's surprising that Alice married her. （要依据实际语境，说话人并没有惊讶的意思，只是陈述事件。） It’s strange that he didn’t come yesterday. It’s a pity that they didn’t attend the meeting.
2．虚拟语气在宾语从句中的应用 (Object clause)
1）宾语从句在表示提议、要求、命令、意志、愿望 等动词后，可用“should do”或“do型”（be原形动词）虚拟语气。这类动词分类如下：
表示要求8 表示建议5 表示命令2 表示安排/决定3 表示好恶2
ask advise command arrange prefer
desire move (提议) order decide object
demand propose direct intend (打算)
insist suggest resolve(决定)
maintain urge (敦促, 力劝)
request/ require (要求)
例：The doctor suggested that he not go there．医生建议他不要去那里。
Mother insisted that John go to bed at 9 o’clock.
We suggested that the meeting should not be held.
They decided that we（should）leave at once. （这句话有“要求”的意思）
例：Joan's uncle insisted that she not stay in the hotel. 琼的叔叔坚持不让她住宾馆。
He insisted that he did right. 他坚持自己做得对。
② suggest 表示“建议”时，从句动词使用虚拟语气；而当它表示“暗示、表明、显示”时，则从句动词依时间状语正常变化。
He suggested that it be finished by the end of the year.
His face suggested that he was ill and his friends all suggested that he go to see the doctor. When I suggested that he try shaving cream, he said, “The razor and water do the job.” He pursued various theories for several days until I suggested we take the toy apart to see how it did work. ③ ask作“要求”解时用于此种虚拟语气，但做“询问”解时则不用。
The policeman asked the driver why he drove so fast.
The policeman asked that the driver should drive slowly and carefully.
【注意-3】在expect, believe, think, suspect等动词的否定或疑问形式后的宾语从句，我们经常用“should＋动词原形(或完成形式)”，此时should表示惊奇，怀疑，不满等 I never thought that he should be such a brave young soldier.
【注意-4】V+ lest（=that）引导宾语从句，用“（should +）do型”。
I feared lest the students be late．我害怕学生们会迟到。
例：I wish I were you. I wish I were younger. I wish it were true．我但愿这是真的。 I do wish that I could help you. 我真希望我能帮助你。（事实是：我不能帮助你。事与愿违） She wishes she had more money. I wish I didn't say that.
I wish I would be an astronaut. （现在希望将来）I wished I were younger. （过去希望当时） I wished I would be an astronaut. （过去希望过去的将来）
I wished I were not so worried. Then I would not have had the accident.
I wish you would stay here longer. 我希望你在这儿多呆一会。
She wishes you wouldn't go. 她希望你不要走。
例：I wish I had known the answer to the question.
I wish you had called yesterday．我希望你昨天来过电话。
例：I wish I had visited the white House when I was in the states.
（3）与未来愿望不一致，表示将来的愿望：主语＋would（could，might）＋动词原形。 例：I wish I met you tomorrow at the party.
I hope to see you．（=I wish to see you．）我希望看见你。
I wish I had been to Paris．（现在希望过去）I wished I had been to Paris. （过去希望过去的过去） I hope I will go to Paris this summer. (现在希望将来)
【注意-2】和as if之后的虚拟语气比较，对wish和as if后从句中的所用虚拟语气的掌握关键是，对从句的含义和时态的理解与使用，这完全不同于虚拟条件句。需加以注意。
3．虚拟语气在表语从句和同位语从句中的应用 (Predicative clause & Appositive clause)
表示要求6 表示建议6 表示命令2 表示安排/决定5 表示好恶2 其他4 desire suggestion command arrangement preference idea
demand proposal order decision objection importance insistence advice intention (打算) necessity request motion(提议) plan understanding (协议) requirement resolution(决定，决议)
urge (迫切要求) recommendation (建议)
例：His suggestion is that the meeting be put off．他的建议是推迟开会。
My advice is that you (should) treat her well. 我的忠告是你应该善待她。
My decision is that the child sleep in that room. The suggestion that he be invited was rejected. He makes the demand that she (should) leave the place at once.
That is their demand that their wages be increased.
（三）．形容词性从句 (Attributive clause)
虚拟语气在“It is time (that)…”句型中的应用
在“ It +is/was +（high或about）time +（that）主语从句（早该„„）”句型中，用“WERE型（did型）或should（不能省略）＋原形”，表示“做某事的时间早完了或早该做„„了”。
[句型]：It's time that….，It's high time that…. ，It's about time that…. （早该„„）
例：It is time the children went to bed. 孩子们早该上床睡觉了。（表示催促）
It’s time that you went to school. 或 It’s time that you should go to school.
It's high time that he began to think how to deal with money. 他早该开始考虑如何与钱打交道。 It is high time that you went home. 你们现在必须回家了。
【注意】：比较 it is high time that we got up. 早就到了起床的时间了
It is high time for us to get up. 起床的时间已经到。
1．If only 引导的的感叹句用虚拟语气，相当于I wish。If only是if 的加强用法，实际上是省去了结果主句的虚拟结构，表示主语或说话人的的愿望。它引起的感叹句相当于“How I wish＋宾语从句”，意为“„„就好了/该多好啊”。其后句子的谓语特点：现在使用过去式；过去使用过去的过去；将来使用过去将来。
例：If only she were my sister. If only I were five years younger!
If only he could come! If only I had known the answer! 我要早知答案就好了。 If only she had never been married. 要是她从没有结婚就好了。
【注意】：if only 还可引导条件分句，且该分句总在主句前：
If only I had more money, I could buy some new clothes.
If only someone had told us, we could have warned you.
2．宾语从句在表示“宁愿、希望”等愿望的动词词组would, would／had rather，would／had sooner，would／had as soon等后面，表示与事实相反时，谓语动词用WERE(did)型表示现在和将来的情况；用“had done” 型表示过去的情况。句型“A would rather (that) B„”。 例：I would rather (that) you did it right now. 我愿意你马上做。
I’d rather you posted the letter right away.
比较】：I’d rather you had returned the book yesterday. (从句，主从句主语不同)
I’d rather return the book now/ tomorrow. (不定式, 唯一主语)
3．在句型Would you mind if…中，从句谓语动词用did型。
例：Would you英语语法-虚拟语气 mind if I smoked in the room?
比较】：Do you mind my opening the window?
过去式只保留did，could, were 等助动词、情态动词或系动词；had +过去分词结构则保留had；would/should/ might +原型结构则只保留助动词。
例：---Have you found the answer to the problem --- I wish I had (found it).
I can’t go to the concert with you, but I wish I could.
1. be型为should + 动词原形，主要用于名词性从句中； 2. were型主要用于if 条件句中和特定句型中；
二）熟记虚拟语气的常见句型和应用分布 (Sentence patterns)
三）熟练掌握虚拟语气涉及的动词、介词、连词及相关词组的含义和用法 (Word usage)
四）勤于理解与思考，把握英语的动词变化特点，掌握规律 (Understanding the characteristics )
五．虚拟语气解题训练。见得各种题型，把握变化类型，轻松搞定。（挑战型 CET-4/6） 1. At the conference, it has been decided that she _____ an opportunity to go abroad as a sales representative.
A) is going to have B) have C) will have D) has
2. The women's magazines, deploring the statistics, urged that courses on marriage, and
marriage counselors, ______ in the high schools.
A) installed B) be installed C) have been installed D) installing
3. Sally can't have been in Paris, or _____.
A) I met him B) I'd met him C) I'll meet him D) I'd have met him
4. I second Mr. Wang’s motion that a special committee _____ to examine the problem.
A) be established B) established C) was to establish D) was established
5. He was fully occupied yesterday, otherwise he _____ to the sales conference.
A) would come B) would have come C) came D) had come
6. If the climate had been more favourable, the crops ____ still better.
A) would have grown B) would be growing C) would be grown D) will grow
7. These facts suggested that women ______ in opportunity for physical exercise by cultural taboos.
A) should been limited B) had been limited C) be limited D) have been limited
8. Tom _____ better than to ask Dick for help.
A) should have known B) shouldn't know C) has known D) shall know
9. She _____ better than to trust in him.
A) should have known B) shouldn't know C) will have known D) should know
10. I would very much like to have gone to see the movie, but I _____ a ticket.
A) shall not have B) haven't had C) don't have D) didn't have
11. The result has turned still worse than it _____.
A) would otherwise have been B) would be otherwise C) has otherwise been D) had otherwise been
12. ---"I wish you _____ the play last night. " ---"It's a shame that I _____. "
A) had attended; didn't B) attended; didn't C) had attended; hadn't D) could attend; haven't
13. The stubborn young man did not follow the advice that he ____on his behavior since he refused to believe he had done anything wrong.
A) reflect B) had reflected C) would reflect D) must reflect
14. ______ if you had missed the chance?
A) Had you regretted B) Wouldn't you regret C) Did you regret D) Wouldn't you have regretted
15. It is imperative on us _____. A) to be tolerant of him B)that we should be tolerant of him C) to tolerant of him D) to tolerant him
16. I intend to move that our committee ____and I hope that you will second my motion.
A) will appoint B) appoint C) appoints D) has appoint
17. ______ for your help, we'd never have been difficulties.
A) Had it not been B) Had it not C) If it were not D) If we had been
18. The storm delayed us. ______ the storm we would have been in time.
A) For B) Were it not for C) Had it not been for D) But
19. The party ____ at my house, but the central heating broke down, and we had to have it at John's place.
A) would be B) would have been C) was to be D) were
20. He turned down her proposal that she ____ at the conference.
A) should offer B) offer C) offered D) offering
21. The school board listened quietly as John read the demands that his followers _____ for.
A) be demonstrating B) demonstrate C) had been demonstrating D) have demonstrated
22. It was suggested at the meeting that effective measures _____ to solve the problem.
A) be taken B) were taken C) must be taken D) take
23. The picture exhibition bored me to death. I wish I _____ to it.
A) have not gone B) had not gone C) didn't go D) should not have gone
24. It is desirable that the doctor ____ there at the moment.
A) be B) would be C) will be D) must be
25. I propose that a woman _____ deputy to the district congress.
A) would be nominated B) was nominated C) is nominated D) be nominated Key: 1-10BBDBA BBAAD 11-20AAABA BACBC 21-25CABAD
(1) 在if从句中，如果有had,were,should，可以省略if 再把had,were,should提到句首.
If you had studied hard last year,you would have got high marks. If you were to study hard next year,you would get high marks
= Had you studied hard last year, you would have got high marks. = Were you to study hard next year, you would get high marks .
（4）还有一些词可以使用虚拟语气： with,without,but for,but,otherwise，分词短语，名词短语
What would you do with one million dollars?如果你有100万美元，你会做什么
Without your help,we couldn’t have finished the task.没有你的帮助，我们不可能完成这个任务
But for your help,we couldn’t have finished the task.没有你的帮助，我们不可能完成这个任务
I should have given you more help,but I was too busy.我本应该给你更多帮助的，但是我那时太忙了
I was ill that day.Otherwise,I would have taken part in the sports meetin英语语法虚拟语气g.我那天病了，否则，我就会参加运动会了
Born in better time,he would have been a famous writer.如果出生在好时代，他早就成为一个作家了
A few hours earlier,you would have been able to see the famous writer.如果你早来几个小时，你就能已经见到这个著名的作家了