虚拟语气语法

虚拟语气语法

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范文一:虚拟语气的语法

虚拟语气

Subjunctive mood

语气及语气种类

(1)证气,指的是一种动词的形式用来表示说话者的意图或态度。

(2)在英语中,语气有三种:

① 直陈语气:表示所说的话是个事实

如:France lies on the wind-ward side of Europe.

② 祈使语气:表示说话人所说的话是请求或命令。

如:Make yourself at home

请别客气! Don’t be late!

③ 虚拟语气:表示说话人所说的话是一种主观的愿望,假想或建议等。 如:1. We only wish ue wuld help

2. Lf there were no graity (地心引力)we sheul not be able to walk.

3. He suggests that ue shoald all go to see the film.

一、虚拟语气在条件句中(虚拟条件句)

虚拟条件句所表达的是一种假设或者是不大可能发生的情况。

(1)与现在事实相反的虚拟条件句

虚拟语气用在与现在事实相反的条件句中,条件从句的谓语动词要使用动词的过去形式(be用were),结果主句的谓语使用“shoulol(第一人称)/would(第

二、三人称)+V(动词原形)”

① eg: If we left now. we shoudd arrite in good limo

② If I uere you, I should refused the money.

③ Euen if he had the money, he wouldn’t buy it.

(2)与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句

虚拟语气用在与过去事实相反的条件句中时,条件从句的谓语用“had+-ed”,结果主句的谓语用“should/would+Vhaoe+-ed”.

如:① We should have dmpped the by if we had had tim.

② If they hadn’t gone on vacation, their house souldn’t have been broken into. 注:1. “Were”也可以用来表示与过去事实相反

Eg: If I weren’t busy ,I would haoe gone.

2.表示过去时间的假设也可用虚拟语气,“should hace+-ed”这种虚拟式所表达的动作并非完全不可能发生,它只表示一种偶然性,并且常和直陈语气连用,但也可以与虚拟式连用。

eg: You can imagine(设想)what would have happened to her if she should have

told the truth.

3.美国大众常用“would have+-ed”来表示与过去事实相反的假设。

eg: If these sleeplessness (失眠)would have been allowed to go on, she would have collapsed(崩溃)

(3)与将来事实相反的虚拟条件句

虚拟语气用在与将来事实相反的条件句中时,条件从句的谓语动词使用动词的过去式形式(be的过去或用were),结果主句用“should / would+V”

如:① If you dropped the glass, if would break.

② What would happen if I put the paper on the fire?

注:1. 在无上下文时,下面的“rained”e 歧意,可能是虚拟语气,也可能是表示过去习惯的直陈语气。

eg:If it rained, we would stay indoors playing cards.

2.在与将来事实相反的条件句中,其条件从句的谓语也可以用“were to +V”.这种虚拟形式比较正式,多用于书面语。

eg:① If he were to come, what would we sag to him?

② If you were to come tomorrow, I might have time to see you.

3.在与将来事实相反的条件句中,条件从句的谓语也可以用“should+ V”这种形式不强调意愿,只强调一种有偶然实现的可能性。

eg: ①If he should see me, he would know me.

②If we should catch the ringleaders, it would be a remarkable(卓越的)a chieoement(成就)

4. 下面这种形式往往有不为人所欢迎的含义。

eg: ①If it should rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the match.

②If he should go away, I shoud be grieoed (悲伤)

5. 有时我们可以使用would代替should以避免重复。

eg:If you would be interested, I should be very glad to send you a copy of my

book.

(4)虚拟条件句用于倒装

在书面用语中,条件从句可以省略“if”而将谓语中的过去式“werehad或should移到主语之前。

如:① Were you in my position(位置),you would do the same.

(=If you were in my position, you would do the same)

② Had he been in your position, he woald probably have done the same.

(=If he had been in your position he would probably hace done the same)

③ Should they attack(攻击)us, we would wipe (消灭)them out completely(完全地)

(=If the should attack us……)

注:在虚拟形式中除了“were / had / should”可移至主语之有以外,“did / would /wuld”等也可移至主语之前构成省略“计”的倒装形式。

(5)错综虚拟条件句(条件从句与结果主句所表达的时间不一致)

当条件从句与结果主句表示的时间不一致时,虚拟语气的形式,要做相应的调整。

如:① If I had spoken to him yesterday , I should know what to do now.

② If father hadn’t sent me , I shouldn’t be here

注:在条件句中如果使用“If I were……”形式,结果主句可以使用表示任何时间的虚拟形式。

eg: If I weren’t busy, I would have come were 用来表示过去。

If I were you, I would go (were用来表示现在)

(6)含蓄条件句

虚拟条件从句中的从句有时省略或只暗含在上下文中,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句。含蓄条件句大体可分为两类:

1.条件句暗含在短语中 withoutgraoity地心引力Wecouldn'tlive如: iftherewerenograoityontheeath条件暗含在介词短语中:without gravity

But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the experiment(实验)

暗含条件是:but for your help

I am really very busy, otherwise(否则)I would certainly go there with you 条件暗含在“other wise……”中

2. 条件暗含在上下文中

如:I wouldn’t have done it (可能暗含“If I were you”)

I would have bought it (暗含条件是“If I had had the monay”)

注:在不少情况下虚拟式已成为习惯用法

eg: I could go on for another two hours

(7)省略结果主句的虚拟条件句

虚拟条件句如果省略结果主句,则常表示一种不可能实现的愿望,这种条件句常用“if only”来引导。

如:If only you would to listen reason 你要是讲理就好了

② If only he were here 他要是在这儿就好了

③ If only I had never married

④ If only I could smash the ground with my fist and make the oil flow

(8)情态动词用于虚拟语气

有不少情态动词也可用于虚拟语气

如:① If I hadn’t wonder you, you could have been killed

② I couldn’t be angry with him if I tried

③ May you live a long and happy life

May 用于表示祝愿

(9)虚拟语气用于when 等引导的条件从句

虚拟条件句中的条件句,除了用“if”外,还可以用when /unless/suppose /as if (就像……一样)/ for fear / in case等引出。

如:① The peasants prepared to feed the city

② When it should be freed(解放)

③ Unless I were well I couldn’t be at school

④ Suppos you uere given a choice to study in

America, would you aceept?

二、虚拟语气用在主语从句

虚拟语气除了用在状语从句之外,也可用在主语从句中,虚拟语气的形式应该是“should+V. /shoutd+have+-ed”(在美国英语中should 可省略), “should”在此是时态助动词,本身无实际意义,这样的主语从句一般由“that”引导,常用在以“it”作为形式主语的“it+is / was+important / necessary / desirable(称心的,直得向往的)/imperative(绝对必要的)/ advisable(可取的,行当的)+that……句型中 如:① It is important that we should speak politely

② It is imperative that we (should)practise critictsm and self-criticism. ③ It isn’t necessary that everyone be a scientist.

注:这种结构中也可用陈语气

eg:It was important that he made a successful experiment last week.

三、虚拟语气用于宾语从句中

虚拟语气用于宾语从句中,有三种情况:

(1)用于动词“wish”之后,这样的句子常省略that来表示愿望。宾语从句的谓语用过去时,表示与现在事实相反,使用过去完成时,表示与过去事实相反。 如:① I wish I were you (与现在事实相反)

② She wishes she hadn’t said that (与过去事实相反)

③ I wish you would stay a little longer(would表示一种希望或请求)

注:“would rather (宁愿)/sooner”可以代替wish表示愿望来引出虚拟语气。 eg:① I would rather you came tomorrow

② I would sooner she left the hoaoy end of the cork to someone else

(2)用于demand(要求)/ suggest /propose(提议)/ order(命令)/arrange(安排)/insist(坚持)/ command(指挥)/ require / requst(请求)/ desire(希望)等动词的宾语。这种虚拟语气一般由that所引导,谓语动词使用“should+V”(should可省略)

如:① I desire the patient (should)have a bath every day

② He suggested that we (should) leave early

③ The detective insisted that he (should)have a look

④ They require that I (should)go at once

注:1.有些动词如think/expect/believe,其否定形式的宾语,从句也可用“should+V” eg:I never thought he should refused

He dien’t expect that you should come

2.有关should/would 的使用要注意以下四点:

① should+V可用在when引导的宾语从句中

eg: A few maids were seen waiting in the hall for whon they should be wanted ② 宾语从句也可用“should+be+Ving”

eg: Sometimes she would suggest I should be saving some of the money

③ 宾语从句有时也有人用would代替should

eg: Some people suggest that it would be better to start teaching English in kindergarten(幼儿园)

④ 宾语从句现有时可用直陈语气

He suggested that we studied English together

(3)虚拟语气用在某些adj或相当于adj,使用的“-ed”形式之后的由“that”引出的宾语从句。

如:① I was glad that he should go

② I am ashamed that you should have done such a thing

③ I am sorry that you should have to done

(4)虚拟语气用于表语从句和同位语从句

虚拟语气也可以用在表语从句中,这种从句由that引导(that可省略)谓语结构是“should+V”,句子的主语常是suggestion/ probosal/idea等名词.

如:① My suggestion is that we should tell him

② Our only request is that these should be settled(解决)as soon as possible.

虚拟语气也可用在同位语从句中:

如:There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team 虚拟语气用于定语从句中

虚拟语气还可以用在宾语从句中,这种从句常常用在“It is me (that)……”句型中,定语从句常用虚拟语气的过去式形式。

如:It is time we left

It is time we went bed

六、动词原形用于正式文体中

动词原形和为虚拟时态都用在正式的文体中(非正式文体用直陈语气)它在条件句中所表达的假设能够实现所以其结果主句应该使用直陈语气。

eg: If it rain I shall not go

范文二:语法13虚拟语气

学位英语语法讲解13:虚拟语气

2009-06-27 22:31:41| 分类: 英语语法

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十三、虚拟语气

一.虚拟语气在条件从句中的用法。

在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气,现将其形式列表如下:

动词形式 时间从句主句

与现在事实相反动词过去式(be的过去式用were)would(could/should/might)+动词原形

与过去事实相反had+动词过去分词would(could/should/might)+have过去分词

与将来事实可能相反动词过去式

should+动词原形

were to+动词原形would(could/should/might)+动词原形

1.表示与现在事实相反的假设和结果。如:

If I were you, I should(would ,could, might)tell him the truth.

要是我是你,我就会告诉他真相了。(事实上我不是你)

If she had time, she would(could, might)help

me.如果她有时间,她就会帮我了。(事实上她没有时间)

2 .表示与过去事实相反的假设和结果。如:

If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I should(would,

could, might)have telephoned

you.如果昨天我知道了你的电话号码,我就会给你打电话了。(事实上我昨天不知道你的电话号码。)

If you had taken my advice, you wouldn’t(couldn’t) have failed

in the exam.如果你听了我的建议,你就不会考试不及格。(事实上你根本没听我的。)

3. 表示与将来事实可能相反的假设和结果。如:

If it should rain, the crops would(could, might)be saved.

假如天下雨,庄稼可能就收获了。

注:在表示与将来事实可能相反的条件从句中,were to + 动词原形比较正式,常用于书面语中。

If you were to go to Beijing, you would (could, might) have a

chance to visit Tian An Men Square.

三.虚拟语气的其它用法。

1 虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法。

在“It is important (strange, natural, necessary)

that…”这类句型中,that所引导的主语从句中的谓语动词常用

“(should)+动词原形”结构,表示某事是“重要”,“奇怪”,“自然”,“必要”等意义。如:It is important that

every Beijinger (should) be able to speak English.

重要的是每个北京人能说英语。

It is necessary that he (should) be sent to hospital at once.

有必要马上把他送医院。

2 虚拟语气在宾语从句中的用法。

(1)在动词wish后的宾语从句中,表示与现在或过去的事实相反,或对将来的主观愿望,从句通常省略连词that。

a.表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用过去式或过去进行时(be的过去式用were )表示。如:

I wish I knew the answer to the question.

我希望知道这个问题的答案。(可惜不知道。)

I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year

around.但愿我的家乡四季如春。(只是愿望,实际根本不可能实现。) b.表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用 had+过去分词。如:

I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.

我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。(实际上已经浪费掉了。)

He wishes (wished) he hadn’t lost the chance.

他真希望没有失去机会。(事实上机会已经失去了,他感到惋惜。) c.表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为

“would/should/could/might+动词原形”,此时要注意,主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同,因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能否实现,取决于从句主语的态度或意愿(非动作名词除外)。如:

I wish it would stop raining.但愿雨能停止。

I wish you would be quiet.我希望你安静一些。

(2)在suggest(建议), demand(要求), order(命令), propose(建议), insist(坚持要做),

command(命令), request(要求), desire(希望)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用

“(should)+动词原形”,表示建议,要求,命令等。如:

I suggest that we (should) start the meeting at once.我建议马上开会。 The undergraduate insisted that he (should) go to work in the

south.这位即将毕业的学生坚持要到南方去工作。

注:当suggest表示暗示,主语为something;insist表示坚持观点时,后接的宾语从句当用真实语气。比较:

His silence suggested that he agreed with my

decision.他的沉默暗示着他赞成我的决定。

He suggested that I (should) stick to my decision.他建议我坚持自己的决定。 He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people’s

health. 他坚持认为做早操对健康有益。

He insists that he (should) do morning exercises every

day.他坚持他每天都要早操。

3. 虚拟语气在表语从句中的用法。

当主语为advice, suggestion, order,

proposal等词时后接表语从句,表语从句中的谓语动词常用“(should)+动词原形”结构,表示某人建议、劝告、命令等的内容。如:

My advice is that you should practise speaking English as often

as possible.我的建议是你尽可能经常地练习说英语。

The order from the commander was that the troops should set off

for the front immediately.司令官的命令是部队立即开拔去前线。

4.特殊的虚拟语气结构。

(1)虚拟语气用在状语从句中

由as if 或as

though引导的状语从句表示比较或方式时,从句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气。动词形式用动词的过去式(be→were)或had+过去分词。如:

The teacher treats the student as if he were her own child.

这位老师带这位学生就象她的亲生孩子一样。

He speaks as if he had been to the United States.他说得好象他真的到过美国似的。

(2)在It is time (that) …; I’d rather

(that)…句型中从句的谓语动词常用动词的过去式表示虚拟语气,意思是“该干某事了,时间已经有些晚了”“我宁愿/希望”。如:

It is time that we did something to stop

pollution.该我们做些什么制止污染的时候了。

It is time that Father picked up Lily from the

kindergarten.该父亲去幼儿园接莉莉的时候了。

I’d rather you told me the truth.我真希望你告诉我真相。

I’d rather I didn’t see you again.我宁愿不再见着你。

5.虚拟语气在同位语从句中的用法

在名词advice, suggestion, order, proposal等后接的同位语从句中,谓语动词用虚拟语气,起形式为

“(should)+动词原形”,说明“建议”,“劝告”,“命令”等的具体内容。如: The order came that the work should be finished two days ahead of

time.

提前两天完成工作的命令传来了。

Reluctantly she accepted their proposal that she should be operated

on.

她勉强接受了他们要她去接受手术的建议。

难点释疑:

(一)主从句时间不一致情况下的虚拟语气(混合条件句)

有时条件从句中的动作和结果与主句中的动作,发生的时间不一致,这时动作的形式应根据它所表示的时间加以调整。如:

If you had followed my advice, you would be able to finish the work

now.

如果你当时听了我的话,现在就能完成这份工作了。(从句说明过去,主句说

明现在。)

If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party.

如果我是你,我就去参加她的生日晚会了。(从句说明现在,主句说明过去。) If you hadn’t lent me some money, I couldn’t have bought the new

house and most likely I would be still living in the dangerous house

now.假若你不借钱给我, 我不可能买下这幢新房,很可能现在还住在危房里。(从句说明过去,主句说明过去和现在。)

(二)含蓄条件句

非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表出来,只暗含在上下文中,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句。含蓄条件句大体有三种情况;

1. 条件暗含在短语中。如:

(1)W hat would I have done without you?

如没有你,我会怎么办呢?(条件暗含在分词短语without you中)

(2) It would be easier to do it this way.

这样做会比较容易。(条件暗含在不定式短语to do it this way中)

(3) This same thing, happening in wartime, would lead to a

disaster.

同样的事,如发生在战时,就会酿成大祸。(条件暗含在分词短语happening in wartime中)

(4) But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the

experiment.

如果没有你的帮助,我们的实验是不会成功。 (暗含条件是but for your help)

(5) He must have the strength of a hippopotamus, or he never

could have vanquished that

great beast.他一定是力大如河马,否则他绝不会击败那只庞大的野兽。(暗含条件是连词or)

(6) Alone, he would have been terrified.

如是单独一人,他是会感到害怕的。(暗含条件是alone)

(三)条件从句中省去if的情况

在if引导的表示虚拟的条件状语从句中,常可以省略if,将had, were或should提至句首。

Had I seen the film, I would have discussed it with them last

night.

假如我看了那部电影,昨晚我就可以和他们一起讨论了。

Were I a bird, I could fly freely. 假如我是一只小鸟,我就能自由翱翔。 Should it rain next week the farmers would have a good harvest.

要是下周能下雨的话,农民们就能有个好收成了。

范文三:语法--虚拟语气

16. 虚拟语气

1) 概念

虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相反。

2) 在条件句中的应用

条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件句表示的是假设的或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用虚拟语气。

16.1 真实条件句

真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是如果的意思。

时态关系

句型: 条件从句    主句

一般现在时   shall/will + 动词原形

if he comes, he will bring his violin.

典型例题

the volleyball match will be put off if it ___.

a. will rain  b. rains  c. rained  d. is rained

答案b。真实条件句主句为将来时,从句用一般现在时。

注意:

1) 在真实条件句中,主句不能用be going to表示将来,该用shall, will.

(错) if you leave now, you are never going to regret it.

(对) if you leave now, you will never regret it.

2) 表示真理时,主句谓语动词便不用shall (will) +动词原形,而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。

16.2 非真实条件句

1)时态:可以表示过去,现在和将来的情况。它的基本特点是时态退后。

a.  同现在事实相反的假设。

句型 : 条件从句     主句

一般过去时   should( would) +动词原形

if they were here, they would help you.

b.  表示于过去事实相反的假设。

句型: 条件从句      主句

过去完成时    should(would) have+ 过去分词

if she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.

the rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful.

if my lawyer had been here last saturday, he would have prevented me from going.

if he had come yesterday, i should / would have told him about it.

含义:he did not come yesterday, so i did not tell him about it.

if he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress.

含义: he was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress.

c.  表示对将来的假想

句型:  条件从句       主句

一般过去时      should+ 动词原形

were+ 不定式     would + 动词原形

should+ 动词原形

if you succeeded, everything would be all right.

if you should succeed, everything would be all right.

if you were to succeed, everything would be all right.

16.3 混合条件句

主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间,这时主,从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形式因时间不同而不同,这叫做混合条件句。

if you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now.

(从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反。)

if it had rained last night (过去), it would be very cold today (现在).

16.4 虚拟条件句的倒装

虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有were, should, 或had, 可将if省略,再把were, should或had 移到从句句首,实行倒装。

were they here now, they could help us.

=if they were here now, they could help us.

had you come earlier, you would have met him

=if you had come earlier, you would have met him.

should it rain, the crops would be saved.

=were it to rain, the crops would be saved.

注意:

在虚拟语气的从句中,动词'be'的过去时态一律用"were",不用was, 即在从句中be用were代替。

if i were you, i would go to look for him.

如果我是你,就会去找他。

if he were here, everything would be all right.

如果他在这儿,一切都会好的。

典型例题

_____ to do the work, i should do it some other day.

a. if were i   b. i were c. were i d. was i

答案c. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词,通常将if省略,主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意,在虚拟条件状语从句中,省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说 were i not to do., 而不能说 weren't i to do.

16.5 特殊的虚拟语气词:should

1) it is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用should 加动词原形, should 可省略。

句型:

(1)suggested

it is  (2)important    that…+ (should) do

(3) a pity

(1)suggested, ordered, proposed, required,  demanded, requested, insisted; + (should) do

(2)important, necessary, natural, strange

a pity,  a shame,  no wonder

(3)it is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

it is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.

2)在宾语从句中的应用

在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中。

order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do

i suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

he insisted that he (should ) be sent there.

注意: 如suggest, insist不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时",即它们用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时,宾语从句用陈述语气。

the guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules.

判断改错:

(错) you pale face suggests that you (should) be ill.

(对)  your pale face suggests that you are ill.

(错)  i insisted that you ( should) be wrong.

(对)  i insisted that you were wrong.

3)在表语从句,同位语从句中的应用

在suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气,即(should)+动词原形。

my idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.

i make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

16.6 wish的用法

1)用于wish后面的从句,表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望。其宾语从句的动词形式为:

真实状况 wish后

从句动作先于主句动词动作  现在时  过去时

(be的过去式为 were)

从句动作与主句动作同时发生 过去时  过去完成时

(had + 过去分词)

将来不大可能实现的愿望   将来时 would/could +

动词原形

i wish i were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。

he wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他没讲那样的话。

i wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。

2)wish to do表达法。

wish sb / sth to do

i wish to see the manager. = i want to see the manager.

i wish the manager to be informed at once. (= i want the manager to be informed at once.)

16.7 比较if only与only if

only if表示"只有";if only则表示"如果……就好了"。if only也可用于陈述语气。

i wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。

if only the alarm clock had rung.   当时闹钟响了,就好了。

if only he comes early.       但愿他早点回来。

16.8 it is (high) time that

it is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形,但should不可省略。

it is time that the children went to bed.

it is high time that the children should go to bed.

16.9 need "不必做"和"本不该做"

didn't need to do表示: 过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做。.

needn't have done表示: 过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了。

john went to the station with the car to meet mary, so she didn't need to walk back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她不必步行回家了。

john went to the station with the car to meet mary, so she needn't have walked back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她本不必步行回家了。 (mary步行回家,没有遇上john的车。)

典型例题

there was plenty of time. she ___.

a. mustn't have hurried  b. couldn't have hurried  c. must not hurry  d. needn't have hurried

答案d。needn't have done. 意为"本不必",即已经做了某事,而时实际上不必要。

mustn't have done 用法不正确,对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为couldn't have done, "不可能已经"。 must not do 不可以(用于一般现在时)。

范文四:虚拟语气用法

条件从句有两类,一是真实条件句,另一是虚拟条件句。

如果假设的情况可能发生,是真实条件句,这种情况下谓语用陈述语气。

如:If time permits, we’ll go fishing together.

如果时间允许,我们就一起去钓鱼。

如果假设的情况是不存在的或不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。

如:If you had come yesterday, you would have met that famous professor.

如果你昨天来,你就会见到那位著名的教授了。

(隐含的事实是:你昨天没来,也没见到那位著名教授)。

在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气。

注:主句中的should只用于第一人称,但在美国英语中,should常被would代替;从句中的should可用于各种人称。

表示与现在事实相反的假设和结果。

如:If I were you, I should(would ,could, might)tell him the truth.

要是我是你,我就会告诉他真相了。(事实上我不是你)

If she had time, she would(could, might)help me.

如果她有时间,她就会帮我了。(事实上她没有时间)

表示与过去事实相反的假设和结果。

如:If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I should (would, could, might)have

telephoned you.

如果昨天我知道了你的电话号码,我就会给你打电话了。(事实上我昨天不知道你的电话号码。)

If you had taken my advice, you wouldn’t (couldn’t) have failed in the exam.

如果你听了我的建议,你就不会考试不及格。(事实上你根本没听我的。

表示与将来事实可能相反的假设和结果。

如:If it should rain, the crops would(could, might)be saved.

假如天下雨,庄稼可能就收获了。

---What would happen if I put the paper on the fire?

---It would burn.

---我若把只放在火上会怎么样?

---纸会烧着。

注:在表示与将来事实可能相反的条件从句中,were to + 动词原形比较正式,常用于书面语中。如:

If you were to go to Beijing, you would (could, might) have a chance to visit Tian An Men Square.

虚拟语气的其它用法

虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法

在“It is important (strange, natural, necessary) that…”这类句型中,that所引导的主语从句中的谓语动词常用 “(should)+动词原形”结构,表示某事是“重要”,“奇怪”,“自然”,“必要”等意义。

如:It is important that every Beijinger (should) be able to speak English.

重要的是每个北京人能说英语。

It is necessary that he (should) be sent to hospital at once.

有必要马上把他送医院。

虚拟语气在宾语

从句中的用法

在动词wish后的宾语从句中,表示与现在或过去的事实相反,或对将来的主观愿望,从句通常省略连词that。

表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式(be的过去式用were )表示。如:

I wish I knew the answer to the question.

我希望知道这个问题的答案。(可惜不知道。)

I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year around.

但愿我的家乡四季如春。(只是愿望,实际根本不可能实现。)

表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用 had+过去分词。如:

I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.

我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。(实际上已经浪费掉了。

He wishes (wished) he hadn’t lost the chance.

他真希望没有失去机会。(事实上机会已经失去了,他感到惋惜。)

表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为 “would/should/could/might+动词原形”,此时要注意,主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同,因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能否实现,取决于从句主语的态度或意愿(非动作名词除外)。如:

I wish it would stop raining.

但愿雨能停止。

I wish you would be quiet.

我希望你安静一些。

在suggest(建议), demand(要求), order(命令), propose(建议), insist(坚持要做), command(命令), request(要求), desire(希望)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用 “(should)+动词原形”,表示建议,要求,命令等。如:

I suggest that we (should) start the meeting at once.

我建议马上开会。

The graduate insisted that he (should) go to work in the south.

这位即将毕业的学生坚持要到南方去工作。

注:当suggest表示暗示,主语为something;insist表示坚持观点时,后接的宾语从句当用真实语气。比较:

His silence suggested that he agreed with my decision.

他的沉默暗示着他赞成我的决定。

He suggested that I (should) stick to my decision.

他建议我坚持自己的决定。

He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people’s health.

他坚持认为做早操对健康有益。

He insists that he (should) do morning exercises every day.

他坚持他每天都要早操

虚拟语气在表语从句中的用法

当主语为advice, suggestion, order, proposal等词时后接表语从句,表语从句中的谓语动词常用“(should)+动词原形”结构,表示某人建议、劝告、命令等的内容。

如:

My advice is that you should practise speaking English as often as possible.

我的建议是你尽可能经常地练习说英语。

The order from the commander was that the troops should set off for the front immediately.

司令官

的命令是部队立即开拔去前线。

特殊的虚拟语气结构

虚拟语气用在状语从句中

由as if 或as ,though引导的状语从句表示比较或方式时,从句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气。动词形式用动词的过去式(be→were)或had+过去分词。如:

The teacher treats the student as if he were her own child.

这位老师带这位学生就象她的亲生孩子一样。

He speaks as if he had been to the United States.

他说得好象他真的到过美国似的。

在It is time (that) …; I’d rather (that)…句型中从句的谓语动词常用动词的过去式表示虚拟语气,意思是“该干某事了,时间已经有些晚了”“我宁愿/希望”。如:

It is time that we did something to stop pollution.

该我们做些什么制止污染的时候了。

It is time that Father picked up Lily from the kindergarten.

该父亲去幼儿园接莉莉的时候了。

I’d rather you told me the truth.

我真希望你告诉我真相。

I’d rather I didn’t see you again.

我宁愿不再见着你。

虚拟语气在同位语从句中的用法

在名词advice, suggestion, order, proposal等后接的同位语从句中,谓语动词用虚拟语气,其形式为 “(should)+动词原形”,说明“建议”,“劝告”,“命令”等的具体内容。

如:The order came that the work should be finished two days ahead of time.

提前两天完成工作的命令传来了。

Reluctantly she accepted their proposal that she should be operated on.

她勉强接受了他们要她去接受手术的建议。

注意: 有时条件从句中的动作和结果与主句中的动作,发生的时间不一致,这时动作的形式应根据它所表示的时间加以调整。如:

If you had followed my advice, you would be able to finish the work now.

如果你当时听了我的话,现在就能完成这份工作了。

(从句说明过去,主句说明现在。)

If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party.

如果我是你,我就去参加她的生日晚会了。(从句说明现在,主句说明过去。)

If you hadn’t lent me some money, I couldn’t have bought the new house and most likely

I would be still living in the dangerous house now.

假若你不借钱给我,我不可能买下这幢新房,很可能现在还住在危房里。

(从句说明过去,主句说明过去和现在。)

条件从句中省去if的情况

在if引导的表示虚拟的条件状语从句中,常可以省略if,将had, were或should提至句首。

如:Had I seen the film, I would have discussed it with them last night.

假如我看了那部电影,昨晚我就可以和他们一起讨论了。

Were I a bird, I could fly

freely.

假如我是一只小鸟,我就能自由翱翔。

Should it rain next week the farmers would have a good harvest.

要是下周能下雨的话,农民们就能有个好收成了。

语法专练——虚拟语气

1. I enjoyed the movie very much. I wish I ______ the book from which it was made.

A. have read         B. had read

C. should have read     D. are reading

2. You are late. If you _____ a few minutes earlier, you _____ him.

A. come; would meet      B. had come; would have met

C. come; will meet       D. had come; would meet

3. The two students talked as if they _____ friends for years.

A. should be      B. would be

C. have been      D. had been

4. It is important that I _____ with Mr. Williams immediately.

A. speak        B. spoke

C. will speak     D. to speak

5. If the doctor had come earlier, the poor child would not _____.

A. have laid there for two hours

B. have been lied there for two hours

C. have lied there for two hours

D. have lain there for two hours

6. Let’s say you could go there again, how _____ feel?

A. will you      B. should you

C. would you     D. do you

7. I can’t stand him. He always talks as though he _____ everything.

A. knew            B. knows

C. has known          D. had known

8. _____ the fog, we should have reached our school.

A. Because of    B. In spite of

C. In case of   D. But for

9. If you had told me in advance, I _____ him at the airport.

A. would meet       B. would had met

C. would have met     D. would have meet

10. Mike can take his car apart and put it back together again. I certainly wish

he________ me how.

A. teaches          B. will teach

C. has taught        D. would teach

11. I would have told him the answer had it been possible, but I _____ so busy then.

A. had been       B. were

C. was          D. would be

12. He suggested that they _____ use a trick instead of fighting.

A. should        B. would

C. could         D. might

13. My father did not go to New York; the doctor suggested that he _____ there.

A. not went      B. won’t go

C. not go       D. not to go

14. Would you rather I _____ to buy a new bike?

A. decided        B. will decide

C. have decided     D. shall decide

15. You look so tired tonight. It is time you _____.

A. go to sleep        B. fell asleep

C. go to bed        D. went to bed

16. If she could sew, _____.

A. she make a dress        B. she would have made a shirt

C. she will make a shirt    D. she would had made a coat

17. _____ today, he would get there by Friday.

A. Would he leave     B. Was he leaving

C. Were he to leave    D. If he leaves

18. If I _____ you, I _____ more attention to English idioms and phrases.

A. was; shall pay         B. am; will pay

C. would be; would pay      D. were; would pay

19. The law requires that everyone _____ his car checked at least once a year.

A. has   B. had  C. have    D. will have

20. It is strange that he _____ so.

A. would say      B. would speak

C. should say      D. will speak

21. Had I known her name, _____

A. or does she know mine?   B. and where does she live?

C. she would be beautiful.   D. I would have invited her to lunch.

22. He was very busy yesterday; otherwise, he _____ to the meeting.

A. would come         B. came

C. would have come      D. will come

23. The librarian insisted that John _____ no more books from the library before he

returned all the books he had borrowed.

A. will take   B. took  C. take  D. takes

24. I do not have a job. I would find one but I _____ no time.

A. had         B. didn’t have

C. had had       D. have

25. Without heat and sunlight, plants on the earth _______ well.

A. would not grow     B. will not grow

C. had not grown     D. would not be grown

26. If only the alarm clock ________ then!

A. had rung      B. ring

C. would ring     D. rang

27. The order from the commander was that the troops ____for the front immediately.

A. set off        B. had set off

C. would set off     D. shall set off

28. Reluctantly she accepted their proposal that she _______ on.

A. should operate    B. be operated

C. operate        D. would operate

参考答案

1-5 BBDAD 6-10 CADCD 11-15 CACAD 16-20 BCDCC

21-25 DCCDA 26-28 AAB

范文五:虚拟语气的用法

虚拟语气在非真实条件状语从句中的用法

1、真实条件状语从句与非真实条件状语从句

------------------------------------------------------------------------

eg . If he doesn’t hurry up, he will miss the bus. 如果他不快点,他将错过巴士。( 真实条件状语)(不是虚拟语气)

If he is free, he will ask me to tell stories. 如果他是空闲的,他会要求我讲故事。(真实条件状语)(不是虚拟语气)

If I were you, I would go at once.如果我是你,我马上就会去。 (非真实条件状语从句) If there were no air, people would die. 如果没有空气,人就会死亡。(非真实条件状语从句)

2、用法及动词形式

1、表示与现在事实相反的情况: if+主语+过去时+其他+主语+should/would/could/might+do+其他 例:

1.If I were you, I would take an umbrella.如果我是你,我会带把伞。(事实:我不可能是你)

2.If I knew his telephone number, I would tell you. 如果我知道他的电话号码,我就会告诉你。(事实:不知道)

3.If there were no air or water, there would be no living things on the earth. 如果没有水和空气,地球上就不会有生物。(事实:地球上既有空气也有水)

4.If I had any money with me, I could lend you some. 如果我带钱了,我就会借给你些。(事实:没带钱)

5.If he studied harder, he might pass the exam.如果他再努力些,就能通过考试了。(事实:没有努力

2、表示与过去事实相反的情况

if+主语+had done +其他+主语+should/would/could/might+have done+其他 例:

1. If I had got there earlier, I should/could have met her. 如果我早到那儿,我就会见到她。(事实:去晚了)

2.If he had taken my advice, he would not have made such a mistake. 如果他听我的劝告的话,就不会犯这样的错误了。(事实:没有听我的话)

3、表示对将来情况的主观推测

①if+主语+were to do+sth.+主语+should/would/could/might+do+其他

② if+主语+did/be(were)+sth.+主语 +should/would/could/might+do+其他 ③if+主语+should+do+sth.+主语 +should/would/could/might+do+其他

例:

1.If he should come here tomorrow, I should/would talk to him. 如果他哪天来这儿的话,我就跟他谈谈。 (事实:来的可能性很小)

2.If there were a heavy snow next Sunday, we would not go skating. 如果下周日下大雪,我们就不能去滑冰了。(事实:不知能否下雪)

3.If she were to be there next Monday, I would tell her about the matter. 如果她下周一来这儿的话,我就会告诉她这件事的始末。

在表示建议、命令、要求等含义的宾语从句,谓语动词常用虚拟语气,

4、 有时,虚拟条件句中,结果主句和条件从句的谓语动作若不是同时发生时,虚拟语气的形式应作相应的调整。

①从句的动作与过去事实相反,而主句的动作与现在或现在正在发生的事实不符。 如:

If I had worked hard at school, I would be an engineer, too. 如果我在学校学习刻苦的话,我现在也会成为一个工程师了

If they had informed us, we would not come here now. 如果他们通知过我们的话,我们现在就不会来这里了。

②从句的动作与现在事实相反,而主句的动作与过去事实不符。如:

If he were free today, we would have sent him to Beijing. 如果他今天有空的话,我们会已经派他去北京了。

If he knew her, he would have greeted her. 要是他认识她的话,他肯定会去问候她了。

③从句的动作与过去发生的情况相反,而主句的动作与现在正在发生的情况相反。如:

If it had not been raining too much, the crops would be growing much better. 如果天不下太多的雨的话,庄稼会长得更好。

If he had been working hard, he would be working in the office now. 要是他一直努力工作的话,他现在已进了办公室了。

5、 当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有were, should, had时,if可以省略,这时条件从句要用倒装语序,即将were, should, had等词置于句首,这种多用于书面语。如:

Should he agree to go there, we would send him there. 要是他答应去的话,我们就派他去。

Were she here, she would agree with us. 如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。 Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here. 如果她懂一些电脑知识的话,我们已经聘用他来这里工作了。

6、非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表达出来,只暗含在副词、介词短语、上下文或其他方式表示出来,这种句子叫做含蓄条件句,在多数情况下,条件会暗含在短语中,如without…., but for….等

But for his help, we would be working now. 要不是他的帮助,我们还会在工作呢。 Without your instruction, I would not have made such great progress. 要是没有你的指导,我不会取得如此大的进步。

We didn’t know his telephone number; otherwise we would have telephoned him. 我们不知道他的电话号码,否则我们就会给他打电话。

7、 有时,虚拟条件句中,主、从句可以省略其中的一个,来表示说话人的一种强烈的感情。

①省略从句 He would have finished it. 他本该完成了。 You could have passed this exam. 你应该能通过这次考试了。

②省略主句 If I were at home now. 要是我现在在家里该多好啊。 If only I had got it. 要是我得到它了该多好啊。、

编辑本段虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)的其他用法

1、虚拟语气用在wish 后的宾语从句

a、表示与现在事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用过去式

eg. I wish I had your brains.我希望我有你那样的头脑。(事实:我根本比不上你) b、表示与过去事实相反的愿望,谓语动词:had+done(动词过去分词)

eg:.I wish I had known the truth of the matter.我希望我原来知道这件事的真相。(事实:原来不知道)

c、表示将来难以实现的愿望 谓语动词:should/would + 动词原形

eg. I wish I should have a chance again.我希望我还能有一次这样的机会。(事实:很难再有这样的机会了) (注:if only和as if/as though也有相同用法)

2、虚拟语气用在目的状语从句中

1.在for fear that, in case, lest引导的,若用虚拟语气时,从句谓语为:should + 动词原形。并且 should不能省略

She examined the door again for fear that a thief should come in. 她又把门检查了一遍,以防盗贼的进入。

He started out earlier lest he should be late. 他很早就出发了以防迟到。

2、在so that, in order that所引导的目的状语从句中,从句中的谓语为:can / may / could / might / will / would / should + 动词原形。

He goes closer to the speaker so that he can hear him clearer. 他走近说话的人以便能听得更清楚。

He read the letter carefully in order that he should not miss a word. 他把信读得很仔细以便不漏掉一个单词。

3、虚拟语气的其他用法

1、一想要(desire)二宁愿(prefer)三命令(order. command)四建议(advice. suggest. propose)五要求(demand. require. request. desire.insist)中,无论主句谓语动词为何种时态,从句的谓语动词都用:“should + 动词原形”或只用“动词原形”。 如 He suggested that we (should) take the teacher’s advice.

He insisted that we (should) take the teacher’s advice.

He demand that we (should) take the teacher’s advice.

He ordered that we (should) take the teacher’s advice.

注:insist如果翻译成坚持某种动作才用虚拟语气翻译成坚持某种观点就不用虚拟语气。 如:He insist he is a student. 他坚持说他是个学生。

这个语句表示的是事实,因此在这个语句中不能使用虚拟语气。

suggest意为“建议”才用虚拟语气,意为“暗示”则不用虚拟语气。

如: His face suggests that he looks worried .他的表情暗含着他很担心。 这个句子本身是事实,因此它就没有用到虚拟语气。

③表情绪.观点的形容词或名词也要用虚拟语气.如:necessary. important. impossible. natural. strange. surprising. funny. right. wrong. better. a pity等。 句型:It is.......that 结构后的主语从句,从句的谓语动词都要用 should+原型 或只用动词原型。 ④虚拟语气在方式状语从句的应用。详百度百科之方式状语从句词条。

2、 在even if, even though 所引导的让步状语从句中,可用虚拟语气,主句、从句的结构与if所引导的条件从句结构相同。如:

Even if he were here himself, he should not know what to do. 即使他亲自来也不知该怎么办。

Nobody could save him even though Hua Tuo should come here. 即使华佗在世也救不了他。

3、 在whatever,whichever,whenever,whoever, wherever,however, no matter wh-word 等引导的让步状语从句中,从句虚拟语气结构为:

① may +动词原形(指现在或将来)。如: We will finish it on time no matter what / whatever may happen. 不管发生什么事,我们都要按时完成。 We will find him wherever / no matter where he may be. 无论他在哪里,我们都要找到他。 I will wait for him no matter how late he may come. 不管他来的多么晚,我都会等他。 ② may +完成式(指过去) ,主句结构不限。如: You mustn’t be proud whatever / no matter what great progress you may have made. 不管你取得了多么大的进步,你也不能骄傲 We must respect him no matter what / whatever mistakes he may have made. 不管他犯过什么错误,我们必须尊敬他。

4、一般would rather, had rather, would sooner等之后的宾语从句常表示与客观事实不相符的一种愿望,故使用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为: 表示所发生的时间虚拟语气结构 过去 had + 过去分词; 现在 过去时(be 用were ) 将来 过去时(be 用were ) 如:I’d rather you had seen the film yesterday. 我倒想你昨天看过了这场电影。 I’d rather you were here now. 我倒想你现在在这儿。 We’d rather you went here tomorrow. 我们倒想你明天去那儿

5、虚拟语气还可用在定语从句中,表示:“早该做某事了”时,定语从句中的谓语动词须用虚拟语气,其虚拟语气的结构为:It is (high / about) time that + 主语+ 动词的过去式/ should + 动词原形,即从句用虚拟过去式。 如It is time that I went to pick up my daughter at school. 我该去学校接我的女儿了。 It is high time you should go to work. 你早该上班了。

6、 简单句中的虚拟语气

(1) 说话时,为了表示客气、谦虚、委婉而有礼貌,言语常使用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构形式常为:would / could / might / should + 原形动词。如: Would you mind my shutting the door? 我把门关起来你介意吗? You should always learn this lesson by heart. 你要把这个教训牢记于心。 I should agree with you. 我应该同意你的观点。

(2) 表示“祝愿”时,常用“may + 主语+ 动词原形+ 其他”。如: May you have a good journey! 祝你一路顺风。 May your youth last for ever! 祝你青春永驻。

(3)表示强烈的“愿望”、“祝愿”时,常用动词原形。如: Long live the Communist Party of China. 中国共产党万岁。 God bless us. 上帝保佑。

(4) 习惯表达中常用的虚拟语气。

(1) 提出请求或邀请。如:

Would you like to have a talk with us this evening? 今天晚上来跟我们聊天好吗? Could I use your bike now? 我可以用一下你的单车吗?

(2) 陈述自己的观点或看法。如:

I should glad to meet you. 见到你我会很高兴。 I would try my best to help you. 我会尽力帮助你。

(3) 提出劝告或建议。如: You’d better ask your father first. 你最好先问一问你

的父亲。 You should make a full investigation of it first. 你应该先全面调查一番。

(4) 提出问题。如: Do you think he could get here on time? 你认为他能按时来吗? Do you expect he would tell us the truth? 你期望他会告诉我们真相吗?

(5) 表示对过去情况的责备时,常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为:“情态动词 + have + 过去分词”。如: You should have got here earlier. 你应该早就到这里了。 You should have returned it to him. 你应该把它还给他了。

范文六:虚拟语气用法

Subjunctive Mood

表示说话人的话仅是主观愿望、假设及建议

I. If条件状语从句中的虚拟

1. 与过去事实相反

If + had done, would / could / should / might have done

If you had worked hard, you would have passed the game.

2. 与现在事实相反

If + did / were, would / could / should / might do

If I had money on me, I would lend you some. If the room were larger, we would hold the party there.

3. 与将来事实相反

If + did / were to do / should do, would / could / should / might do

Practice:

1. If we ____ here ten minutes earlier, we ___ the bus.

A. arrived/would catch B. arrived/would have caught

C. had arrived/had caught D. had arrived/would have caught

2. If I ____ more time, I would have gone with him.

A. had B. had had C. have had D. would have

3. Don’t touch the sleeping tiger. If he woke up, he _____ you.

A. would come to B. would come at C. would have come toward D. will come to

4. If he had not gone out in the storm _____.

A. he will be alive now B. he would be alive now

C. he would have been alive now

5. If it ___ tomorrow, what would we do?

A. rains B. were to rain C. would rain D. rain

6. If it ___ rain, we ___ get wet. If it rained tomorrow, I would stay at home. If it were to rain tomorrow, I would stay at home. If it should rain tomorrow, I would stay at home.

A. is to, should B. were to, would

C. were going to, would D. was going to, should

7. ---- I thought you would come back tomorrow.

---- I would if I ___ to attend a meeting.

A. don’t have B. didn’t have C. will not have D. would not have

8. It ___ very nice if it were possible.

A. will be B. would be C. is D. were

9. If I had hurried, I ___ the train.

A. would catch B. could catch C. would have caught D. had caught

10. If I had known that, I ___ so.

A. wouldn’t do B. wouldn’t have done C. won’t do D. have not done

Note:

A. 倒装

a) If you had worked hard, you would have passed the game.

--- Had you worked hard,…

b) If I had money on me, I would lend you some.

c) If the room were larger, we would hold the party there.

--- Were the room larger, …

d) If it were to rain tomorrow, I would stay at home.

--- Were it to rain tomorrow, …

e) If it should rain tomorrow, I would stay at home.

--- Should it rain tomorrow,…

B. 错综

1. If I had listened carefully at that time, I ____ (could answer) the

question.

2. If I had listened carefully at that time, I ____ (could answer) the

question now.

C. 含蓄条件句

a) with, without, but for

i. With your help, I would have succeeded.

= If you had helped me, I would have succeeded.

ii. But for (必虚) / Without Tom, the plane would have crashed.

= If it hadn’t been for Tom, the plane would have crashed.

b) or , otherwise,*but that

He can’t have written to me, otherwise I would have got his

letter by now.

Practice:

1. ____ to the doctor right away, he might have been alive.

A. If he went B. Were he gone C. Should he have gone D. Had he gone

2. He was very busy yesterday, otherwise he ____ to the meeting.

A. would come B. came C. would have come D. had come

3. Without electricity human life _____ quite different today.

A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be

4. If he ___ to the teacher attentively, he ___ the answer to the problem now.

A. had listened, would have known B. listened, would know

C. listened, would have known D. had listened, would know

5. But for the party, he ___ of hunger 30 years ago.

A. would have died B. would die C. must have died D. must die

6. ___ today, he would get there for holiday.

A. Was he leaving B. Were he to leave C. Would he leave D. If he leaves

7. I would have come earlier, but I ___ that you were waiting for me.

A. didn’t know B. hadn’t know C. would have known D. haven’t known

8. I was busy yesterday, otherwise I ___ your birthday party.

A. attended B. had attended C. would attend D. would have attended

9. We ___ our lives had it not been for the policeman.

A. would have lost B. should lose C. might lose D. could have lost

10. Without your help, our team ___ the last match.

A. won’t win B. will lose C. wouldn’t have won D. can’t win

11. ___, I would take an umbrella with me.

A. Had I been you B. I were you C. Were I you D. I had been you

II. 名词性从句中的虚拟

1. , demand, require, order, propose, commend, advise, request, …+ (should) do

1) I suggest that he (should) be here now.

What he said suggested that he wouldn’t come.

2) She insisted that the doctor (should) be sent for.

He insisted that Tom was wrong.

3) I suggest that…+ (should) do

It is suggested that…+(should) do

My suggestion is that…+(should) do

That is my suggestion that ….+(should) do

2. I wish that…+ 时态退级

I wish that I were ten years younger.

I wish that I could fly.

3. If only…+ 时态退级

If only he had a sense of humor

4. I would rather…+ (两种情况)

1) 与现在、将来相反)

2) 与过去相反)

5. It is important that…+ (should) do

1) It’s important that we (should) work hard.

2) We feel it important that we (should) work hard.

3) important, vital, essential, necessary, surprising, strange, natural…

6. It’s (about / high) time that…+ did / should do

1) It’s high time that we left now.

2) It’s high time that we should leave now.

Practice:

1. How I wish I ____ to repair the watch! I only made it worse.

A. had tried B. hadn’t tried C. have tried D. didn’t try

2. He demanded that the laboratory report ___ immediately after the experiment

was done.

A. was written B. be written C. must be written D. would be written

3. The man insisted that he _____ there.

A. should send B. would be sent C. sent D. be sent

4. It is required that you ____ at six.

A. will arrive B. arrive C. arrived D. would arrive

5. If only I _____ how to operate an electronic computer as you do.

A. had known B. would know C. should know D. knew

6. The secretary suggested that they ____ the men in at once.

A. had brought B. should have brought C. brought D. bring

7. I wish I ____ able to tell him all about it last night.

A. was B. were C. had been D. should be

8. The Jade Emperor ordered that the Monkey King _____ right away.

A. would be arrested B. must be arrested C. be arrested D. had to be arrested

9. Jane’s uncle insisted ____ in this hotel any longer.

A. not staying B. not to stay C. that he not stay D. staying not

10. It’s high time that we ___ to school.

A. would to B. went C. go D. will go

11. I’d rather you ___ right away.

A. leave B. left C. will leave D. to leave

12. It is really strange that the girl ___ so early.

A. has been married B. has married C. be married D. would marry

13. The teacher agreed to the suggestion that the students ___ two weeks to

prepare for the exam.

A. give B. should give C. be given D. would be given

14. He insisted that he ___ me before.

A. see B. should see C. had seen D. saw

15. He wishes ___ mistakes.

A. he doesn’t always make B. he isn’t always making

C. he didn’t always make D. he wouldn’t always making

16. I wish I ___ what to do.

A. knew B. have known C. know D. would know

17. He insisted that John ___ it.

A. do B. does C. did D. would do

18. It is high time we ___ off.

A. are B. were C. be D. will be

19. It is important that I ___ with Mr. Williams immediately.

A. speak B. spoke C. will speak D. to speak

20. James wishes he ___ the football game instead of the film.

A. saw B. see C. had been seen D. had seen

21. I wish ___.

A. he left B. he leaves me alone C. he be left D. he would leave me alone

III. 其它状语从句中的虚拟

1. 方式状语从句--- as if (可虚可不虚) / as though (必虚)

虚拟方式:时态退级

1) It looks as if it is going to rain. (不虚)

2) The lady treats the boy well as if / as though he were her own son.

They talked as if they had been good friends for years.

2. 条件状语从句 --- in case / for fear that / lest

虚拟方式:in case + should do

In case I should fail, I would try again.

3. 目的状语从句 --- so that / in order that

虚拟方式:can / could / may / might

The man saved as much as he could in order that he might buy a house of his own.

4. *让步状语从句 --- even if / even though

虚拟方式:even if 后的从句同if 从句

Practice: Even if I were in his position, I wouldn’t go either.

1. He spoke in a quiet, distinct voice, as though his thought _____.

A. was far away B. had been far away C. were far away D. went far away.

2. The boy acted ____ he had never lived in Canada before.

A. as though B. even if C. as D. since

3. It seems as if it ___ rain.

A. will to B. is going to C. is to D. were going to

4. He is working hard for fear that he ___.

A. fails B. failed C. would fail D. fail

5. The two strangers talked as if they ___ friends for years.

A. were B. would be C. have been D. had been

6. He felt as if he ___ more time to study for the test.

A. needs B. were needed C. needed D. need

IV. 情态动词中的虚拟

1. should (ought to) have done / shouldn’t have done

You should have studied harder.

2. could (might) have done / couldn’t have done

I could have done a better job if given more time.

3. needn’t have done

You needn’t have come to school yesterday, for it was holiday.

4. would have done / might have done

be to have done / would like to have done

They were to have come here, but they had a meeting at that moment.

V. 其它虚拟形式

1. had meant / intended to do sth. = meant / intended to have done sth.

I had intended to attend your birthday party, I was too busy then.

2. had planned to do / had expected to do / had hoped to do / had wanted to do /

had thought to do / had imagined to do

范文七:虚拟语气的用法

虚拟语气的用法

虚拟语气(subjunctive mood)是谓语动词的一种形式,用来表示非真实的假设,或者用来表示命令、建议或说话人的主观愿望。

一、非真实条件中的虚拟语气

非真实条件就是违背事实情况的假设,包括违背现在事实的假设,违背过去事实的假设,以及将来不可能发生或虽有可能发生但说话人主观上不希望发生的假设。最后这一种假设简称为违背将来的假设。在这三种情况下,条件从句和主句中的谓语动词采取下列虚拟形式。

虚拟语气中主句中的第一人称用should,第二、三人称用would。但在美国英语中,第一人称也可用would。此外,主句中也可用情态动词 could或might代替should或would。在条件句中,如果动词是be,在违背现在的事实时,各个人称均用were。但在非正式文体中,特别是在口语中,第一、三人称单数用was的时候也不少。在违背将来事实的条件从句中,

1.违背现在事实的假设

If the earth had no gravity,the moon would fly to the sun.假如地球没有引力,月球就要向太阳飞去。

If I were you ,I would reconsider their proposal.我要是你,就重新考虑他们的建议。

2.违背过去事实的假设

If I had left a little earlier,I would have caught the train.我要是早点动身就赶上火车了。

If she hadn't taken your advice, she would have made a serious mistake.她要不是听了你的劝告,就犯大错误了。

3.可能违背将来事实的假设

这里指的是将来不大可能发生的假设,或者虽有可能发生,但说话人主观上不希望发生的假设。这种假设相当于汉语中常用的

If he should fail,we would encourage him to try again.万一他失败,我们就鼓励他再试一次。

If I were to do it ,I would do it in a different way.要是我来做这件事,我会采用另一种做法。

4.介词短语表示的假设条件

有时不用if引导条件从句,而用介词短语表示违背事实的假设条件,这时句中谓语动词仍用虚拟语气形式。例如:

Without air,there would be no wind or clouds.没有空气就不会有风,也不会有云。

In that case,we could have done the work better.如果那样的话,我们本可能把工作做得更好些的。

But for the storm,we should have arrived earlier.要是没有碰上暴雨,我们还会早一点到的。

5.连接词if的省略

如果条件从句的谓语包含有had,should或were,有时if可以省略。这时had,

should或were要移到主语的前面,形成倒装。这种句型主要见于书面形式。

Had he not been ill,he might have come.要不是生病,他会来的。

Should it rain tomorrow,what could we do?万一明天下雨,我们能做些什么呢?

二、其他从句的虚拟语气

在表示建议、命令、要求以及

1.主语从句

在下列结构的主语从句中,谓语动词用虚拟语气

It is necessary that ...(有必要……;……必须)

It is imperative that...(必须……;……是要紧的)

It is important that...(重要的是……;……是很重要的)

It is essential that...(必须……;……是必要的)

It is advisable that...(最好……;……是理想的)

It is better that...(最好……)

It is ordered that...(根据命令……;人们要求……)

It is proposed that...(人们建议……)

It is desired that...(最好……;需要……)

It is requested that...(人们要求……)

It is suggested that...(有人建议……)

It is recommended that...(有人推荐……)

It is demanded that...(根据要求……)

It is decided...(已经决定……)

It is arranged that...(业已安排……)

例如:It was arranged that they leave the following week.根据安排,他们下星期动身。

It is suggested that the meeting(should)be held at some other time.人们建议换一个时间开会。

2.宾语从句

在下列动词的宾语从句中,谓语动词用虚拟语气: suggest(建议),insist(坚持),recommend(推荐),order(命令),propose(提议),require(要求),request(要求),com- mand(命令),demand(要求)。例如:

He commanded that we(should)attack the enemy at once.他命令我们立即向敌人进攻。

They demanded that the right to vote be given to every adult.他们要求给予每个成年人选举权。

3.同位语从句和表语从句

在下列名词的同位语从句和表语从句中,谓语动词用虚拟语气:suggestion(建议),proposal(提议),order(命令),instruction(指示、指令),advice(劝告),motion(提议)。例如:

He gave the order that the results of the experiment(should)be rechecked.他命令对那次实验的结果重新核对。

My suggestion is that we(should)send a trade delegation to Malaysia.我建议派

一个贸易代表团去马来西亚。

三、wish,would rather(sooner)后的虚拟语气

动词wish后的宾语从句,表示未实现的主观愿望。这类宾语从句的谓语动词用虚拟语气。例如:

I wish I knew both English and French.我要是既懂英文又懂法文就好了。 I wish I were as young as you.我要是像你一样年轻该多好。

动词wish如果是过去时态,后面的宾语从句中虚拟语气形式不变,仍用过去时、过去完成时和过去将来时。例如:

I wished I hadn't made that mistake.我当时多么希望没犯那个错误。

范文八:虚拟语气用法

在英语中,随着说话人意图的不同,动词需用不同的形式,称为语气。虚拟语气是三种语气中的一种。它既可以表达与事实相反的陈述或某种愿望与空想,也可以表达建议,要求,请求与命令等语气。虚拟语气是通过动词的时态与时间的不一致来体现的。虚拟语气主要有以下两类:

一、与事实相反的陈述或某种愿望与空想

它的表现形式为:

1、条件句中的虚拟语气

1)由if 引导的条件句,有可能是直陈语气,也有可能是虚拟语气。可根据以下两条来判断具体的语气。

a)根据含义。如果是纯粹假设的情况或是发生的可能性不大的情况,则是虚拟语气。如:

If I were you , I would reconsider their proposal .

If I had left a little earlier , I would have caught the train.

b)根据时态与时间的矛盾。如果时间是将来,但是时态却是过去时,则是虚拟语气。 如:

(1)If it________tomorrow, I would stay at home.

(2)If it________tomorrow, I will stay at home.

A. rain B. rainedC. rainsD. will rain

分析:在(1) 句中,主句的时态与时间不一致,所以判断是虚拟语气,答案是B。

在(2) 句中,主句的时态与时间一致,所以判断是直陈语气,再根据在条件状语从句中,要用一般现在时表达将来时间,所以答案为C。

2)条件句中的虚拟语气有以下三类:

a)与现在事实相反,谓语动词如下:

从句:过去时

主句:would / should / could / might +动词原形。如:If I were you , I would ask our teacher for advice.

b)与过去事实相反,谓语动词如下:

从句:过去完成时

主句:would / should / could / might have +过去分词。如:

If I hadn’t taken the wrong bus , I wouldn’t have missed the contest.

c)与将来事实相反,谓语动词如下:

从句:过去时 / should + 动词原形 / were to + 动词原形

主句:would / should / could /might + 动词原形

If I had enough money next month, I would buy the dictionary.

3)如果条件从句中包含有should, 动词be 或 have, 可把if省略,并把should,动词be或have 放在主语前面。 如:

Had we made preparations , we might have succeeded.

Should there be a flood , what should we do ?

2、Wish 引导的宾语从句 ,根据时间的不同,可分为以下三种;

1)与现在事实相反,从句动词用过去时。如

I wish I were as healthy as my cousin.

2)与过去事实相反,谓语动词用过去完成时。如:

We wish we had paid more attention to our pronunciation.

3)与将来事实相反,谓语动词用would / could +动词原形。如:

I wish I would try again.

3、as if 引导的从句。如:

They talked as if they had been friends for years.

It seems as if it were spring already.

4、以in order that, so that 引导的目的状语从句。如:

The professor spoke slowly in order that the listeners could hear him clearly.

5、以 It is time 以及 would rather 引导的从句,从句中的动词都用过去时。如:

It is time we stopped this practice

I would rather you came tomorrow.

二、虚拟语气还可用来表示愿望,建议,命令等

1、在suggest , order , demand , ask , command,propose , request, insist 等表示建议,要求,请求,命令的动词引导的宾语从句中,谓语动词为:(should) +动词原形。如:

We suggested that they (should ) make a trip to Hongkong next year.

She insisted that we (should )take up the matter at the meeting.

2、在suggestion, propsal , order , plan 等引导的表语从句和同位语从句中,谓语动词为(should )+ 动词原形。如:

My suggestion is that we (should )send a few comrades to help the other groups.

My idea is that we (should )challenge the other groups to a friendly competition.

3、在 it is desired, it is suggested, it is requested, it was ordered, it was proposed. it is necessary, it is important, it has been decided等结构后的主语从句中,谓语动词为 :(should) +动词原形。如:

It is necessary that he (should ) be sent there at once.

It is desired that we (should )get everything ready by tonight.

4、在 it is a pity, it is a shame, it is incredible, it is strange, it is no wonder等结构后的主语从句中, 谓语动词为:should +动词原形,以表示惊奇,怀疑,不满 等情绪。如:

It is a great pity that he should be so conceited.

It is strange that she should have failed to see her own shortcomings.

(作者单位系甘肃省白银公司第一中学)

范文九:虚拟语气的用法

高考试题语法例题

1.Without electricity human life__________quite different today. A.is B.will be

C.would have been D.would be(MET91) 2.I insist that a doctor__________immediately. A.has been sent for B.sends for C.had been sent for D.be sent for(MET88) 3.If it__________for the snow,we__________the mountain yesterday.

A.were not;could have climbed B.were not;could climb C.had not been;could have climbed D.had not been;could climb(MET91)

4.I wish I__________you yesterday. A.seen B.did see

C.had seen D.were to see(MET88)

5.The rice__________if you had been more careful. A.would not be burning B.would not burn C.would not have been burnt D.would not burnt (MET88) 参考答案及详解

1.D假设的是现在的情况。该句中的介词短语起了虚拟条件句的作用,所以主句中的谓语动词应该用,因为“would+动词原形”的形式。

2.Dinsist,suggest,order。某些表示建议、命令等含义的动词,用虚拟语气“should+等后的宾语从句中动词原形”的形式,谓语动词应该如

,should可以省略。

3.C。表示与过去事实相反。

4.C的愿望。。wish该句表达的是与过去事实相反的愿望后面跟的宾语从句通常表示一种没有实现,所以应该用过去完成时。

5.C过去完成时。该题是表示与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,主句用“would have done”结构。,从句用 6.If my lawyer__________here last Saturday,he__________me from going.

A.had been;would have prevented B.had been;would prevent

C.were;would prevent D.were;would have prevented(MET89)

7.-If he__________,he__________that food. -Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. A.was warned;would not take

B.had been warned;would not have taken C.would be warned;would not have taken D.would have been warned;had not taken(MET93) 8.I didn't see your sister at the meeting.If

she__________,she would have met my brother. A.has come B.did come C.came D.had come(NMET94) 9.When a pencil is put in a glass of water,it looks as if it__________. A.breaks B.has broken

C.were broken D.had been broken (NMET95) 10.You didn't let me drive.If we__________in turn,you__________so tired.

A.drove;didn't get B.drove;wouldn't get (NMET96) C.were driving;wouldn't get D.had driven;wouldn't have got

参考答案及详解

6.A考生抓住题干中。该题考查虚拟条件句中主句和从句的时态。last Saturday这一时间状语,便可得知只要这是一个与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句。

7.B虽然没有明确的时间状语。该题通过一组对话来考查虚拟语气的用法。,但答句中的时态可提示考题干生这仍是一个与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句。 8.D息都可以提示考生这是一个与过去事实相反的虚拟条。前句中的时态和后句中的would have met两个信件句。

9.C从句中的谓语动词所表达的动作同时发生。as if(though)所接的从句常用虚拟结构,as if,如主句和后接一般过去式;如从句的动作在主句之前发生,则用过去完成时。

10.D态的掌握情况。旨在考查考生对与过去事实相反的条件句中时,前句中的时态表明,这是一个与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句。

[虚拟语气] 虚拟语气的用法

虚拟语气表示说话人的愿望、假设、猜测或建议,而不表示客观存在的事实。虚拟语气通过谓语动词的特殊形式来表示。下面分别介绍虚拟语气在各种句式中的用法。

1.虚拟语气用于条件状语从句

注意:主句中的should通常用于第一人称,would可用于任何人称,同时也可根据意思用情态动词could,might等代替should,would。 1)表示与现在事实相反:

If I were you,I should stay at home.

If the peasants could farm the land themselves,food production would be much higher.

If fewer cash crops were grown,more food could be produced and there would be less or no starvation. 2)表示与过去事实相反:

If you had come yesterday,you would have met him. If the hurricane had happened during the daytime,there would have been many deaths.

3)would have the meeting. 表示与将来事实相反:If you came tomorrow,we

If it were to/should rain tomorrow,the meeting would be put off.

If it should rain,the crops would be saved.

4)生的时间不一致时当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发,动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间来调整。例如:If you had followed the doctor's

advice,you would be quite all right now.(去,主句指的是现在。)

从句说的是过5)装句式以上句型可以转换成下列形式"were,had,should+主语"。例如:①从句省略:Were I in school if,用倒again,I would work harder. Had you been here earlier,you would have seen him. Should there be a meeting tomorrow,I would come.件状语从句。例如:Without air, there would be no living ②用介词短语代替条things. I would not have succeeded but for your help. 2.虚拟语气用于宾语从句

1)"wish+可惜„„宾语从句"、"„„就好了"表示不能实现的愿望"、"悔不该„„,汉语可译为"、"但愿„„""去式等。表示现在不能实现的愿望;表示将来不能实现的愿望,,用从句的谓语动词用过"would(could)+动词原形";表示过去不能实现的愿望,用"had+过去分词"或"(could)would+have+过去分词"。例如: I wish we could go to the seaside today. I wish you told me earlier.

We wish we had arrived there two hours earlier.

2)arrange,command,demand,desire,insist,order,propose,req虚拟语气在动词

uest,require,suggest动词原形"。例如:

等后面的宾语从句中,用"(should)+I suggested that the meeting(should)be put off. The doctor ordered that she(should)stay in bed for a few days.

They demanded that the black people should be treated as well as white people.

注意:insist作"力言"、"强调"解时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气。只有当insist作"坚持(应该)"解时,宾语从句才用虚拟语气。例如:

Mike insisted that he had never stolen anything. I insisted that you give me my money back. 3.虚拟语气用于表语从句、同位语从句

advice,idea,order,demand,plan,proposal,suggestion,request拟语气的结构等名词的表语从句和同位语从句"(should)+动词原形"。例如,其谓语动词要用虚: We all agreed to his suggestion that we(should)go to Beijing for sightseeing.

My idea is that he (should)do exercises first.

4.状语从句虚拟语气用于以

as if(as though)引导的表语从句或如果从句表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时;表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用"had+过去分词";表示与将来事实相反,谓语动词用

"would(might,could)+动词原形"。例如: He looked at me as if I were mad.

He speaks English so fluently as if he had studied English in England. It looks as if it might rain.

但as if(as though)后的从句也常用陈述语气,这是因为从句中的情况往往是可能发生的或可能被设想为真实的。例如:

It looks as if our side is going to win. 5.虚拟语气用于主语从句

在主语从句中,谓语动词的虚拟语气结构用"should+动词原形"的结构,表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等。例如:

It is

necessary(important,natural,de-sirable,advisable,strange,etc.)that we should clean the room every day.

It was a pity(a shame,no wonder,etc.)that you should be so careless.

It will be

desired(suggested,decided,ordered,requested,proposed,etc.)that she should finish her homework this afternoon. 在上述三种主语从句中,should意为"应该"、"竟然",可以省去,但不可换用would。主句所用动词的时态不限。 注意:这种从句表示的是事实。如果说话人对这种事实表示惊奇,就可用虚拟语气。反之,如果不表示惊奇,that从句也可用陈述语气。例如:

It is strange that he did not come yesterday. It is a pity that you can't swim. 6.虚拟语气用于定语从句

这种从句常用在"It is(high)time(that)..."句型中,定语从句的谓语动词用过去式,或"should+动词原形(should不能省略,be用were)"来表示,意为"(现在)该„„"。例如: It's time that I went and picked up my little girl from school.

It is high time we were going.

7.虚拟语气用于if only引导的感叹句:

If only I had taken his advice.我要是听他的话就好了。

If only I were a bird!我如果是一只鸟就好了。

8.虚拟语气用于If it were not for...

此结构意为"如果没有",表示同现在事实相反的假设。例如:

If it were not for the rain,the crops should(would)die. If it had not been for...同过去事实相反的假设。例如意为"如果当时没有„„:

",表示If it had not been for your timely help,I would have failed.

9.虚拟语气在would rather后接从句:

I'd rather you paid me now.(从句用过去时指现在) I would rather they came tomorrow.(来)

从句用过去时指将I'd rather she hadn't done that.(去)(此句中的would可看作是表愿望的实义动词从句用过去完成时指过) 10.虚拟语气用于简单句

1)在日常会话中。例如表示说话人谦虚、客气、:

有礼貌,使语气委婉,常出现It would be better for you not to stay up too late. Would you be kind enough to open the door. 2)用于一些习惯表达法中。例如: Would you like a cup of tea. You had better go now.

3)于句首。例如用"may+动词原形: ",表示"祝愿"、"但愿"。may须置May you be happy! May you succeed! 11.含蓄条件句

在某些虚拟语气结构中没有if条件句,虚拟条件是用其它形式表示出来,这种现象在语法上称为"含蓄条件句"。含蓄条件具体分为以下几种情况: 1)通过动词不定式短语表示条件。例如: You would be a fool to refuse his offer.

(=If you should refuse his offer,you would be a fool.)

要是你拒绝他的建议,就太傻了。

2)通过介词短语表达条件。例如:

But for the storm I would have arrived much earlier.

(=If it had not been for the storm...)

要不是那场暴雨,我早就到达了。

3)件。例如通过连词:

otherwise,or,but,that,though,once等表达条She came to town yesterday,otherwise/or I would not have met her.

昨天她到城里来了,不然我就不会遇见她了。 (otherwise/or=if she hadn't come)

I would have attended the meeting,but I have been too busy.

(=...if I had not been too busy) 我本来要参加会议的,只是太忙了。

4)表达条件。例如通过Were it not for...:

或Had it not been for...等句式Were it not for(=If it were not for) the leadership of the Party,we could not live a happy life.

要不是党的领导,我们不可能过幸福生活。 (与现在事实相反)

Had it not been for(=If it had not been for) the leadership of the Party,we should have failed. 若不是有党的领导,我们早就失败了。 (与过去事实相反)

5)通过分词短语表达条件。例如:

Given more attention,the trees could have grown better.倘若给予更多的关心,这些树本来可以生长得更好的。 (=If they had been given more attention...) 6)无词句暗示条件。例如:

Such mistakes could have been avoided.这种错误本来可以避免的。

(暗含条件从句if we had been more careful) It was so quiet,you could have heard a pin drop.是那样的安静,掉根针你都听得见。

(暗含条件从句if it had dropped to the ground)

范文十:英语虚拟语气语法总结

英语虚拟语气语法总结 虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)这一语法项目是各类英语考试中心测试的重点之一。虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,用来表示说话人所说的话并不是事实,而是一种假设、愿望、怀疑或推测。 Ⅰ用以表示虚拟条件的虚拟语气

⒈ 用if条件从句表示的虚拟条件,是虚拟条件最普通的方式。

① 虚拟现在时表示与现在事实相反的假设,其if 从句的谓语形式用动词的过去式(be 一般用were),主句用would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形,例如:If I were in your position I would marry her. ② 虚拟过去时是表示与过去事实相反的假设,if 从句的谓语形式用过去完成时即had+过去分词,主句用would / should / could / might + have +过去分词,例如:If it had not rained so hard yesterday we could have played tennis.

③ 大多数的虚拟条件句属于上面三种情况的一种,但并不排除存在条件和后果中,一个和现在情况相反,另一个和过去情况相反,例如:If you had followed what the doctor said, you would not have been so painful now.这个句子在高中出现频率颇高。

④ 但是,如果后果用了虚拟语气,而条件却用陈述语气,这种用法是错的。

⒉ 除了表示虚假条件外,if从句还可以表示对将来的推测,由于是将来还没有发生的,所以谈不上是真实的还是虚假的,只能说这个事情发生的可能性有多大。一般情况下,可以用陈述语气的if从句来表示对一个未来事实的推测,这个事实是完全可能发生的。If从句的谓语形式用一般过去式或用were to / should +动词原形,主句用would / should /could/ might +动词原形,例如:Jean doesn't want to work right away because she thinks that if she were to get a job she probably wouldn't be able to see her friends very often.(1996年1月四级第44题)

⒊ 有时可以把含有助动词、情态动词、be或have的虚拟条件句中的连词if 省去,而将had , should, were 等词提到主语之前,即用倒装结构,这时候,如果出现not等否定词,否定词需放在主语后面。这种结构在口语中很少使用,但频频出现在各类考试中出现,例如:If it had not rained so hard yesterday we could have played tennis.→Had it not rained so hard yesterday, we could have played tennis. ⒋ 大多数的虚拟条件通过上面所讲的两种方法表达,但在个别句子中也可以通过介词without和介词短语but for表达,副词otherwise等表达出来。例如:We didn't know his telephone number; otherwise we would have telephoned him.(1995年6月四级第46题)值得注意的是,包含but for的句子,谓语动词必定要用虚拟形式,但包含without等短语的句子,谓语动词未必一定要用虚拟语气。

⒌ 有时虚拟条件不是明确地表达出来,而在蕴含在用but引导的从句里,于是便出现了有谓语动词是虚拟语气的主句加上谓语动词是陈述语气的but从句构成的并列复合句,例如I would have hung you but the telephone was out of order.在这样的句子里,如果主句没有用虚拟语气,或者从句用了虚拟语气,都是错的。

Ⅱ用在宾语从句中的虚拟语气

⒈ 在表示愿望的动词wish后的宾语从句中,需用虚拟语气。(wish后的that 常省略),根据主句时态,从句谓语时态相应退后一位,例如:How she wished his family could go with him.

⒉ 在具有愿望、请求、建议、命令等主观意愿的动词(desire, demand, advice, insist, require, suggest, propose, order, recommend, decide …) 后的宾语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用(should) +动词原形。值得注意的是,如果宾语从句的动词是否定的,否定词not的位置应在动词之前,而不是动词之后。例如:The head nurse insisted that the patient not be move.另外,如suggest表达“暗示”,insist表示“坚持某种说法”时,后面的从句不用虚拟语气,例如:Her pale face suggests that she is ill.或He insisted that he did not kill the boy.

除此之外,上述动词也要求用虚拟式

① 在It is+上述动词的过去分词,其后所跟的主语从句中,如It is suggested that pupils wear school uniforms.

② 在上述动词相应的名词形式作主语+连系动词,其后的表语从句中,例如His suggestion was that classed be re-scheduled.

③ 在对上述动词相应的名词进行解释的同位语从句中,如:The workers raised the demand that their pay be increased to cope with the inflation.

⒊ would (had)rather , would sooner也用来表达主观愿望,它们之后的宾语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用过去式表示现在或将来,用过去完成式表示与过去事实相反,例如:I would rather he went right now.

Ⅲ其他形式的虚拟语气

⒈ it is +necessary等形容词后,that主语从句中虚拟形式使用,这类形容词包括necessary, important, essential, imperative, urgent, preferable, vital, advisable等,例如It is necessary that you listen to the teacher carefully.或者It is essential that you be able to pronounce every single word correctly.

⒉ 在It's (high/about) time 之后的定语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用过去式,例如It is high time that you went to school

⒊ 虚拟语气在as if / as though 引导的方式状语从句中的应用(谓语动词形式与wish后的宾语从句基本相同)表示与现在事实相反或对现在情况有怀疑,谓语动词用过去式。例如:He felt as if he alone were responsible for what had happened. 表示过去想象中的动作或情况,谓语动词用过去完成式。

⒋ 在lest 引导的状语从句中,谓语动词多用虚拟语气,(should )+ 动词原形。例如: The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he injure himself.(1998年1月四级第38题)

⒌ 在if only 引起的感叹句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用过去式或过去完成式。例如: Look at the terrible situation I am in! if only I had followed your advice.

虚拟语气是一种动词形式,表示说话人的一种愿望,假设,怀疑,猜测, 建议等含义,虚拟语气所表示的含义不是客观存在的事实。

If I were you, I'd take them away.

如果我是你的话,我就会带走他们。

If I had met Li Hua, I could had told him.

如果我碰见了李华,我就告诉了他了。

If I had time. I could come to help you.

如果我有时间,我会来帮助你的。

He suggested that our class should be divided into five groups.

他建议说我们的班应该分成五个小组。

He speaks to us as if he had been there.

他给我们讲的好象他去过那儿。

虚拟语气的用法

1) 虚拟语气用在简单句中,表示祝愿,命令。

May you be happy.

祝你幸福。

May you have a good time.

祝愿你玩的痛快。

May the friendship between us last long.

祝愿我们的友情天长地久。

Have a good journey!

祝愿你旅途愉快!

You go out!

你出去!

2) 虚拟语气用在宾语从句中。动词 wish, suggest,order,insist, propose,等词后面的宾语从句表示的是一种虚拟语气, 宾语从句中的动词动作表示的只是一种愿望,要求。

I wish she would be on my side.

我希望她能站在我一边。

I wish I could help him.

我希望我能帮助他。

He insisted that all of us should be there on time by any means.

他坚持要我们大家想尽办法按时去那儿。

动词 demand, suggest, order, insist, propose 后面的从句中,

The teacher suggested that we (should) clean the blackboard after class.

老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。

He ordered that the students wash the clothes every week by themselves.

他要求学生每周都要自己洗衣服。

3) 虚拟语气用在主语从句中。

在句型

It's necessary that we should have a walk now.

我们有必要出去散散步。

It's natural that she should do so.

她这样做是很自然的。

It's important that we should take good care of the patient.

重要的是我们要照顾好病人。

4) 虚拟语气用在状语从句中。

虚拟语气最多地用在表示条件的状语从句和表示结果的主句中。在表示与事实相反的虚拟语气时,动词有三种时态形式,即现在,过去和将来。

与现在事实相反的:

条件从句 结果从句

If I (we,you,he,they)+ 动词过去式.. if I (he,she) were... I (we) should + 动词原形。 He (you,they) would + 动词原形。

与过去事实相反的:

条件从句 结果从句

If I(we,you,he,they)+ had + 过去分词 I(we)should + have+ 过去分词。He (you,they) would + have + 过去分词。

If I were you, I should buy it.

如果我是你,我就买了它。

If I had time, I would study French.

如果我有时间,我会学习法语的。

If she knew English,she would not ask me for help.

如果她懂英语的话,她不会找我帮忙的。

If you had got up earlier, you could have caught the train.

如果你早一点起床,就会赶上火车的。

If it were fine tomorrow,I would go shopping.

如果明天天气好,我就去买东西。

有关虚拟语气的几个问题:

1) 有时if引导的状语从句可以省略 if,而把从句中的动词 were, had 或 should 移到主语前面。

Were she younger, she would do it .

如果她年青点, 她就会干的。

Had he known her address, he would had gone to visite her.

如果他知道她的地址,他会去看她的。

2) 有时表示虚拟语气的条件从句或者主句都可以省略,而只剩下一个主句或者一个条件从句。

I could help you.

我本来可以帮助你。

If I had time.

我要有时间该多好啊。

She should have come to the party.

她应该来参加聚会。

If he had much more money.

如果他有更多的钱就能...。

3) 虚拟语气中,条件从句的动词动作可以和主句的动词动作时态不一致。

If they had studied hard, they could do it easily now.

如果他们以前努力学习的话,现在干的就会容易些。

If he had not taken my advice, he wouldn't do it much better like this.

如果他不听取我的建议,他就不会干得这样好