袁秋锋 1、nothing but = only anything but = not at all
2、don’t mention it 别提了(多回答 thank you, 偶尔回答 sorry ) 3、He works hard. So do I. (我也是)
He works hard. So he does. (他的确用功)
4、food left = remaining food 剩下的食物
5、Can’t help doing sth = Can’t help but do sth 忍不住做某事
It can’t be helped. 不可避免的
6、still less = let alone =much less = not to mention = least of all 更不用说 7、Used to do. 过去经常做，但现在不做了
would do. 过去做，现在不知道做不做
Be always doing. 总是做某事
Get\be used to doing = get\be accustomed to doing 习惯做某事 8、pass away 去世
9、remember well = remember clearly 10、set sb apart from sb 使…与…不同
11、do sb a favor = give sb a hand 帮某人的忙
12、in advance. 提前
13、be based on \ be devoted to \ be concerned about\ be dressed in \ be
determined to \ be satisfied with \ be faced with \ be buried in \ be absorbed in \ be
lost in (陷入) \ be located in + doing
Devoted to study, he didn’t notice me.
Lost in thought, he didn’t notice me.
14、put out the fire = the fire went out 火灭了
15、whoever = no matter who (状语从句) = anyone who (定语从句) 16、lead to 通向;指向;导致;造成 lead—led—led All roads lead to Rome.
17、on one’s own = alone = by oneself某人自己
18、虚拟语气(1) command \ request 引导的从句中用 should + 原形动词 (2) if 条件从句
If 从句 主句 现在 一般过去 Would\could\should\might+原形动词 过去 have done Would\could\should\might +have done
将来 2、 Should +原形动词 Would\could\should\might+原形动词
3、 Were to +原形动词
19、passing time = kill time 打发时间
21、have a population of 1.3 billion. 22、be sold on = be interested in 对…感兴趣
23、have an advantage over sb. 有优于某人的优势
24、on\upon doing sth 一…就… On arriving there, I phoned her. 25、be satisfied with = to one’s satisfaction
26、It was\will be + 一段时间 +before + 句子
It will be a long time before we meet again. 27、have a command \ knowledge of …掌握…
28、It is the first time that …(现在完成时)
It was the first time that … (过去完成时)
It is time that… (一般过去式)
29、the former (前者) the latter (后者)
30、ever since \ since then \ since \ over \ in the past 10 years 现在完成时的标志
So why has English changed over time. 31、for company = keep sb company = keep company with sb 陪伴;一起
th32、in the 18 century 18世纪
In the 1990’s \ 1990s 20世纪90年代
In one’s twenties 在某人二十几岁时
33、What a clever boy = How clever a boy = Such a clever boy = So clever a boy
What nice weather = Such nice weather [u] 34、Take your time. 时间上不紧张 Take it easy. 精神上不紧张
35、回答 sorry 或 thank you : That’s all right. Not at all. Don’t mention it.
其中Not at all. Don’t mention it.多回答 thank you.
Can you help me ? Sure \ Of course \ Forget it \ No way
36、情态动词表推测，must 只用肯定句，can 用否定或疑问，may 不用疑问句。
Can ,could, may, might无时态区别，could, might更委婉
对过去推测:情态动词 + have done It must have rained yesterday.
He couldn’t \ can’t have stolen my money.
37、beyond imagination \ words \ expectation (意料)
38、have a break \ rest. 休息一会儿
39、not…or… = neither…nor…
40、a pair of gloves
41、dress sb \ oneself 帮某人穿衣 be dressed in 穿着…的衣服
42、feel like doing
 charge sb money for sth 因某事向某人要价
How much money did he charge you for the house?
 in charge of 掌管 I am in charge of the company.
 in the charge of sb = in sb’s charge 被某人掌管
 take charge of 掌管;负责
 charge sb with sth = accuse sb of sth 控告某人
I charge him with stealing. He was accused of stealing.
 charge the cellphone 充电
 get charged 带电的
44、Favorable 赞同 Doubtful 怀疑
Objective 客观的 Subjective 主观的
Positive 积极的 Negative 消极的
 主动表被动 deserve doing = deserve to be done 类似的词还有: want \ need \ require
The clothes need washing = The clothes need to be washed.
 deserve sth 值得… He deserved the praise.
 deserve to do He deserved to win the praise.
46、worth \ worthy \ worthwhile
 The place is well worth visiting. The place is worth a second visit.
 The place is worthy of a second visit.
The place is worthy of being visited.
The place is worthy to be visited.
 The place is worthwhile visiting. The place is worthwhile to visited.
 The book is worth 20 dollars. 47、consider 考虑;认为
 consider doing
 consider + 宾语 + 宾补 consider him honest.
 consider sb as…把…看做… consider him as my best friend.
 Edison is considered to have invited the first light.
 take sth into consideration = take sth into account. 把…考虑在内
 considering本身介词 Considering his age, he is active. 48、fail
 fail to do sth 没能做某事
 Don’t fail me = Don’t let me done 别让我失望
 Our eyesight is failing. 视力下降
49、Optimistic乐观的 Pessimistic 悲观的
Comedy 喜剧 Tragedy 悲剧
Compulsory 必修的Optional 选修的
50、deal with deal---dealt---dealt
 处理 deal with the problem
 对付 He is easy to deal with.
 论述 These articles don’t deal with reality.
 计算出 work out the problem
 制定出 work out a plan
 锻炼 He works out with weights (举重) twice a week.
 展开;进行 My first work didn’t work out well.
 组成  占据一定比例  编造 make up a cause
53、set about doing = set out to do 着手做某事
54、固定冠词搭配: take a decision 做出决定  pay the bill
 keep a diary  a loss of……的损失  serve the people
 in the month of May = in May
55、hold up  举起  支撑  持枪抢劫
 阻塞 hold up the traffic
56、search for sth 搜寻某物 search sb 搜身
search sp for sth 搜寻某地为找某物
57、give away  分发;赠送  泄露
58、be particular about 对…挑剔
Find fault with sb 挑某人的毛病
59、go to the theatre 剧院 go to the cinema 影院
60、wait a minute \ while
61、hear of = hear about 听说
62、get through  接通电话  通过考试  度过时间  完成;用完 63、turn to sb for help
64、push sb too hard. 把某人逼得太紧
65、serve sth 端上某物、盛上某物 serve sb 伺候某人
serve sb sth 伺候某人吃… serve the people 为人民服务 66、connect sb with sth 把某人某物联系起来
67、make for 有利于…
Grow a beard 留胡子 growth [n] 本身有名词，不用动名词 69、be in good health 身体健康
70、be of + n = be + adj
The book is of great value. = The book is valuable.
71、health [n] healthy [adj]
wealth [n] wealthy [adj] 72、prevent sb (from) doing 阻止某人做某事
73、fall ill \ asleep
74、lose weight减肥 lose heart 失去信心
put on \ gain weight
75、kike the bad habit 去除坏习惯
76、on the contrary正相反
77、be crazy about…对…着迷
78、in my opinion in their opinion [u]
79、take action to do 采取行动 take measures to do 采取措施 80、The weather in Beijing is different from that in Shanghai.
81、way to do sth = way of doing sth做…的方法
82、know sb well 很了解某人
83、change A for B 把A换成B
84、stay awake 保持清醒
85、can’t wait to do = can hardly to do 迫不及待做…
86、legal [adj] 合法的,法律的 illegal
87、be about to do … when …即将做…突然…
88、burst into laughter = burst out laughing
89、be trapped in ruins. 陷入废墟
90、The poor are equal to the rich. 91、congratulate sb on sth congratulation on sth celebrate sth
92、Weather permitting we will held the sports meeting.
93、have \ make an appointment with sb和某人有约会 94、evenly 均匀的
95、burn up 燃烧，烧掉
97、at one’s expense 由某人付费
99、reserve \ book a table \ ticket \ room
reserve a seat for my friend
order  order products订购产品
 order a big order 订单
 May I take your order ? 点餐
100、fight for 为…而战
101、not necessary 不一定
102、show off 炫耀
Show up = turn up 出现
103、turn out 结果是，证明是
104、be sensitive to 对…敏感
105、go in for 对…感兴趣
106、be suck into 被卷入某事
107、some advice [u] a piece of advice much advice
108、make an effort to do = make efforts to do = make every effort to do尽力做某事
109、carry out 实施，实行
110、succeed in doing succeed [v]
Be successful in doing successful [adj]
He is a success. Success [u]
111、havea command of = have a knowledge of 掌握，了解 Have a command of English 112、Practice makes perfect. 113、have access to doing 有…权力，有…机会 114、command sb to do sth命令某人去做…
Request sb to do sth要求某人去做…
115、take out 拿出
Hand out = give away 分发
Cut off  切断  剪下来
116、get rid of 去除…
117、while  放句首表尽管，虽然
118、be known for 因…而出名
119、I am feeling well. Well在这里是形容词，表身体健康 120、favorites本身就是最高级
121、a disappointed look 失望的表情
122、be aware of 意识到… be ashamed of 因…而羞愧 123、fell from power 失去职位
124、go on a trip to 进行一次去…的旅行
125、a great many people = a great many of the people 126、in spring 年、月、季节前不加冠词
127、a piece of music [u]
128、be impressed by \ with \ at 被…而感动
129、take photos of sb
130、in the sky on the earth a full moon 131、think little of 对…评价很低
Think highly \ well of 对…评价高
132、you must be kidding 你一定在开玩笑
133、inspires sb to do 鼓舞某人做某事
134、lit up  点燃 He sat back and lit up a cigarette.
 照亮 His eyes lit up when he walked into the room.
 使放光彩 A sweet smile lit up her face.
 lit—lit—lit lit—lighted—lighted lit做定语只能用lighted
135、take up  从事 After retiring from office, He took up painting.
 占据 Phone calls take up a large part of the day.
 继续 I will take up the story where I finished yesterday.
 接受 I am taking up my prize that was won last year. 136、bring up  养育 He brought up 5 children.
 提出 Bring it up at the meeting.
 呕吐 Bring up your lunch.
137、live up to 辜负
138、be likely to do 有可能
 The person I referred to is Smith.
 You can refer to your notes while delivering your speech.
 You can refer to the dictionary when you come across a new word.
 What does the word refer to ?
140、strike—struck—struck \ stricken
 strike a match 划着火柴
 The clock struck 12 钟敲响12点
 An earthquake strike \ hit the area 袭击
 I was struck by the beauty 震动
 A good idea struck me 突然想到
 strike \ hit him in the face 击打
 be on strike 罢工
141、share in sth with sb
142、arrange for sb to do sth安排某人做某事
143、pass it on 传递下去
144、expose sb \ sth on 使暴露于…
145、A is to B what C is to D A对B就像C对D的关系
146、in time  及时  迟早
147、his late father late 已故的
148、send up 发射 send up a rocket into space. 149、as sb put it 正像某人所说的
150、give away  泄露  分发
151、that’s to say = in other word
In a word 总之
152、present sth to sb = present sb with sth赠送某人某物
153、mistake A for B 错把A当作B
154、hold out  伸出  举起
draw back 收回
155、respond 回应 reply 回信 greeting 问候
Awkward 笨拙，窘迫，尴尬 frustration 挫折
156、make a difference to = make an effect on = make an influence on 对…有影响
157、set an example for sb为…树立榜样
158、How much short is he ? 他少多少钱,
159、on the ground 在地上 on the way to…去…的路上
160、content oneself with sth使某人对…满意
Be content with = be satisfied with 对…满意
Be content to do = be willing to do 乐意做…
161、hang up 挂断 hold on 别挂断
Break with sb和某人分手
162、far from = not at all 远非，一点也不是
He is far from happy = He is not happy at all 163、next to  紧挨着  仅次于
164、break down  车坏了  身体垮了  精神崩溃了
 引导同位语从句 I have no idea whether the meeting will be given.
 引导表语从句 The problem is whether the meeting will be given.
 放句首引导主语从句 Whether the meeting will be given is uncertain.
 与不定式连用 She was uncertain whether to stay or leave.
 固定搭配，whether or not
166、put sb in prison 把某人送进监狱
167、have trouble in doing = have difficulty in doing = have a hard time in doing
168、take trouble to do 不辞辛劳做某事
169、the moment = the minute = the instant = as soon as = instantly = immediately
170、turn up  调高  出现 = show up
Turn over 翻转 turn away 把脸转过去 turn out 结果是
171、to be honest = honestly speaking
172、be intended for 为…做准备 The book is intended for children aged 5.
Intend to do 打算…
173、offer to do 主动提出做某事
174、rule out 排除，不考虑
175、to make matters worse 更糟糕的是
176、at Christmas at the Spring Festival 在…期间
On Christmas day 在圣诞那天
177、be diagnosed with 被诊断为…
178、How do you like \ find \ feel about ? 感觉怎样,
179、appeal to sb吸引某人 appeal to law 求助于法律
180、refer to  谈到  参考，参阅  查阅  指的是
181、count = matter 重要 It doesn’t matter. Every second counts. 182、send for a doctor. 派人去请医生
183、would rather do … than do
虚拟 would rather sb did (与现在或将来相反)
would rather sb had done (与过去相反)
I would rather you came now \ tomorrow I would rather you had come yesterday.
184、pick up  无意识学会一种语言 pick up a foreign language.
 逐渐好转business \ health is picking up.
 顺便买某物 pick up some sweets on your way home.
185、lend a hand = give a hand = do me a favour 186、waste [n] a waste of time
[v] Don’t waste time
[adj] waste paper
187、taste  develop a taste for…培养…的兴趣
对…喜爱  have a taste for…
 to one’s taste 合乎…的口味
 taste the food [v]
 Food tastes good \ delicious [系词]
 Tasting good, the food sells well. 188、get away  离开  脱身
189、drop in on sb拜访某人 drop in at sp参观某地
190、check out 结账 check in 登记入住
191、be similar to…与…相似
192、have respect for sb尊敬某人
193、lively class 生动的课堂
194、As time goes by = With time going by 195、be anxious to 渴望…
196、get relief 痛苦减轻 in relief舒了口气
197、So what ? 那又怎样, What for ?为什么目的,
No wonder 难怪
198、make room \ space for…为…提供空间
199、be curious about 对…好奇
200、come out  出版  真相大白  花的开放
break away(from) 脱离，逃跑
break down 损坏，分离，瓦解
break in/into 强行进入，冲入
break off 断绝，结束，中断，绝交
break out 爆发，突然发生（战争.事故等），脱逃 break through突破（障碍）等
break up 中止，结束，打破，拆散，（身体）变弱 ，衰弱
bring about 带来，造成，引起（造成）=（
lead to，result to ,give rise to ,on account of/to due tobe virtue of 因为）
bring down 打倒，挫伤，降低
bring forth 产生，提出
bring forward 提出 come up with
bring up 教育，培养（常考），使成长/was brought up in/by sb
call off 取消，放弃（cancel）
call on sb（upon）拜访某人，要求做….,请求 call on sb to do/ask 号召某人做某事
call up 召集,动员,使人想起
call in 召集,召来
call for 要求,需要,提倡,邀请,为….叫喊
call at 拜访，访问，停靠(车站)
call by 顺道访问
side effect/by effect 副作用
carry off 夺去，度过，完成，勇敢的面对，坚持 carry on 继续下去，坚持下去
carry out 贯彻，执行，实现（常考）
catch upwith 追上，赶上
catch sight of 看到（很重要）
come on 请，进展，发展，开始，来临（常考） come out 出版，刊出，结果是，结局是=turn out to be come round /around 来访，前来，苏醒，复原
come through 经历，脱险，（常考）（苦痛的经历） 一般指艰辛的过程
come to 苏醒，复苏，共计 ，达到
come up with 提出，追赶上，
come into 得到，继承
come across 偶然，碰到（常考）
come up for air喘口气
come down with （病）付钱，染上（病） 坏习惯 come down to 屈尊做某事，归结起来
count on 依赖，依靠（The whole team count on Cristiano Ronaldo ,and he seldom lets them down .) 整个
wait on 伺候，服侍
call on 号召
draw in (火车，汽车) 到达
draw on 吸收，利用
draw up 写出，画出，草拟
draw out 拉长，拔出
draw off 放干，消除
draw a conclusion 得出结论
由于Due to /owing to /thanks to(多亏）相当于because of / as a result of /in virtue of /because of 导致Result in导致的原因
Her sense of inferiority（自卑情绪） result in her unfortunate family background.(真题）
Resut from 导致的结果
drop by/in 顺便走访
drop off 减弱，减少，打瞌睡=doze off
drop out 退出，离队，不参与，弃权=abandon ，进展，相处，融洽
get along on /with get on well with somebody
get round /around (消息)传开 =Word/rumor 谣言rumor get around 谣言满天飞
get away 离开，逃脱
get by 通过，经过
get down 从….下来，写下
get down to 开始着手做某事=set about，take up get rid of 除掉，去掉，革除，摒除=dispose
give away 分送，泄露，出卖
give back 送还，恢复 =return
give in 投降，屈服=yiled to
give off 释放，放出，发出=hand out,distribute分配，散布，分发，把…分类 give up 放弃，停止，投降 surrender vi 屈服，投降
hand in/out 一般互为一对反义词
hand down 把…传下去（指从上一代传到下一代） hand in 上交，递交
hand on 把…传下去（依次传递）
hand out 发给，分发，散发（反义词hand in/distribute） hand over 交出，交付，移交，让与（反义词 take over 接管，接替）
look 不及物动词 look系动词 smell闻，sound听 taste尝，feel 感觉
look down upon/on 看不起，轻视
look for 期待，盼望，寻找，搜求
look forward to 盼望，期待=expect
look in 顺便看望=drop in ,call in
look into 调查，观察
look through 仔细察看，浏览，温习
look up 查阅，查询，查字典
put down 拆毁=tear down（拆信封），take down ，
put in （车）停下，进站，（船）到岸
put out 拔出，抽出，取出，（车，船）驶出 put up （使）停下，举起，张贴，建造，提高 He put up as a candidate .
Anna put up a mild protest.(n抗议，反对，申明, Vi 抗议，断言 vt 抗议，声明，反对）
put up with 容忍，忍受
put over （车）靠边停
set about 开始，着手（doing）
set aside搁在一边，留出，挑出（set…aside） set back推迟，延缓，阻碍（常考）
set fire to 放火，点着了…，激起，燃点
set out 动身，启程，开始，制定（to do）
set out to 打算，开始，着手（=set about doing ） set up 创立，建立，树立
take after 与…相像，效仿
take apart 拆开，拆卸，（机器）take…apart take away 消除，消耗
take down 记下，写下
take in 接受，吸收，了解，理解
take off 起飞，脱下
take on（sb） 呈现，接纳，开始雇佣(常考) take over 接管，接办
take up 采取，接纳，占据
take apart in 参与，参加=participate in
take …for example 用…为例
take…for granted 把…认为是理所应当的
turn in 交还，上交 hand in
turn off 关掉，断开
turn on 接通，打开
turn out （to be ）结果是，（最后）证明是
turn over 移交，转交(=hand over ),翻过来，翻到 turn to （sb） 变成，求助于，借助于
turn up 到来，出现
join in 参加
join the army，join up 参军
He decide to enlist.
He enlisted in the army.
in relation to 与…有关
I have a lot say in relation to that affair.
in response to 对…做出反应
in favor of 赞成 反义词 oppose ,be opposed to ,object to,be against,argue against
in prossession of 拥有(人做主语)，占有 in the prossession of （物做主语）
in contrast to 和…相反
If you conceal your friends ,you may lose them.
An author must not be too sensitive to criticism.(批评)
twice as much as/twice as much
the more…the more ,as much an art as,as qualified as 和…一样优秀
（1. It is generally believed that the more exercise you do,the healthier you will become.
(2.I thought his speech would be interesting,but it turned out that the more he talked,the more I became bored.
to do（考的几率小）/v-ing(进行时)/v-ed（过去分词） （句首）
Judging by David’s expression ,we’d say he is not good mood today.
Seen from the hill-top ,the lake scenery is beyond description.（难以言表）（真题）
The decision having been made ,the next problem was how to make a good plan.(真题)
5、情态动词（虚拟语气 过去猜测 情态动词+完成时）
-“Have you seen Mary today?”
-“No ,I think she must have been away on her vacation.”(有否定所以只能用must have done)
主句用 should(would/could/might)have+动词原形 例如：If it had not rained so hard yesterday,we could have played tennis.
If we had known that she had planned to arrive today,we might have met her at the bus station.(真题)
主句用should（would、could、might）+v原形 例如：If I were in your position,I would marry her.
从句 should（were to）+动词原形
If you should miss the chance,you would feel sorry for it.
例如：I wish they were not so late.
I wished he hadn’t done that.
I wish I were a spaceman like yang liwei and could stay in the spaceship for a few days.(真题)
（2）表坚持、建议、命令、要求宾语从句虚拟语气 一个：坚持 insist
四个：要求 demand、require、request、ask direct(、agree、decide、desire、prefer
I insist that he (should)go with us .
He insisted that she was honest.
It is natural that he (should)feel hurt.他感到疼是很正常的。
（2）、It be+过去分词+that...(should)...。用于该句结构的过去分词有：表示（建议、命令、要求等词。（与B:(2)相同） It is desired that the building of the house be
completed next month.
（3)It is time(bout time/high time)that...+(过去时或should+v原形）...。例如：It is high time I went home now.=It is high time I should go home .我该回家了。
（4）、表语从句、同位语从句中的虚拟语气。在suggestion,proposal,order,plan,idea,advice,decision等词需要具体的解释的名词后要使用虚拟语气，其谓语动词为：should+v原形，连接从句的that不能省略 My suggestion is that we should go there at once. 我的建议是我们应该马上去那儿。
4、省略形式。有时可以把含有助动词、情态动词、be 或have 的虚拟条件句中的连词if省去，而将had/should/were等词提到主语前面，即用倒装结构。这时，如果出现not等否定词需放在主语后面。 例如：If she had been here five minutes earlier, she would have seen her old friend.
Had she been here five minutes earlier,she would
have seen her old friend.(与6、虚拟语气（1）、（2）、
Only after three operations was he able to walk without sticks.
Only with more practice can you pass the driving test. 只有多练习你才能通过驾驶考试。
only that girl knew how to work out the problem. 只有那位女生知道怎么解释这道题。
Only to do
After 15 years abroad , his brother came back only to find his hometown severely damaged in the earthquake.(真题)
特殊“where is the girl we talked about
“look ,Here she comes(主语代词不倒装it/she/he)当主语是名词时倒装(真题)
Here comes the bus（完全倒装）
Never before were so much free information available for quick and easy access in so many different filed of study.(真题)
3、 Not until 位于句首（主句倒装）
Not until the early years of the 19th century did man know what heat is.
Feeling something wrong with our car ,we pulled over. Not until then did we find it had been badly damaged.
Not until he loses his health will he give up drinking.
No sooner had he begun to speak than some noise arose from the audience.(真题)
Hardly had the speaker finished making the speech when the people stood up applauding.（真题）
5、 not only…(but also)…位于句首引导两个分句时，
Not only does he teach in school,but (also)（可省略）the writes novels.
6、 so/neither/nor 开头的句子，说明 前面的内容也适
She has been to Dalian and so have I.
-Maggine had a wonderful time at the pany.
- so she did ,and so did I .
7、as/though引导的词等提到句首，采用部分倒装。 如果位于句首的是单数可数名词，其前不加冠词。 Brave as they were ,the danger made them afraid. 尽管他们很勇敢，但在危险面前他们感到害怕。 Wounded as he was ,he refused to come back from the front.
8、在so/such...that...结构中，so/such修饰部分位于句首时，主句部分倒装。例如：so beautiful was the girl
that she won the championship in the beauty contest. 那女孩那么漂亮，她在选美比赛中获得了冠军。 So fast does light travel that it is difficult for us to imagine its speed.(真题）
Such an instructive（教育性的） speech did he make that all the listeners were moved.
特殊：so lovely a day /such a lovely day
It is so lovely a day that we’d like to go out for a walk.(真题）
例如：1)、Dr .Green ,together with his wife and two daughters ,is to arrive in Nanjing tonight.
2）、Air pollution ,together with overpopulation,is caused many problems in big cities today.
3）Neither the teacher nor her students have been
asked to attend to attend the meeting by the headmaster.
4、定语从句中，先行词是the only one (of)...时； He is the only of the students who has been a winner of scholarship for three years.(真题）
One of +可数名词复数+关系代词+谓语动词的复数 He is one of the students who have been a winner of scholarship for three years.
Mary is one of the brightest students who have graduate from New York University.（真题）
5、以-ics 或-s 结尾的表示学科、疾病之类的名词作主语时；
6、A quantity of 其后接名词作主语时；
7、Every/each+单数名词，each...and each...,every...and every...,many a...,more than one ...等作主语时。
8. the number of + 复数名词作主语时；
9. each, everyone, everybody, everything, someone, somebody, something 等不定代词作主语时。
【考例1】 As you can see, the number of cars on our roads ________ rising these days. （2006全国卷II）
A. was keeping B. keep
C. keeps D. were keeping
解析： 答案C。the number of ＋ 复数名词作主语，表示“„„的数量”，谓语动词用单数形式。根据题意，应选C。
【考例2】 A poet and artist ________ coming to speak to us about Chinese literature and painting tomorrow afternoon. （2006江苏）
A. is B. are C. was D. were
解析： 答案A。当“名词 ＋ and ＋ 名词”前面只有一个冠词时，表示“一人 / 物”，作主语时，谓语动词用单数。根据题意，应选A。（the/a) 要点二、谓语动词用复数的情况：
1. 由and或both... and... 连接两个名词作主语时，谓语动词用复数；
例：The atmosphere is as much a part of the earth as are （its soil and the water of its lakes,rivers and oceans.）主语 (真题）
2. clothes, trousers, shoes, glasses等词作主语时，谓语动词常用复数；
3. quantities of无论其后接单数还是复数名词，谓语动词都用复数；
4. a number of + 复数名词作主语时，谓语动词用复数；
5. people （指人时）, police, cattle等词作主语时，谓语动词用复数。
【考例1】 With more forests being destroyed, huge quantities of good earth ________ each year. （2005山东）
A. is washing away B. is being washed away
C. are washing away D. are being washed away
解析：答案 D。本题考查了两个知识点。其一是主谓一致：quantities of 之后无论接单数还是复数名词，
【考例2】 Nowadays, a large number of women, especially those from the countryside, ________ in the clothing industry. (2005辽宁)
A. is working B. works
C. work D. worked
解析：答案C。a number of 后接可数名词的复数形式作主语时，谓语动词用复数。nowadays表明应用一般现在时。
1. 由连词or, either... or..., neither... nor...,not only... but （also）... 等连接两个名词作主语时，谓语动词的数由邻近的名词或代词来决定；
2. 以there 或here开头的句子，谓语动词的数由邻近的名词或代词来决定。
【考例】 Either you or the headmaster ________ the prizes to these gifted students at the meeting. （1994上海）
A. is handing out B. are to hand out
C. are handing out D. is to hand out
解析：答案D。句子的主语部分含有either... or...，其谓语动词的形式应采用就近原则。又因be to do sth.表将来，因此答案为D。
2. lots of, plenty of等词表示“许多”等概念时，谓语动词的数由of后的名词决定；
3. 集体名词作主语，若表示整体，谓语动词用单数；若表示整体中的各个成员，谓语动词用复数。常见的集体名词有：team, class, army, family, group等； 例如： The number of employees（ 集体名词）at the factory has been cut to a minimum(最低限度） so as to （为了）lower production cost.
4. 当主语中心词是all, some, any, enough, most, half, the rest等时，谓语动词要视情况而定；
5. 由下列介词及词组引起的短语作主语的后置定语时，不影响主语的数，如 as well as, with, together
with, along with, rather than, including, except,but, besides 等。
【考例1】 Most of what has been said about the Smiths ________ also true of the Johnsons. (2006安徽)
A. are B. is
C. being D. to be
解析：答案 B。句子的主语是most, of后是一个what引导的从句，指的是事情，应该看作是不可数的，所以谓语动词用单数形式。
【考例2】 The father as well as his three
children ________ skating on the frozen river every Sunday afternoon in winter. (2006辽宁)
A. is going B. go
C. goes D. are going
解析：答案C。主语部分是含有as well as的词组构成的，前面是the father，后面是his three
所以谓语用单数形式，再根据时间状语确定用一般现在时态。 考例3、The League secretary and monitor___asked to make a speech at the meeting. A. is
注：先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时，先排除A、C本题易误选D，因为The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人，但仔细辨别，monitor前没有the，在英语中，当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and相连。这样本题主语为一个人，所以应选B The owner and editor of the newspaper is to attend the conference.(真题）解析同上
考例四：Air pollution ,together with
overpopulation,is causing many problems in big cities today.(真题）
跟踪练习：1. When and why Jack came to China ________ not known.
When and where to build the new library ________ not been decided.
A. is; has B. are; has
C. is; have D. are; have
2. Each solider and sailor ________ a gun.
A. are given B. was given
C. were given D. have been given
3. — ________ ten dollars (度量衡作主语用单数）a big sum to him?
— I suppose so.
A. Is B. Will be
C. Are D. Were
4. ________ Jack and Mary who mended the broken chair yesterday?
A. Is it B. Were it
C. Was it （强调句） D. Are it
4）、It was John and Peter who helped me with my work the other day.(强调句 真题）
5. It seemed to me that what she saw and heard ________ very interesting.
A. was B. were
C. is D. are
6. There be manager or his secretary ________ to give you an interview.
A. is B. are
C. were D. have
7. ________ good exercise.
A. Climbing hills is
B. Climbing the hill are
C. The climbing hills are
D. Climbing of hills are
8. Time and tide ___（一体性名词且为客观真理）_____ for no man.
A. wait B. waits
C. is waiting D. has waited
9. The poor （一类人）________ cruelly robbed by the nobles those days.
A. is B. are
C. was D. were
10. 2,000 miles _（度量衡作主语用单数）_______ quite a long distance.
A. are B. is
C. makes D. make 参考答案及解析：
1. A。由关系副词when, where, why, how等引导的从句作主语表示一个抽象概念时，谓语动词用单数形式。
2. B。 each在这里可看作solider和sailor的同位语，而solider和sailor为一体性名词，故谓语动词用单数形式。
3. 3. A。 度量衡作主语时，可看作单数，谓语动词用单数形式。
4. 4. C。 根据句式结构来看，这是由“It is / was that”构成的强调句，句中的时态应为过去时。
5. 5. A。由what引导的从句作主语时，表示抽象概念，可看作单数，谓语动词用单数形式，句中的时态应为过去时。
6. 6. A。当主语由there be 引出时，可用就近原则，因此句中应使用谓语单数形式。
7. 7. A。 V-ing 形式作主语时，可看作单数，故A项为正确答案。
8. 8. B。time and tide为一体性名词，单数处理，且此句为一客观真理，应用一般现在时。
9. 9. D。the + poor 表示一类人，谓语动词用复数形式，those days为过去时间状语，故D项为正确答案。
10. 10. B。 表示距离的词用作主语时，谓语动词用单数形式，排除A、D、C三个不符合英语日常表达的习惯，故B项为正确答案。
注意：a great deal of +单数不可数名词 An mount of +单数不可数名词
A number of +复数名词
九、定语从句（非限制性定语从句）只能用which ×××，-①- ×××
Her sister has become a lawyer ,which she wanted to be .
介词是一种表示名词和句中其他词之间关系的词，在英语中能和动词、名词、形容词等词搭配，表示种种不同的意思，使用时灵活多变，不易掌握，介词to 也不例外。四级考试中，介词to 的用法是测试重点之一，应引起特别注意。本文以历年四级真题为依据，总结了介词to 的几种常见搭配，并附上历年四级考试中相关的考题，供考生练习。
1. “实义动词+介词to ”结构
adapt to... (适应于„„)
devote ... to... (专心于，致力于)
add... to... (增加，添加)
entitle ... to... (给„„权利、资格等)
adhere to ... (追随，依附，坚持)
expose... to... (暴露在„„之下)
adjust to ... (调整，调节)
lead to... (导致„„，招致„„)
amount to ... (达到; 意味着)
object to ... (反对)
appeal to ... (恳求; 呼吁)
owe ... to... (欠„„；对„„负有„„) apply to ... (应用，运用；向„„申请) react to... (对„„做出反应)
attach... to... (系上，附加于，使附属) refer to... (论及，参照; 委托) attend to ... (倾听；照顾，料理) resort to ... (诉诸于„„)
attribute to . .. (把„„归因于，认为是„„的结果)
respond to ... („„做出反应) belong to ... (属于)
see to ... (负责，留意，照料)
compare ...to ... (与„„比较；将„„比作为) stick to... (坚持)
confess to ... (坦白，坦承)
subject ... to ... (使遭受„，使蒙受„„) conform to ... (顺从，与„„一致) turn to... (翻到；向„„求助)
contribute to... (有助于，促使) yield to... (屈服于)...
(1) This is the nurse who ________ to me when I was in hospital. (CET-4, 03.6,52)
A. entertained B. accompanied
C. attended D. shielded
(2) I would never have ________ a court of law if I hadn't been so desperate. (CET-4,02.6,66)
A. sought for B. accounted for
C. turned up D. resorted to
(3) He ________ to his customers and halved the price. (CET-4, 02.1,65)
A. leaked B. yielded
C. drew D. quoted
(4) Eating too much fat can ________ heart disease and cause high blood pressure.(CET-4, 01.6,55)
A. attribute to B. attend to
C. contribute to D. devote to
(5) I didn't know the word. I had to ________ a dictionary. (CET-4, 00.6,35)
A. look out B. make out
C. refer to D. go over
(6) The man in the corner confessed to ________ a lie to the manager of the company.(CET-4, 97.6,58)
A. have told B. be told
C. being told D. having told
(7) Because Edgar was convinced of the accuracy of this fact, he ________ his opinion. (CET-4, 97.6,60)
A. struck at B. strove for
C. stuck to D. stood for
(8) There is hardly an environment on earth ________ some species of animal or other has not adapted successfully. (CET-4,94.6,53)
A. to which B. wherever
C. so that D. as to
(9) The manager assured the customer that his complaint would be seen ________ immediately. (CET-4, 93.1,70)
A. to B. at C. on D. with
(10) Police have ________ to the public to come forward with any information which might help them in their inquiries. (CET-4,90.6,44)
A. urged B. claimed
C. appealed D. called
(11) Is it advisable to ________ our body to the sunlight? (CET-4, 90.6,62)
A. reveal B. display
C. expose D. show
2. “be+过去分词 / 形容词 +to”结构 be addicted to... (对„„上瘾)
be opposed to... (反对)
be attached to... (附属于)
be subject to... (易遭„„的；以„„为条件的)
be due to... (归功于„„，因为„„)
be used /accustomed to... (习惯于„„)
(12) The committee is totally opposed ________ any changes being made in the plans.(CET-4, 99.1,61)
A. of B. on C. to D. against
(13) Although punctual himself, the professor was quite used ________ late for his lecture. (CET-4, 98.1,31)
A. to have students
B. for students' being
be objected to... (反对)...
C. for students to be
D. to students' being
(14) The match was cancelled because most of the members ________ a match without a standard court. (CET-4, 91.6,48)
A. objected to having
B. were objected to have
C. objected to have
D. were objected to having
此类名词与to 一起构成固定结构“名词+介词to ”，可分为两类： 二、 与某些名词一起构成特定搭配
1. 某些固有名词，如admission, access, answer, approach, barrier , key, right, solution 等；
2. 由相关动词派生而来的名词，如exposure , objection, reaction, response 等。
(15) The British government often says that furnishing children with ________ to the
information superhighway is a top priority. (CET-4, 03.9,55)
A. procedure B. protection
C. allowance D. access
(16) I have no objection ________ your story again. (CET-4, 00.6,27)
A. to hear B. to hearing
C. to having heard D. to have heard
(17) Does everyone on earth have an equal right ________ an equal share of its resources? (CET-4, 98.6,55)
A. by B. at C. to D. over
(18) The traditional approach ________ with complex problems is to break them down into smaller, more easily managed problems.
A. to dealing B. in dealing
C. dealing D. to deal
(19) The doctor told Penny that too much ________to the sun is bad for the skin.(CET-4, 95.1,57)
A. exposure B. extension
C. exhibition D. expansion
(20) It was difficult to guess what her ________ to the news would be. (CET-4, 91.6,42)
A. impression B. reaction
C. comment D. opinion
(21) They have been trying to arrive at a practi-
cal solution ________ the problem. (CET-4,
A. in B. to C. on D. with
equivalent, indifferent, parallel, relevant, second, sensitive, similar等；
senior, junior 等, 这些词虽然都是原级形容词，却含有比较意味，后面都不能用than 表示比较，而必须用to ；
(22) Some plants are very ________ to light; they prefer the shade. (CET-4, 04.1,70)
A. sensible B. flexible
C. objective D. sensitive
(23) Color and sex are not relevant ________ whether a person is suitable for the job.(CET-4, 03.9,45)
A. on B. for C. to D. with
(24) A dark suit is ________ to a light one for evening wear. (CET-4, 03.6, 60)
A. proper B. suitable
C. favorable D. preferable
(25) Physics is ________ to the science which was called natural philosophy in history.(CET-4, 97.1,24)
A. alike B. equivalent applicable, comparable, preferable 等。
C. likely D. uniform
(26) Cancer is second only ________ heart disease as a cause of death. (CET-4, 96.1,30)
A. of B. to C. with D. from
(27) Beethoven is my favorite musician. I regard him as ________ other musicians. (CET-4, 94.1,55)
A. more superior to
B. more superior than
C. superior to
D. superior than
(28) What you have done is ________ the doctor's orders. (CET-4, 90.1,63)
A. attached to B. responsible to
C. resistant to D. contrary to
as to... (关于)
thanks to... (多亏„„，由于„„)
in addition to (加之，除了„„之外)
to one's abilities (capabilities,
potential...)(尽某人所能) in contrast to... (与„„对照)
to one's surprise (amazement, relief...)(令人感到„„)
in response to (对„„做出
owing to... (因为)
with reference to... (关于，至于)
to some degree (extent)(在某种程度上)
previous to... (在„„之前)
with /in regard to... (关于，至于)
prior to... (先于„„; 比„„重要)
(29) ________ the enormous flow of food from the entire globe, these countries have for many years not felt any population pressure.(CET-4, 03.9,46)
A. Thanks to B. By means of
C. In line with D. With regard to
(30) The British constitution is ________ a large extent a product of the historical events described above. (CET-4, 00.6,50)
A. within B. to C. by D. at
(31) Being a pop star can be quite a hard life,with a lot of travelling ________ heavy schedules. (CET-4, 99.6.50)
with respect to... (关于，至于)...
A. as to B. in relation to
C. owing to D. with regard to
(32) Housewives who do not go out to work often feel they are not working to their full ________. (CET-4, 97.6,35)
A. capacity B. strength
C. length D. possibility
(33) It is useful to be able to predict the extent ________ which a price change will affect supply and demand. (CET-4, 97.1,29)
A. from B. with C. to D. for
五、 用于特定句型中 when it comes to... (当提到„„，当论及„„)
see (to it) that... (留意„„, 负责„„, 务必„„)
(34) Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true ________ it comes to classroom tests.(CET-4, 96.1,36)
A. when B. since
C. before D. after
(35) He is late again today. I'll ________ that he will not be late tomorrow. (CET-4,9
A. be sure B. see to it
C. hope for D. make it to
1. I have no objection____ the evening with them.
A) to spend B) to spending C) of spending D) spending
2. The traditional approach __ with complex problems is to break them down in to smaller,
more easily managed problems.
A) to dealing B) in dealing C) dealing D) to deal
3) Does everyone on the earth have an equal share of its resources?
A) by B) at C) to d) over
4) I have no objection ))) your story again.
A) to hear B) to hearing C) to having eard D) to have heard
5) I always _____ what I have said.
A) get to B) hold to C) lead to D) set to
6) Medical research has shown that the widespread use of cigarette contributes ___ the increase of cancers.
A) towards B) for C) with D) to
7) He is late again today. I’ll ___ that he will not be late tomorrow.
A) be sure B) hope for C) see to it D) make it to
8) Because Edgar was convinced of the accuracy of this fact, he ___ his opinion.
A) struck at B) strove for C) stuck to D) stood for
9) We love peace, yet we are not the kind of people to yield __ any military hreat.
A) up B) to C) in D) at
10) Generous public funding of basic science would ___ considerable benefits for the country’s health, wealth and security.
A) result from b) settle down c) lie in D) lead to
11) The committee is totally opposed ___ any chanes being made in the plans.
A) of B) agianst C) on D) to
12) I didn’t know the word. I had to ___ a dictionary
A) Look out B) make out C) refer to D) go over
13) We object publishing a whole group for one fault.
A) against B) about C0 to D) for
14 ) The match as cancelled because most of the members ____ match without a standard court.
A) objected to having B) were objected to have C) objected to have D) were objected to having
15) What you have done is ___ the doctor’s orders.
A) attached to B) responsible to C) resistent to D) contrary to
16) Beethoven is my favorite musician. I regard him as ____ other musicians.
A) superior to B) more superior than C) more superior to D) superior than
17) Some plants are so sensitive _____ pollution that they can only survive in a perfectly clean environment.
A) from B) against C) to D) with
18) Cancer is second only ___ heart disease as a cause of death.
A) of B) to C) with D) from
19) Although punctual himself, the professor was quite used ___ late for his lecture.
A) to have students B)for students’ being C) for students to be D) to students’ being
20) Agriculture was a step in human progress ___ which subsequently there was not anything comparable until our own machine age.
A) to B) in C) for D) from
21) We wer struck by the extent __which teachers’ decisions served to interests of the school rather than those of the students.
A) to B) for C) in D) with
22) It is useful to be able to predict the extent ___ which a price change will affect supply and demand.
A) from B) with C) to D) for
23) The British constitution is ___ a large extent a product of the historical events described above.
A) within B) to C) by D) at
1. should \ shouldn’t \ can \ can’t \ must \shall \ will +动词原形
2. 借助 do, does, did构成的问句、否定句,动词用原形。
3. let sb. +动词原形 let 加代词宾格 let us/ me
4. like+doing喜欢做某事 like to do 喜欢去做某事
5.be+动词 ing , go+动词 ing, do well in \ be good at+doing
6. would like, want, how, need + to +动词 would like to do= want to do
would you please + 动词原形
7. excited主语是人, exciting 主语是事情或物
8. It’s time to+动词原形 =It’s time for+名词
9. at+几点钟, at ten past five; at night; at Christmas
10. in+年,月份,上午,下午,晚上,季节 , in 2010; in January; in the morning;
11. on+某月某日,星期,节日 , 具体某一天等。
on the first of May; on Monday; on Christmas Day=at Christmas On New Year’s Day
12. 长着什么用 with 如:the girl with big eyes; 穿着什么用 in 如:in red; in the red coat
13. 外来的东西在树上用 in 如:the bird in the tree; 树上长的用 on 如: the apples on the tree
14. 球类前不加 the, 乐器前要加 the play football, play the piano
15. give sth. to sb.=give sb.sth. show sb. sth.= show sth. to sb.
16. buy sth. for sb.=buy sb.sth.
17. help sb (to) do sth, help sb with sth
18. talk about+ 事情, talk with+人 talk to sb. about sth.
19. tell sth. to sb.
20. ask sb (not) to do sth. ask for a penfriend
21. go home \ there go to the post office
get here \ home \ there get to the zoo
.=It’s often. There’s a lot of (名词) in summer.
23. 疑问词:What 什么 , what colour什么颜色 , what time几点钟 , what shape 什么形状, when 何时 , why为什么, how 怎么样 , how\what about怎么样, how old多大, how far多远 , how long多长 , how much多少 钱 , how many多少个 , where哪儿 , which哪一个 , who谁 , whose谁的 , 24. Chinese, Japanese, English表示……国家的人时,单复数不变 25. 祈使句以动词原形开头,否定祈使句在动词前加 don’t.
26. than前用比较级, as … as 之间用原级
27. some 用于肯定句, any 用于否定句和疑问句。 some, any既可以 修饰可数名词, 也可修饰不可数名词。 特殊的:Would you like some …? Can I have some…?
28. 许多:a lot of \ lots of (修饰可数或者不可数名词 )
many (修饰可数名词 ) much(修饰不可数名词 )
29. have, has 表示某人有 (has用于第三人称单数 ) ; There is/ are; There was/ were 表示某地存在有,注意 There be 句型的就近原则,单数或 不可数用 there is /was; 复数用 there are/ were.
30. glasses; earphones; shoes; trousers等词本身是复数。与 are 连用。 但如果表示这双, 这副, 一双的时候加了 a pair of就用单数, 与 is 连 用。
31. 五个元音字母分别是 Aa, Ee, Ii, Oo, Uu;
an + 12个字母:Aa, Hh, Ee, Ii, Oo, Ff, Ll, Mm, Nn, Ss, Xx, Rr 32. 时间:在半小时包括半小时以内用 past, 过了半小时用下一个钟 点差几分用 to
表示半小时 half, 一刻钟 a quarter
6:10 ten past six = six ten 6:15 a quarter past six= six fifteen, 6:30 half past six = six thirty 6:40 twenty to seven = six forty 33. 基变序 , 一二三特殊 (first, second, third); 八去 t(eighth), 九去 e(ninth), ve 要用 f 替(twelve — twelfth ); ty 改 y 为 ie 后加 th (即整 十数如 twenty — twentieth ; forty — fortieth); 几十几 , 十位为基个位为序 (如第二十一为 twenty-first )。另外强调序数词前一定要加 the 。 34. both表示两者都 ; all表示三者或者三者以上都 两个词都用在 be 后面,行为动词前。
35. 按“主格 -宾格 -形容词性物主代词 -名词性物主代词”依
you-you-your-yours \ he-him-his-his \ she-her-her-her \ it-it-its-its \ we-us-our-ours
动词 +代词宾格 (help him) 介词 +代词宾格 (for him)
形容词性物主代词 +名词, 名词性物主代词后面没有名词 (That is her bag. That bag is hers. )
(1)直接在名词后加 s 如 orange — oranges; photo— photos;
(2) 以 x, s, sh, ch 结尾的加 es 如:box — boxes; glass— glasses; waitress — waitresses; watch— watches;peach — peaches
(3) 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的改 y 为 i 加 es 如:study — studies ;
library — libraries; hobby— hobbies; family— families;
(4)以 f, fe结尾的改 f, fe 为 v +es 如:knife — knives; thief— thieves (注 :以 o 结尾的我们学过的只有 mango 加 es, mango— mangoes 其余加 s, ) 不规则的有
man — men;woman — women;people — people;child — children ;
now,listen,look 等词连用,结构是主语 +be动词 (am, is, are)+动词 ing.
如:It is raining now.
It is six o’clock now. My parents are reading newspapers in the sitting room.
Look! The children are having a running race now.
Listen! Who is singing in the music room.
问句将 be 动词移前,否定句在 be 动词后 +not.
2. 一般现在时表示经常反复发生的事情或动作,常与 often, usually, sometimes, always, every day(week year…) on Sundays等词连用。 结 构是主语 +动词原形; 当 主语为第三人称单数即 he,she, it, Tom, my mother, the boy等词时,动词后加 s 或 es.
如:We have an English lesson every day.
My brother often catches insects at the weekends.
Do the boys run faster than the girls? Yes, they do.
Ben doesn’t do well in PE.
问句借助于 do, does否定句借助于 don’t, doesn’t , 后面动词一定要 还原。
3. 一般过去时表示发生在过去的事情或存在的状态, 常与 just now; a moment ago; … ago; yesterday; last ( week; month; year; Monday; weekend); this morning等词连用,结构是主语 +be动词的过去式 (was; were)或主语 +动词的过去式。注意:be 动词与动词过去式 不可同时使用。
如:My earphones were on the ground just now.
Where were you last week? I was at a camp.
What did you do yesterday? I visited a farm
问句有 be 动词将 be 动词移前, 没有 be 动词借助于 did , 后面动词 还原; 否定句有 be 动词在后面加 not , 没有借助于 didn't 后面动词 还原。
4. 一般将来时表示将要打算发生的事情或动作,常与 tomorrow, next week(year; Tuesday…), this week( weekend ;evening;
afternoon;…)today 等词连用。结构是主语 +be(am, is, are) going to + 动原或主语 +will +动原。
如:What are you going to do tomorrow? I am going to have a picnic. My sister is going to play the piano at the concert.
The childre are going to have a sports meeting next week.
Tom will/is going to see a play with his father this evening. 问句将 be 动词或 will 移前;否定句在 be 动词或 will 后加 not. 5. 情态动词 can; can’t; should; shouldn’t; must; may后一定加动词原 形。如:The girl can’t swim , but he can skate . Don’t talk in class, you should listen to the teacher carefully.
6. 肯定祈使句以动词原形开头; 否定祈使句以 don’t 加动词原形开头。 如:Open the box for me ,please.请为我打开盒子。 Liu Tao! Please get up earlier tomorrow.刘涛,明天请早点起床! Don’t walk on the grass!不要在草地上走! Helen! Don’t climb the tree,please.海伦!不要爬树。 7. 去干嘛用 go +动词 ing 如 : go swimming; go fishing; go skating; go camping; go running; go skiing; go rowing…
8. than 前用比较级; as…as 之间用原级。 如:My mother is two years younger than my father.我妈比我爸年轻两岁。 Liu Tao jumps as far as Ben.刘涛跳得和本一样远。
9. 喜欢做某事用 like +动词 ing 或 like+ to + 动原。 如:Su Yang likes growing flowers.苏阳喜欢种花。 The children like to play with lanterns at Spring Festival.孩子们喜欢在春节去玩花灯。
10. 想要做某事用 would like +to+动原或 want + to +动原。
I’d like to visit the History Museum.=I want to visit the History Museum
11. some 用于肯定句中, 在否定句和问句中改为 any, 但当表示委婉语 气时仍用如:Can I have some writing paper? Would you like some orange juice?
12. 人称代词主格做主语用,一般放在句首或动词前,主格分别是 I you he she it we you they。 宾格做宾语用,一般放在动词或介词 后如:Open them for me. Let us …, join me等。 宾格分别是 me you him her it us you them。形容词性物主代词放在名词前,不能单独 使用, 分别是 my your his her its our your their。 名词性物主代词相 当于形物加名词,它只能单独使用后面不好加名词,分别是 mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs。
13. 介词后要么不加动词,加动词只能加动词 ing 形式,如:be good at running ; do well in jumping;
14. 季节前,月份前用介词 in ,如:in summer; in March,具体的哪 一天如星期几, 几月几日用介词 on 如:on Saturday; on the second of April; on Wednesday mornig,在几点钟前用介词 at 如:at a quarter to four; 只在上下午晚上用 in 如:in the morning/ afternoon/ evening; 但在夜间用 at night。另:季节,月份和星期前不好加 the.
15. 名词复数构成的方法有规则的有 (1)直接在名词后加 s 如
orange — oranges; photo— photos;(2) 以 x, s, sh, ch 结尾的加 es 如: box — boxes; glass— glasses; waitress— waitresses;
watch — watches;peach--peaches(3) 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的改 y 为 i 加 es 如:study — studies ; library — libraries; hobby— hobbies; family — families;(4)以 f, fe结尾的改 f, fe 为 v +es 如:knife — knives; thief — thieves (注 :以 o 结尾的我们学过的只有 mango 加 es, mango — mango es 其余加 s, )
不规则的有:man — men; woman— women; people— people;
child — children
16. 动词第三人称单数的构成 (1)直接在动词后加 s 如:run — runs; dance — dances(2)以 s,sh,ch,o 结尾的加 es 如:
do — does;go — goes;wash — washes;catch — catches (3)以辅音字母加 y 结尾的改 y 为 i 加 es 如:study — studies; carry— carries;
17. 现在分词的构成 (1)直接在动词后加 ing 如:sing — singing;
ski — skiing;(2)双写词尾加 ing 如:swim — swimming;
jog — jogging;run — running;(3)以不发音的 e 结尾的去 e 加 ing 如: ride — riding; dance— dancing; make— making;
18. 规则动词过去式的构成 (1)直接在动词后加 ed , 如:clean — cleaned; milk — milked; play— played;(2)以 e 结尾的直接加 d 如:
dance — danced; taste— tasted;(3) 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的改 y 为 i 加 ed 如:study — studied;carry — carried;(4)双写词尾加 ed 如: stop — stopped; jog— jogged;
不规则的有 am,is — was; are— were; do,does— did; have,has— had; go — went; meet— met; sit— sat; see— saw; get— got; tell— told; run — ran; come— came; steal— stole; read— read;
19. 形容词副词比较级的构成规则的 (1)直接在形容词或副词后加 er 如; small — smaller; low— lower;(2)以 e 结尾的加 r 如:late — larer;(3)双写词尾加 er 如:big — bigger; thin— thinner; fat— fatter;(4) 以辅 音字母加 y 结尾的改 y 为 i 加 er 如:heavy — heavier; early— earlier; 不规则的有:good, well— better(最高级为 best); many, much--- more(最高级为 most); far---farther;
20. rain 与 snow 的用法 (1)作为名词意思是雨水和雪是不可数名词 如:There is a lot of rain there in spring. 那儿的春天有很多雨水。 (2) 作为动词意思是下雨和下雪,有四种形式分别是动词原形 rain ; snow ,第三人称单数 rains ; snows ,现在分词 raining ; snowing 和过去式 rained ; snowed; 如:① Look! It is raining now. 瞧!天正在下雨。② It often rains in Nantong in summer.南通夏天
经常下雨。③ It rained yesterday. 昨天下了雨。 ④ It is going to rain tomorrow. 明天要下雨。 (3)形容词为 rainy 和 snowy 意思是 有雨的和有雪的如:It is often rainy here in spring.这儿的春天经常 是有雨的。 If it is rainytomorrow, I’ll stay at home.如果明天是有雨 的,我将呆在家里。
21. 比较级时注意只有同类事物才可进行比较。如:My eyes are bigger than hers .
Your school bag is heavier than mine . My computer is nicer than Nancy’s . My brother is stronger than me .
22. have, has 表示某人有 (has用于第三人称单数 ) ; There is/ are; There was/ were 表示某地存在有,注意 There be 句型的就近原 则,单数或不可数用 there is /was; 复数用 there are/ were.
23. 眼镜 glasses; 耳机 earphones; 鞋 shoes; 裤子 trousers 等词本身是 复数。如:My glasses were on the chair just now.但如果表示这双, 这副,一双的时候用单数如:There is a pair of chopsticks on the plate. This pair of earphones is for you.
24. 五个元音字母分别是 Aa, Ee, Ii, Oo, Uu;
25. a 用于辅音前不是辅音字母前; an 用于元音前不是元音字母前。 如:There is an ’s’, a ‘t’, a ‘u’, a ‘d’ ,an ‘e’, an ‘n’,and a ‘t’ in the word ‘student’.
26. 时间表示法有两种 (!)直接读时钟和分钟。如 6:10读成 six ten; 7:30读成 seven thirty; 8:45读成 eight forty-five;(2)用 to 与 past 表
示。在半小时包括半小时以内用几分 past 几点如:6:10读成 ten past six; 7:30读成 half past seven; 过了半小时用下一个钟点差几 分,如 7:45读成 a quarter to eight; 9:50读成 ten to ten;
27. 基数词变序数词的方法:基变序有规律,结尾加上 th; 一二三 特殊例, 结尾字母 tdd(即 first, second, third); 八去 t , 九去 e , ve 要用 f 替(即 eigh — eighth; nine— ninth; five--
fifth ;twelve— twelfth ); ty 改 y 为 ie 后加 th 别忘记 (即整十数如 twenty — twentieth ; forty — fortieth); 几十几十位为基个位为序(如 第二十一为 twenty-first )。另外强调序数词前一定要加 the 。 28. 日期的表示法用 the+序数词 + of +月如三月三日 the third of March; 12月 25日 the 25th of December.
29. both 表示两者都,如:My parents are both teachers. all 表示三 者以上都如:The students are all very excited.
30. 有 day 的节日前用 on. 没有 day 的节日前用 at, 如:at Christmas; on Christmas Day; at New Year; on New Year’s Day.
31. excited 表示激动的, 兴奋地主语是人; exciting 表示令人激动的, 令人兴奋的主语是事情如:The running race is very exciting, so all the students are very excited . 赛跑非常令人激动,因此所有的学生 都很激动。
32. 两者比较用比较级, 三者以上比较用最高级如:Who runs faster, the boy or the girl? The boy does.谁跑得更快,男孩还是女孩?男 孩。 Which season do you like best ? I like autumn best.你最喜欢哪个
季节?我最喜欢秋天。 Which season do you like better , summer or winter? I like winter better.你更喜欢哪个季节,夏天还是冬天?我 更喜欢冬天。
33. 前面用了 do, does did, don’t, doesn’t didn’t 后面动词要还原。 如: Did she watch TV last night? Helen doesn’t like taking photos. 34. 到达用 get to,但注意到家,到这儿,到那儿不可以加 to ,如: get home; get here; get there, 另外 go home; come here; go there也 一样。
35. 长着什么用 with 如:the girl with big eyes 大眼睛的女孩;穿着 什么用 in 如:the man in black穿黑衣服的男人或 the woman in the white skirt 穿白色短裙的妇女
36. 让某人做某事用 let sb后加动词原形如:Let’s water the flowers together. 是该做 … 的时候了用 It’s time for+名词或 It’s time to +动 原。 帮助某人做某事是 help sb with sth如:帮我学英语是 help me with my English
37. 外来的东西在树上用 in the tree如:the bird in the tree; 树上长的 用 on the tree如:the apples on the tree
38. 球类之前不好加 the; 乐器之前必须加 the 如:play the piano; play football
39. 一周中的第一天是 Sunday; 一年中的第一个月是 January 。 40. get 后加比较级表示变得更怎么样如:get stronger; get longer
(一)构成：过去完成进行时是由"had been +现在分词"构成。
She had been suffering from a bad cold when she took the exam. 她在考试之前一直患重感
Had they been expecting the news for some time? 他们期待这个消息有一段时间了吧?
I had been looking for it for days before I found it. 这东西我找了好多天才找着。
They had only been waiting for the bus a few minutes when it came. 他们只等了几分钟车就来了。
He had been mentioning your name to me. 他过去多次向我提到过你的名字。
The doctor asked what he had been eating. 医生问他吃了什么。
I asked where they had been staying all those days. 我问他们那些天呆在哪儿。
I had only been reading a few minutes when he came in. 我刚看了几分钟他就进来了。
She'd only been reviewing her lessons for a short while when her little sister interrupted her.
She had cleaned the office, so it was very tidy.
She had been cleaning the office, so we had to wait outside.
(一)构成：will/shall have +过去分词
We hope it will have stopped raining before we set off for the picnic.
I'll have done all the work by the time you are back this evening.
① by (the time / the end of ) + 表示将来时间的短语和句子;
② before (the end of ) + 表示将来时间的词语或句子;
③ when, after等加上表示将来动作的句子等。 例如：
By the year 2050, scientists probably will have discovered a cure for cancer.
By the time you arrive in London, we will have been staying in Europe for two weeks.
You'll get to like the subject after you have studied it for some time.
I'll go and see the exhibition as soon as I have finished my work.
It's five o'clock;they will have arrived home by now.
Mr Smith will return home on the first Sunday next month. 史密斯先生将于下月的第一个星期日回家。
Mr Smith will have returned home by next month. 到下个月史密斯先生将已回到家了 高三英语重要知识点：分词作状语
Put into use in April 2000 (=When it was put into use in April 2000), the hotline was meant for residents reporting water and heating supply breakdowns. 分词短语作时间状语
Blamed for the breakdown of the school computer network (=Because she was blamed for the breakdown of the school computer network), Alice was in low spirits. 分词短语作原因状语
Given time (=If he is given time), he’ll make a fist-class tennis player. 分词短语作条件状语
We often provide our children with toys, footballs or basketballs, thinking that all children like these things. (= and think that all children like these things.) 分词短语作伴随状语
2. 有时为了强调，分词前可带when, while, if, though, as if, unless等连词一起作状语，以便使句子的意思更清楚、更连贯。例如：
When comparing different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities.
Though tired, he still continued reading.
When compared with the size of the whole earth , the biggest ocean does not seem big at all.
分词部分相当于When the biggest ocean is compared with the size of the whole earth, 主语与分词是被动关系，所以用过去分词。
When comparing it with the size of the whole earth, we find that the biggest ocean does not seem big at all.
When we compare it with the size of the whole earth... 主语与分词是主动关系, 所以用现在分词。
Faced with a bill for$10,000(=Because he is faced with a bill for$10,000), John has taken an extra job.
Whenever he was asked why he was late for class, he would answer carelessly, always saying the same thing (= and he would say the same thing).
1. 现在分词有两种时态：一般式doing和完成式having done。一般式通常表示与主句的谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生或无先后;完成式则强调分词所表示的动作先于谓语动词所表示的动作。如：
While walking in the street, we met some friends of ours.(同时发生)
Having waited in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home. (“等待”先于谓语动词“意识到”)
2. 分词的否定式的构成: not +分词。 Not having received a reply, he decided to write again
修饰some, any, every, no和body, thing, one等构成的复合不定代词时 nobody absent, everything possible 2
以-able, -ible结尾的形容词可置于有最高级或only修饰的名词之后 the best book available, the only solution possible 3
alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep等作定语时后置 the only person awake
和空间、时间、单位连用时 a bridge 50 meters long 5
a huge room simple and beautiful 6
a man difficult to get on with 7
enough修饰名词时可以前置也可以后置，但修饰形容词或副词时要后置 ______to take his adventure course will certainly learn a
lot of useful skills.(NMET2000)
A.Brave enough students B.Enough breave students
C.Students brave enough D.Students enough brave
规则：限定语(The、A)+ 描绘性形容词 + size(小)+ shape(形状)+ age(年龄、时间)+ color(颜色)+ origin(国籍、来源)+ material(材料)+ purpose(目的)+ 名词。
▲This ________ girl is Linda’s cousin. (05北京卷)
A. pretty little Spanish B. Spanish little pretty C. Spanish pretty little D. little pretty Spanish
As he looked at the goat, it rolled over, dead. 当他看着山羊的时候，山羊翻了个身，死了。
Afraid of difficulties, they prefer to take the easy road.由于害怕困难，他们宁愿走好走的路。
soon, now, early, finally, once, recently 5
always, often, frequently, seldom, never 2
here, nearby, outside, upwards, above 6
how, where, when, why 3
hard, well, fast, slowly, excitedly, really 7
how, when, where, why, whether, however, meanwhile 4
almost, nearly, very, fairly, quite, rather 8
when, where, why III. 形容词和副词的比较等级
注意：1. 可以修饰比较级的词有：much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal；
2. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如：favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect，superior,junior等。