如：France lies on the wind-ward side of Europe.
如：Make yourself at home
请别客气！ Don’t be late!
③ 虚拟语气：表示说话人所说的话是一种主观的愿望，假想或建议等。 如：1. We only wish ue wuld help
2. Lf there were no graity （地心引力）we sheul not be able to walk.
3. He suggests that ue shoald all go to see the film.
① eg: If we left now. we shoudd arrite in good limo
② If I uere you, I should refused the money.
③ Euen if he had the money, he wouldn’t buy it.
如：① We should have dmpped the by if we had had tim.
② If they hadn’t gone on vacation, their house souldn’t have been broken into. 注：1. “Were”也可以用来表示与过去事实相反
Eg: If I weren’t busy ,I would haoe gone.
eg: You can imagine（设想）what would have happened to her if she should have
told the truth.
eg: If these sleeplessness （失眠）would have been allowed to go on, she would have collapsed（崩溃）
虚拟语气用在与将来事实相反的条件句中时，条件从句的谓语动词使用动词的过去式形式（be的过去或用were），结果主句用“should / would+V”
如：① If you dropped the glass, if would break.
② What would happen if I put the paper on the fire?
注：1. 在无上下文时，下面的“rained”e 歧意，可能是虚拟语气，也可能是表示过去习惯的直陈语气。
eg：If it rained, we would stay indoors playing cards.
2.在与将来事实相反的条件句中，其条件从句的谓语也可以用“were to +V”.这种虚拟形式比较正式，多用于书面语。
eg：① If he were to come, what would we sag to him?
② If you were to come tomorrow, I might have time to see you.
eg: ①If he should see me, he would know me.
②If we should catch the ringleaders, it would be a remarkable（卓越的）a chieoement（成就）
eg: ①If it should rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the match.
②If he should go away, I shoud be grieoed （悲伤）
eg：If you would be interested, I should be very glad to send you a copy of my
如：① Were you in my position（位置），you would do the same.
（=If you were in my position, you would do the same）
② Had he been in your position, he woald probably have done the same.
（＝If he had been in your position he would probably hace done the same）
③ Should they attack（攻击）us, we would wipe （消灭）them out completely（完全地）
（＝If the should attack us……）
注：在虚拟形式中除了“were / had / should”可移至主语之有以外，“did / would /wuld”等也可移至主语之前构成省略“计”的倒装形式。
如：① If I had spoken to him yesterday , I should know what to do now.
② If father hadn’t sent me , I shouldn’t be here
注：在条件句中如果使用“If I were……”形式，结果主句可以使用表示任何时间的虚拟形式。
eg: If I weren’t busy, I would have come were 用来表示过去。
If I were you, I would go （were用来表示现在）
1.条件句暗含在短语中 withoutgraoity地心引力Wecouldn'tlive如： iftherewerenograoityontheeath条件暗含在介词短语中：without gravity
But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the experiment（实验）
暗含条件是：but for your help
I am really very busy, otherwise（否则）I would certainly go there with you 条件暗含在“other wise……”中
如：I wouldn’t have done it （可能暗含“If I were you”）
I would have bought it （暗含条件是“If I had had the monay”）
eg: I could go on for another two hours
如：If only you would to listen reason 你要是讲理就好了
② If only he were here 他要是在这儿就好了
③ If only I had never married
④ If only I could smash the ground with my fist and make the oil flow
如：① If I hadn’t wonder you, you could have been killed
② I couldn’t be angry with him if I tried
③ May you live a long and happy life
虚拟条件句中的条件句，除了用“if”外，还可以用when /unless/suppose /as if （就像……一样）/ for fear / in case等引出。
如：① The peasants prepared to feed the city
② When it should be freed（解放）
③ Unless I were well I couldn’t be at school
④ Suppos you uere given a choice to study in
America, would you aceept?
虚拟语气除了用在状语从句之外，也可用在主语从句中，虚拟语气的形式应该是“should+V. /shoutd+have+-ed”（在美国英语中should 可省略）, “should”在此是时态助动词，本身无实际意义，这样的主语从句一般由“that”引导，常用在以“it”作为形式主语的“it+is / was+important / necessary / desirable（称心的，直得向往的）/imperative（绝对必要的）/ advisable（可取的，行当的）＋that……句型中 如：① It is important that we should speak politely
② It is imperative that we （should）practise critictsm and self-criticism. ③ It isn’t necessary that everyone be a scientist.
eg：It was important that he made a successful experiment last week.
（1）用于动词“wish”之后，这样的句子常省略that来表示愿望。宾语从句的谓语用过去时，表示与现在事实相反，使用过去完成时，表示与过去事实相反。 如：① I wish I were you （与现在事实相反）
② She wishes she hadn’t said that （与过去事实相反）
③ I wish you would stay a little longer（would表示一种希望或请求）
注：“would rather （宁愿）/sooner”可以代替wish表示愿望来引出虚拟语气。 eg:① I would rather you came tomorrow
② I would sooner she left the hoaoy end of the cork to someone else
（2）用于demand（要求）/ suggest /propose（提议）/ order（命令）/arrange（安排）/insist（坚持）/ command（指挥）/ require / requst（请求）/ desire（希望）等动词的宾语。这种虚拟语气一般由that所引导，谓语动词使用“should+V”（should可省略）
如：① I desire the patient （should）have a bath every day
② He suggested that we （should） leave early
③ The detective insisted that he （should）have a look
④ They require that I （should）go at once
注：1.有些动词如think/expect/believe,其否定形式的宾语，从句也可用“should+V” eg：I never thought he should refused
He dien’t expect that you should come
eg: A few maids were seen waiting in the hall for whon they should be wanted ② 宾语从句也可用“should+be+Ving”
eg: Sometimes she would suggest I should be saving some of the money
eg: Some people suggest that it would be better to start teaching English in kindergarten（幼儿园）
He suggested that we studied English together
如：① I was glad that he should go
② I am ashamed that you should have done such a thing
③ I am sorry that you should have to done
如：① My suggestion is that we should tell him
② Our only request is that these should be settled（解决）as soon as possible.
如：There was a suggestion that Brown should be dropped from the team 虚拟语气用于定语从句中
虚拟语气还可以用在宾语从句中，这种从句常常用在“It is me （that）……”句型中，定语从句常用虚拟语气的过去式形式。
如：It is time we left
It is time we went bed
eg: If it rain I shall not go
2009-06-27 22:31:41| 分类： 英语语法
If I were you, I should(would ,could, might)tell him the truth.
If she had time, she would(could, might)help
If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I should(would,
could, might)have telephoned
If you had taken my advice, you wouldn’t(couldn’t) have failed
in the exam.如果你听了我的建议，你就不会考试不及格。（事实上你根本没听我的。）
If it should rain, the crops would(could, might)be saved.
注：在表示与将来事实可能相反的条件从句中，were to + 动词原形比较正式，常用于书面语中。
If you were to go to Beijing, you would (could, might) have a
chance to visit Tian An Men Square.
在“It is important (strange, natural, necessary)
“(should)+动词原形”结构，表示某事是“重要”，“奇怪”，“自然”，“必要”等意义。如：It is important that
every Beijinger (should) be able to speak English.
It is necessary that he (should) be sent to hospital at once.
I wish I knew the answer to the question.
I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year
around.但愿我的家乡四季如春。（只是愿望，实际根本不可能实现。） b.表示对过去情况的虚拟：从句动词用 had+过去分词。如：
I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.
He wishes (wished) he hadn’t lost the chance.
I wish it would stop raining.但愿雨能停止。
I wish you would be quiet.我希望你安静一些。
（2）在suggest（建议）, demand(要求), order(命令), propose(建议), insist（坚持要做）,
command(命令), request(要求), desire(希望)等动词后的宾语从句中，谓语动词用
I suggest that we (should) start the meeting at once.我建议马上开会。 The undergraduate insisted that he (should) go to work in the
His silence suggested that he agreed with my
He suggested that I (should) stick to my decision.他建议我坚持自己的决定。 He insists that doing morning exercises does good to people’s
He insists that he (should) do morning exercises every
当主语为advice, suggestion, order,
My advice is that you should practise speaking English as often
The order from the commander was that the troops should set off
for the front immediately.司令官的命令是部队立即开拔去前线。
由as if 或as
The teacher treats the student as if he were her own child.
He speaks as if he had been to the United States.他说得好象他真的到过美国似的。
（2）在It is time (that) …; I’d rather
It is time that we did something to stop
It is time that Father picked up Lily from the
I’d rather you told me the truth.我真希望你告诉我真相。
I’d rather I didn’t see you again.我宁愿不再见着你。
在名词advice, suggestion, order, proposal等后接的同位语从句中，谓语动词用虚拟语气，起形式为
“(should)+动词原形”，说明“建议”，“劝告”，“命令”等的具体内容。如： The order came that the work should be finished two days ahead of
Reluctantly she accepted their proposal that she should be operated
If you had followed my advice, you would be able to finish the work
If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party.
如果我是你，我就去参加她的生日晚会了。（从句说明现在，主句说明过去。） If you hadn’t lent me some money, I couldn’t have bought the new
house and most likely I would be still living in the dangerous house
(1)W hat would I have done without you?
(2) It would be easier to do it this way.
这样做会比较容易。(条件暗含在不定式短语to do it this way中)
(3) This same thing, happening in wartime, would lead to a
同样的事，如发生在战时，就会酿成大祸。(条件暗含在分词短语happening in wartime中)
(4) But for your help we couldn’t have succeeded in the
如果没有你的帮助，我们的实验是不会成功。 (暗含条件是but for your help)
(5) He must have the strength of a hippopotamus, or he never
could have vanquished that
(6) Alone, he would have been terrified.
Had I seen the film, I would have discussed it with them last
Were I a bird, I could fly freely. 假如我是一只小鸟，我就能自由翱翔。 Should it rain next week the farmers would have a good harvest.
真实条件句用于陈述语气，假设的情况可能发生，其中 if 是如果的意思。
句型： 条件从句 主句
一般现在时 shall/will + 动词原形
if he comes, he will bring his violin.
the volleyball match will be put off if it ___.
a. will rain b. rains c. rained d. is rained
1） 在真实条件句中，主句不能用be going to表示将来，该用shall, will.
(错) if you leave now, you are never going to regret it.
(对) if you leave now, you will never regret it.
2） 表示真理时，主句谓语动词便不用shall (will) +动词原形，而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。
句型 ： 条件从句 主句
一般过去时 should( would) +动词原形
if they were here, they would help you.
句型： 条件从句 主句
过去完成时 should(would) have+ 过去分词
if she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.
the rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful.
if my lawyer had been here last saturday, he would have prevented me from going.
if he had come yesterday, i should / would have told him about it.
含义：he did not come yesterday, so i did not tell him about it.
if he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress.
含义： he was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress.
句型： 条件从句 主句
一般过去时 should+ 动词原形
were+ 不定式 would + 动词原形
if you succeeded, everything would be all right.
if you should succeed, everything would be all right.
if you were to succeed, everything would be all right.
if you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now.
if it had rained last night (过去), it would be very cold today (现在).
虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有were, should, 或had, 可将if省略，再把were, should或had 移到从句句首，实行倒装。
were they here now, they could help us.
=if they were here now, they could help us.
had you come earlier, you would have met him
=if you had come earlier, you would have met him.
should it rain, the crops would be saved.
=were it to rain, the crops would be saved.
if i were you, i would go to look for him.
if he were here, everything would be all right.
_____ to do the work, i should do it some other day.
a. if were i b. i were c. were i d. was i
答案c. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词，通常将if省略，主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意，在虚拟条件状语从句中，省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说 were i not to do., 而不能说 weren't i to do.
1） it is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用should 加动词原形， should 可省略。
it is (2)important that…+ (should) do
(3) a pity
(1)suggested, ordered, proposed, required, demanded, requested, insisted； + (should) do
(2)important, necessary, natural, strange
a pity, a shame, no wonder
(3)it is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
it is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.
order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do
i suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
he insisted that he (should ) be sent there.
注意： 如suggest, insist不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时"，即它们用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时，宾语从句用陈述语气。
the guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules.
（错） you pale face suggests that you (should) be ill.
(对) your pale face suggests that you are ill.
(错) i insisted that you ( should) be wrong.
(对) i insisted that you were wrong.
在suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气，即（should）+动词原形。
my idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.
i make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
从句动作先于主句动词动作 现在时 过去时
从句动作与主句动作同时发生 过去时 过去完成时
（had + 过去分词）
将来不大可能实现的愿望 将来时 would/could +
i wish i were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。
he wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他没讲那样的话。
i wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。
2）wish to do表达法。
wish sb / sth to do
i wish to see the manager. = i want to see the manager.
i wish the manager to be informed at once. (= i want the manager to be informed at once.)
16.7 比较if only与only if
only if表示"只有"；if only则表示"如果……就好了"。if only也可用于陈述语气。
i wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了，我才会醒。
if only the alarm clock had rung. 当时闹钟响了，就好了。
if only he comes early. 但愿他早点回来。
16.8 it is (high) time that
it is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形，但should不可省略。
it is time that the children went to bed.
it is high time that the children should go to bed.
16.9 need "不必做"和"本不该做"
didn't need to do表示： 过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做。.
needn't have done表示： 过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了。
john went to the station with the car to meet mary, so she didn't need to walk back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽，所以她不必步行回家了。
john went to the station with the car to meet mary, so she needn't have walked back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽，所以她本不必步行回家了。 (mary步行回家，没有遇上john的车。)
there was plenty of time. she ___.
a. mustn't have hurried b. couldn't have hurried c. must not hurry d. needn't have hurried
答案d。needn't have done. 意为"本不必"，即已经做了某事，而时实际上不必要。
mustn't have done 用法不正确，对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为couldn't have done, "不可能已经"。 must not do 不可以（用于一般现在时）。
I would like you to answer this question. （我想请你来回答这个问题。）
这里的would like to （想），就是虚拟语气，相当于want to：
Would you mind my smoking here?（我在这里抽烟你不介意吧？）
It might a good idea to wait and see.（观望或许是个好主意。）
Could you tell me where the post office is?（能告诉我邮局怎么走吗？）
You'd better bring an umbrella with you; it's thundering. （你最好带上雨伞；天在打雷。）
I'd rather stay at home in such bad weather.（这种恶劣天气我宁可呆在家里。）
If only there had been a doctor at the moment. （当时有个医生就好了。- 实际情况是当时没有医生）
第一类：should 型虚拟式 第二类：were 型虚拟式
1.should 型虚拟式：should + 原形动词（往往省去should, 特别是在考试时）
（1） It is necessary that…的主语从句中，如：
It is necessary that the chief should be present personally at the meeting.（主任有必要亲自参加这次会议。）
essential （必要的） / important（重要的） / necessary（必要的） / imperative（迫切的）/ impossible（不可能的）/ natural（自然的）/ preferable（更好的）/ advisable（合理的）/ desirable（理想的）/ urgent（紧迫的）/ incredible（难以想象的）
（2） order （命令） / recommend（推荐）/ suggest（建议）/ demand（要求） / command（命令）/ propose（建议）/ require（要求）/ request（请求） / insist（坚持认为）/ urge（主张） / advise（劝告）/ ask（要求）/ prefer（宁愿）/ desire（愿望）/ move（提议）/ vote（提议）
It was ordered that the medicines （should） be sent there by plane at once. （主语从句）
The order was that the medicines （should） be sent there by plane at once.（表语从句）
The chief ordered that the medicines （should） be sent there by plane at once.（宾语从句）
The order that the medicines （should） be sent there by plane at once was sent to the branch office.（同位语从句）
（3） 在 in case / lest = for fear that（以免… / 以防…）结构中，例如：
He took a raincoat with him in case it should rain （或用真实语气：…in case it rained）
She put a wool blanket over the child for fear that （lest） he should catch a cold. （她把一条毛毯盖在孩子身上，以防他感冒。）
就解题而言，考生要注意：1）A的位置往往安排干扰项，如使用must, may, might, could等类词进行干扰；2）句中往往省去should, 直接用否定词not + 原形动词的形式，以"迷惑"考生，例如：
The housemaster（男舍监）was very strict.He asked that we ______ television on week nights.
A. must not watch
B. not watch
C. should not have watched
D. not be watching
（4）在it is surprising, disappointing, a pity, a shame, no wonder, simply a miracle + 从句的结构中，表示惊讶、高兴或遗憾，例如：
It is surprising that she should look so miserable. （真是奇怪，她竟看上去如此不高兴。）
It is a great pity that you should miss such a good film. （你要是错过了这样好的电影那真是遗憾。）
真实条件句是指真实的或可以实现的条件句，例如：If we work together, we are sure to finish the task in time. （如果我们大家一起努力，就一定能按时完成任务），动词使用的是真实的时态和形式。
非真实条件句是指对已经发生过的事情，或对不可能发生或实现的事进行假设，例如："如果当时有医生在，这个孩子就有可能得救了"，显然，这是对已发生的事情的一种假设，该句的英语表达为：If there had been a doctor available, the child might have been saved.
if条件句：had done / had been
结果句：would have done / been
If there had been a doctor available, the child might have been saved.
倒装：Had there been a doctor available, the child might have been saved
if条件句：did / be动词用were
结果句： would do （be）
If I were you, I would accept his offer. （如果我是你的话，我就接受他的提议。）
倒装：Were I you, I would accept his offer.
If I knew the fact, I would tell you. （我要是知道，我就会告诉你）
should do （be） / were to
结果句：would do （be）
If it should rain tomorrow, we would stay at home. （一旦明天下雨，我们就呆在家里。）
倒装：Should it rain tomorrow, we would stay at home.
If he were to come this evening, I would ask him to help solve the problem. （要是他晚上会来，我就请他帮助解决这个问题。）
倒装：Were he to come this evening, I would ask him to help solve the problem.
（A） 当 "if "省略后，要采用倒装形式，如举例所示；
If I were you, I would have taken his advice. （要是换了我，我就采纳他的意见了。）
（C） 结果句中的would 可以根据内容需要，使用might, could或should，例如：If she had known that you were there, she might have come.（要是她知道你在哪儿，她或许会来的。）但是"将来"虚拟式条件句中的should是将来时的"标志词"，不能用would代替，不要搞错了。
（D） 关于含蓄虚拟式：含蓄虚拟式是指虚拟的条件用一种比较含蓄的方式加以表达的虚拟语气，如："我昨天很忙，要不就来参加你的生日派对了".其中的"我很忙"是真实情况，"要不就来参加你的生日派对了"则是虚拟的：I was very busy yesterday, or I would have come to your birthday party.
所以，注意句子中出现的：but, or（否则）, otherwise（否则）, without（要不是）,with（要是有），but that（要不是）, but for（要不是）, if it were not for / 过去：if it had not been for（要不是 ） 等用来引出含蓄虚拟式的词或短语，例如：But for （或without） your cooperation, we would not have completed the experiment so smoothly.（要不是你们的合作，我们不可能那样顺利地完成这个实验。）
（2） were型虚拟式的其他用法 （同样要遵守"过去、现在、将来"的虚拟规则）：
I wish that he had not made so much fuss about it.（真希望他不要把那事搞大了。- 过去）
I wish that I were a doctor. （我希望我是个医生就好了。- 现在）
（注：这个句型中也可以用I wish that I was a doctor.）
I wish that the rain would stop. （真希望雨能停下来。将来）
If only you hadn't offended him. （你当时不惹他就好了。- 过去）
If only I had some money on hand now. （我现在手头有些钱就好了。-现在）
If only he could come tomorrow. （他明天能来有多好啊。-将来）
●It is （about / high） time that….（是…的时候了）
It is high time （that） we began to work. （咱们该开始工作了。）
●As if （though）…（似乎…）
She loves the children in the kindergarten as if they were her own. （她象自己孩子一样热爱幼儿园的孩子门。 - 现在）
He talked about China as if he had been there. （他谈起中国来好象去过那里。）
It looks as if it is going to rain.（看来天要下雨。- 陈述语气）
●Would （had） rather, would just as soon, would sooner, would prefer + 从句结构
I'd rather she stayed at home in such a bad health condition. （她身体这么差，我倒希望你呆在家里。- 现在）
I would just as soon you had returned him the money yesterday. （你还不如昨天就把钱还给他了。- 过去）
I would prefer he didn't stay there too long. （我倒不希望他不要在那儿呆得时间太长。）
I would prefer that she act the young lady. （我倒认为她演哪个年轻女子比较合适。- 表示建议，用 "should型虚拟式"）
can / may / should / ought to / must / need等动词称为情态动词。情态动词有三大特征：一是无人称和数的变化，二是后面跟的动词不带"to"，三是后面 + not构成否定式，比较：
He needn't go there so early. （他不需要去那么早。- 情态动词）
You do not need to be an expert to make this simple design. （这么简单的设计不一定非要专家来做。- 动作动词）
He must be a doctor. （他准是个医生。）
否定：He can't be a doctor. （他不会是个医生。- 注意：一般不用must' be ）
又如：They can't be working now.（现在他们不可能在工作。）
May I go now?
回答：Yes, please. / Please don't. （或：No, you mustn't）
have to 与 must
1） 当强调"外界原因"时，2）当与"将来时"结合时，用have to，
Since it is raining, we have to sty indoors.
You will have to hurry if you want to catch the 9:30 train. （你要是赶9:30的火车，得赶紧。）
All men must die. （人固有一死。）
can 与be able to
can表示能力，但不一定做了或做成了；be able to 表示有能力并且做成了，相当于succeed in doing, 例如：
The patient is able to walk now. （说明病人原来是丧失了走的能力的，现在自己能走了）
The patient can walk now. （可能的情况是，病人是能走的，但医生不让他走，如急性心梗后医生不让病人走动。）
Shall I / we（第一人称）…? 表示征求对方意见；（第二、三人称） + shall…表示"允诺"或"警告，例如：
Shall I fetch a doctor for you? （要我为你请个医生来吗？）
You shall be sorry for what you have done. （你会为你所做的事后悔的。）
Will you….? 表示请求， 例如：
Don't' be late for the meeting next time, will you? （下次开会别迟到了，好吗？）
比较：I would remind you that smoking is forbidden here. （表示"婉转的建议或请求"：我想提醒你，这里不能抽烟。）
You needn't see him, but I must. （你不必去看他，但我得去。）
cannot but + 原形动词（意思相当于have to）， 例如：
I cannot but tell you the truth. （我不得不给你说实话。）
情态动词的一般式用于表达"现在"或"将来"的情况，而情态动词的完成式则用来表达"已经发生的事情"，例如："你不应该来得那么晚。"这是对已经发生的事情（你来晚了）表示自己的看法：You shouldn't have come so late.
must （not） have done
It must have rained last night; the ground is wet.（昨晚准是下雨了，地上湿漉漉的。）
should （not） have done / ought （not） to have done
The baby was cut badly; she shouldn't （oughtn't to） have let him play with the scissors. （孩子伤得很厉害；她不该让他玩剪刀。）
may / can （not） have done
She may have known the news; she is crying. （她可能已经知道那个消息了；她在哭。）
need （not） have done
You needn't have bought that dictionary; I have got a spare one. （你实际上没有必要买那本字典；我有一本多余的。）
由于在没有情景的情况下很难区分情态动词一般式和完成式，例如"你不该去"，究竟是You shouldn't go there. 还是 You shouldn't have gone there, 因此考试的时候往往会给出情景，这对判题非常重要，如上面表格例子中的"the ground is wet"，"the baby was cut badly"，"she is crying", 都是题目所给的情景。
I wouldn’t have known what these were for if I hadn’t been told.
If you were to see Jane, what would you tell her?
This kind of world is hard and dangerous. But if you should succeed, you would become rich.
Were I to meet him tomorrow (=If I were to meet him tomorrow), I should ask him about it.
Had I had the money last year (=If I had had the money last year), I would have bought the house.
If I were you, I would have taken his advice.
If her husband had not been killed in the war, she would not be helping others with the housework now.
4．用介词短语或其他方式表示含蓄的虚拟条件：without, but for, but that, otherwise, or, but eg. Under such circumstances I would probably have done the same.
Without your help (=If we had not had your help), we could not have succeeded.
But for electricity (=If there were no electricity), there would be no modern industry.
He felt very tired yesterday, or (otherwise) he would have helped you.
I ought to have remembered to tell them the decision this morning, but I was so busy that I forgot to do so. But that he was short of money (=If he had not been short of money), he would have bought it for his wife.
This same thing, happening in wartime, (=If the same thing happened in wartime, it) would amount to disaster. Any man in his position would have done like that.
You should (ought to) have returned the book earlier.
5．“If it were (had been) not for….”：要不是…… eg. If it were not for peace, we could not be living a
happy life today. If it had not been for your advice, I would not have accepted the job.
用被动语态的主语从句中；以及③使用这些动词演变而来的名词的表语从句和同位语从句中：ask, advise, determine, decide, command, insist, intend, move, prefer, propose, order, recommend, request, require, suggest, urge, demand, desire, direct… eg.
The general directed that the troops (should) attack. They moved that all civilians should be evacuated. It was suggested that he should join the club activities.
The proposal that he be invited was rejected. Her suggestion is that we (should) give up the plan. 但：Are you suggesting that I am not suited for the job? He insisted that he was innocent. （不是上述意思）
7．It is + 形容词或过去分词 + 主语从句（谓语动词：should+动词原形）：appropriate, advisable, better,
desirable, essential, imperative, important, insistent, natural, necessary, preferable, strange, urgent, vital （这些形容词的句式也可改为it作形式宾语，形容词后的宾语从句中使用虚拟语气） eg. It is imperative that you (should) take the medicine. It is essential that we (should) win the voters’ hearts. We think it advisable that he (should) think deeply before acting.
I consider it imperative that a meeting (should) be held immediately.
8．某些动词后的宾语从句中使用虚拟语气：expect, believe, think, suspect (否定句或疑问句), wish eg.: I never thought that he should be such a brave young soldier.
We didn’t expect that the problem should have been solved that way.
I wish I could have seen her last night. I wish I were a bird.
9．动词be, intend, mean, plan, want, hope等句中（had hoped表示过去未完成的愿望，意为“想要，希
望”，从句中使用“would + 动词原形”） eg.:
I intended to have told him the matter, but I forgot. I was to have come yesterday, but I couldn’t. She had meant to see you last week, but she was ill. We had hoped that you would stay for some time.
10．would rather, would sooner, would just as soon; in case, lest, for fear that; as if, as though; had hoped
后从句中使用虚拟语气。 eg.: I’d rather we didn’t go to see the film this evening.
I’d just as soon you had returned the book yesterday. He took his raincoat with him in case it should rain. He handled the instrument with care for fear that it (should) be damaged.
She always talks to me as if she were my sister. They talked as if they had been friends for years.
但：She looks as if she is going to cry. It seems as if we’ll have to walk home. （系动词后用陈述语气）
11．在It is (high/ about) time that…句型中和if only（要是，但愿）引起的感叹句中。eg.:
It is time (that) we went home. It is time that the buy (should) go to school.
If only he were here! If only she had not been ill last week.
注：If only I had more money, I could buy a car.
1. He didn’t go to the party, but he doe swish he ________ there.
A. had been B. has been C. would have been D. would be
2. We desire that the tour leader _________ us immediately of any danger in plans.
A. inform B. informs C. informed D. has informed
3. I’d rather you ________ those important documents with you.
A. don’t take B. won’t take C. didn’t take D. not take
4. It was essential that the application forms _________ back before the deadline.
A. must be sent B. would be sent C. be sent D. were sent
5. It’s time _________ about the traffic problem downtown.
A. something was done B. everything is done C. anything will be done D. nothing to be done
6. My cat wouldn’t have bitten the toy fish _________ it was made of rubber.
A. if she has known B. she should have known C. if she knows D. had she known
7. If places ________ alike, there would be little need for geographers.
A. being B. are C. be D. were
8. Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I _______ your advice.
A. follow B. had followed C. would follow D. have followed
9. But for the help of my teachers, I _________ such progress.
A. hadn’t made B. couldn’t make C. haven’t made D. couldn’t have made
10. My order is that nobody _________ here later than 8:00 tomorrow morning.
A. get B. will get C. is to get D. gets
11. ________ before we depart the day after tomorrow, we should have a wonderful dinner party.
A. Had they arrived B. Would they arrive C. Were they arriving D. Were they to arrive
12. Had he worker harder, he _________ through the exams.
A. must have got B. would have got C. would get D. could get
13. Sometimes I wish I _________ in a different time and a different place.
A. be living B. were living C. would live D. would have lived
14. I don’t think it advisable that Tom _________ to the job since he has no experience.
A. is assigned B. will be assigned C. be assigned D. has been assigned
15. You _________ him so closely; you should have kept your distance.
A. shouldn’t follow B. couldn’t have been following
C. mustn’t follow D. shouldn’t have been following
16. He was punished _________ he should make the same mistake again.
A. unless B. lest C. if D. provided
17. The millions of calculations involved, had they been done by hand, _______ all practical value by the tiem
they were finished.
A. had lost B. would lose C. would have lost D. should have lost
18. _________ today, he would get there by Friday.
A. Would he leave B. Were he to leave C. Was he leaving D. If he leaves
19. Your examination results were quite satisfactory, but __________ if you had spent less time in playing
A. wouldn’t they be better B. won’t they be better
C. wouldn’t they have been better D. won’t they have been better
20. He talks as if he ________ there.
A. were really B. had really been C. has really been D. would really be
21. Tom might have come to school in time for the lecture __________.
A. if he got up earlier B. unless he had got up earlier
C. but he got up rather late D. but he had gotten up late