1. ____ anything about the accident, he went to work as usual.
A. Not known B. Knowing not C. Known not D. Not knowing
2. _______ more attention, the trees could have grown better.
A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given
3. ____ in 1636, Harvard is one of the most famous universities in the United States.
A. Being founded B. It was founded C. Founded D. Founding
4. _____ by the advances in technology, many farmers have set up wind farms on their land.
A. Being encouraged B. Encouraging C. Encouraged D. Having encouraged
_____ the right kind of training, these teenage soccer players may one day grow into the international stars. A. Giving B. Having given C. To give D. Given
1. Mr Smith, ______of the ______speech, started to read a novel.
A. tired ; boring B. tiring; bored C. tired; bored D. tiring; boring
2. Alice returned from the manager’s office, ______ me that the boss wanted to see me at once.
A. having told B. tells C. to tell D. telling
3. He was sitting there, ____ in deep thought.
A. lose B. lost C. losing D. being lost
4. He sent me an e-mail, ______ to get further information.
A. hoped B. hoping C. to hope D. hope
5. ______ late in the morning, Bob turned off the alarm.
A. To sleep B. Sleeping C. Sleep D. Having slept
6. for a space flight.
A. training B. being trained C. to have trained D. to be trained
7. He got up late and hurried to his office, _________the breakfast untouched. A. left B. to leave C. leaving D. having left
1. When first _______ to the market, these products enjoyed great success.
A. introducing B. introduced C. introduce D. being introduced
2. It shames me to say it, but I told a lie when __________ at he meeting by my boss.
A. questioning B. having questioned C. questioned D. to be questioned
3. Though _________ to see us, the professor gave us a warm welcome.
A. surprising B. as surprised C. surprised D being surprised
1. The murderer was brought in, with his hands _____ behind his back.
A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied
2. I couldn't do my homework with all that noise ______.
A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on
3. She stood there, _____ from her cheeks.
A. tears were rolling down B. tears rolled down
C. with tears rolled down D. tears rolling down
5. A. advertised B. to be advertised C. advertising D. having advertised
6. His first book
A. published B. to be published C. to publish D. being published
7. There is a great deal of evidence ______that music activities engage different parts of the brain.
A. indicate B. indicating C. to indicate D. to be indicating
1. The prisoner,____ the guard and run away, was caught the next days.
A killed B killing C having killed D being killed by
2. ________ in 1636, Harvard is one of the most famous universities in the United States.
A. Being founded B. It was founded C. Founded D. Founding
3. ______ in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police.
A Having lost B Lost C Being lost D Losing
4. Unless ________ to speak, you should remain silent at the conference.
A. invited B. inviting C. being invited D. having invited
5. _______ more attention, the tree could have grown better.
A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given.
1. He hurried to the booking office, only _ that all the tickets had been sold out. (06陕西)
A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told
2. ____ the letter, he went out to post it.
A. Writing B. Being written C. Having written D. Written
3. ________many times , he still couldn't understand it .
A. Having been told . B. Told C. He was told D. Though he had been told
4. European football is played in 80 countries ,______it the most popular sport in the
A. making B, makes
C. made D to make
5. ._____a reply he decided to write again.
A. Not receiving B. Receiving C. Not having received D. Having not received
1. （2014天津卷）5. Anxiously, she took the dress out of the package and tried it on, only ______ it didn’t fit
A. to find B. found C. finding D. having found
2. The children all turned ______the famous actress as she entered the classroom.
A. looked at B. to look at C. to looking at D. look at
8. the city center, we saw a stone statue of about 10 meters in height.
A. Approaching B. Approached C. To approach D. To be approached
9. ______ in white, she looks much more beautiful.
A. Wearing B. Dressing C. Dressed D. Having dressed
10. ______ in the fog, we were forced to spend two hours in the woods.
A. To lose B. Losing C. Lost D. Having lost
8. months to find a job as a waitress, finally took a position at a local advertising agency.
A. struggling B. struggled C. having struggled D. to struggle
8. The news reporters hurried to the airport, only ________ the film star had left.
A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told
9. We looked everywhere for the keys, but they are nowhere ________.
A. to find B. to have found C. to be found D. being found
10. European football is played in 80 countries, ________ it the most popular sport in
the world. A. making B. makes C. made D. to make
11. It rained heavily in the south，serious flooding in several provinces.
A. caused B. having caused C. causing D. to cause
12. George returned after the war, only _______ that his wife had left him.
A. to be told B. telling C. being told D. told
12. We were astonished _______ the temple still in its original condition.
A．finding B．to find C．find D．to be found
13. The famous scientist was easy _____ along with.
A. to get B. for getting C. getting D. got
11. . _______ with care, one tin will last for six weeks.
A. Use B. Using C. Used D. To use
12. ______ in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his
wallet at home.
A. To wait B. Have waited C. Having waited D. To have waited
13. .The old man, ______abroad for twenty years, is on the way back to his
A. to work B. working C. to have worked D. having worked
14. ______ from heart trouble for years, Professor White has to take some medicine
with him whenever he goes.
A. Suffered B. Suffering C. Having suffered D. Being suffered
4. When _____ for his views about his teaching job, Philip said he found it very
interesting and rewarding. (安徽卷)30.
A. asking B. asked C. having asked D. to be asked
15. We are invited to a party ______in our club next Friday.
A. to be held B. held C. being held D. holding
16. I have a lot of readings _____ before the end of this term.
A. completing B. to complete C. completed D. being completed
17. The next thing he saw was smoke ______ from behind the house.
A. rose B. rising C. to rise D. risen
18. The government plans to bring in new laws _____ parents to take more responsibility for the education of their children.
A. forced B. forcing C. to be forced D. having forced
19. On receiving a phone call from his wife _____ she had a fall, Mr Gordon immediately rushed home from office.
A. says B. said C. saying D. to say
20. The players ____ from the whole country are expected to bring us honor in this summer game .
A. selecting B. to select C. selected D. having selected
26. EBay, Amazon and Wal-Mart are popular websites _____ people can sell goods to each other.
A. where B. which C. when D. whose
32. She has been dreaming a future ____ she can spend more time growing flowers.
A. that B. when C. where D. which
32. Brian talks to me like a child, _______ really annoys me.
A. who B. whom C. which D. where
26. Naturally a smile ______ the eyes participate is extremely communicative.
A. to which B. in which C. at which D. with which
30. Besides the content of a book, _____ the editor also cares about is the number of readers.
A. who B. why C. how D. what
26．Some towns in Libya, about 50% of factories and buildings were gone, lay in ruins．
A．which B．whose C．those D．in which
27. My daughter, _____ job requires her to do a lot of travelling, is always away from home a lot.
A. which B. that C. whose D. where
27.Amanda hopes to live a simple life ______ she can just enjoy her activities rather than rushing to meet the deadline.
A. when B. which C. where D. that
A．which B．where C．that D．who
26. There are a couple of art galleries in the city ______ exhibitions are worth visiting.
A. what B. which C. where D. whose
27. Tony couldn’t remember ______he had turned off the computer before he left the office.
A. that B. where C. when D. whether
35. I wondered ______ they had raised so much money on their own to help youngsters in need.
A. what B. that C. how D. why
25.Very often, your success depends on ______you handle failure along the way.
A. when B. that C. how D. what
1. She has changed a lot. She's no longer ________she used to be.
A. that B. what C. which D. 不填
9. ___ he made an important speech at the meeting was true.
A. That B. Why C. What D. How
A.what ;that B.that; that C.what;what D.that;what
13. Doris' success lies in the fact _______ she is co-operative and eager to learn from others.
A. which B. that C. when D. why
14. _______ was once regarded as impossible has now become a reality.
A. which B. that C. what D. why 状语从句-连词
34. Pollution will remain a global problem for a long time _____ much has been done to solve it.
A. since B. unless C. though D. if
24. The store charges high prices for their goods, ______ customers keep coming back for more.
A. yet B. or C. for D. so
28. ______ he promised that he wouldn’t be late, he didn’t arrive until the end of the party.
A. Since B. Although C. Because D. Until
27. Cherry was afraid she wouldn’t fit in at her new school, ______ she made friends quickly.
A. for B. so C. and D. but
23. The movie Life of Pi is so attractive that it holds the audience’s curiosity ______ the story reaches the end.
A. until B. before C. after D. when
27. _____ H7N9 is a deadly virus, it is still safe to eat thoroughly-cooked chicken.
A. Until B. While C. If D. Since
31．We’ll never get to the station on time ．
A．in case B．even if C．provided that D．if only
21. －Which city do you expect to live in?
－I don’t mind where I live _____ there is my favourite job.
A. so that B. in case C. as far as D. so long as 29.One important aim of our school is to prepare us for the future ______ we can face all the challenges with confidence.
A. in that B. so that C. even if D. if only
21．John is as good as his word．．
A． Before B． While C．Although D．Once
33．I'm working on my fitness and I will be ready in a couple of weeks, not sooner．
A．if B．unless C．as D．until
30. It was today’s activity _____ let me know the importance of teamwork.
A. where B. which C. that D. what
22. Jim came back early last night. It was not yet eight o’clock _____ he got home.
A. before B. that C. when D. until
25．--- How do you like the main character in the book?
--- Well, I think, it was his perseverance and love ．
A．which B．what C．where D．that
33.It is not their interest but the need of the market ___ influences students’ choices of college majors.
B. which C. what D. who
II.从句:1. 名词性从句(主语从句,宾语从句, 表语从句).
2.状语从句: (时间,地点,原因,条件,让步…) .
3. 定语从句: 连词根据从句中缺不缺成分选. 子.
从句中缺主、宾 ： 人： who / whom = that
物： which / that
1. 先行词 + 关系词
从句中不缺主、宾： 时间： when = 介词 + which
地点： where = 介词 + which
(reason) 原因： why = for which
……的 ： whose = the …. of which(物) = the …. of whom(人) = of which the…(物)
= of whom the…(人
. 只能用which :
1) ………, which……(非限定性定语从句，有逗号)
2） 介词 + which
(II). 状语从句 (根据句意选连词)
常用引导词:when, as, while, as soon as, while, before, after, since , till, until，no sooner … than,
2、地点状语从句：wherever, anywhere, everywhere
3、原因状语从句：because ,for , now that
4、目的状语从句 in order that ,so that
5、结果状语从句：so„ that, such „ that
6、条件状语从句：if, unless，as/so long as, only if, in case
7、让步状语从句：:though, although, even if, even though，, whatever, whoever, wherever,
whenever, however, whichever ,no matter „
8、方式状语从句：as if, how
1. 连接词 that 引导名词性从句时，只起连接作用，没有任何意思，也不充当句子成分，在宾语
2. 连接词 whether 引导名词性从句也不充当句子成分，但有自己的意思，表示“是否”；引导
宾语从句时，可换成 if，但引导其他名词性从句时不能换成 if。
3. 连接代词 who(m), whose, which, what , when, where, why, how
1) I hope ____________ you enjoy your holiday.
7) _________ he likes you is very obvious. He asked _________ I would show him the way. That’s _______(that, which, why ) she wanted to leave. Tell me________ one you like best. __________(when, what,which) we arrive doesn't matter. ___________(whatever, whoever) wants the book may have it.
1.____________ in the early 20th century, the school keeps on inspiring children’s love of art.（安徽）
A. To found B. Founding C. Founded D. Having founded
2. Volunteering gives you a chance________lives, including your own.（北京）
A. change B. changing C. changed D. to change
3. ____________the course very difficult, she decided to move to a lower level.（北京）
A. Find B. Finding C. To find D. Found
4. When we saw the road ________ with snow, we decided to spend the holiday at home. （北京）
A. block B. to block C. blocking D. blocked
5. ________ warm at night, I would fill the woodstove, then set my alarm clock for midnight so I
could refill it.（湖南） A. Staying B. Stayed C. To stay D. Stay
6. When I was little, my mother used to sit by my bed, _______ me stories till I fell asleep.(重庆)
A. having told B. telling C. told D. to tell
7. In some languages, 100 words make up half of all words _______ in daily conversations.(天津)
A．using B. to use C. having used D. used
8. _______ which university to attend, the girl asked her teacher for advice.(四川)
A．Not knowing B. Knowing not C. Not known D. Known not
9. I remembered________ the door before I left the office, but forgot to turn off the lights.
A. locking B. to lock C. having locked D. to have locked
10. 【2012安徽 30】 When______for his views about his teaching job, Philip said he found it very
interesting and rewarding. A. asking B. asked C. having asked D. to be asked
11. 【2012重庆 23】 ______to work overtime that evening, I missed a wonderful film.
A. Having been asked B. To ask C. Having asked D. To be asked
12. 【2012北京 23】 One learns a language by making mistakes and ______ them.
A. corrects B. correct C. to correct D. correcting
13 .【2012北京 27】 _______ with care, one tin will last for six weeks.
A. Use B. Using C. Used D. To use
14. 【2012北京 31】 ______ at the door before you enter my room, please.
A. Knock B. Knocking C. Knocked D. To knock
15. 【2013全国22】They might just have a place ______ on the writing course--- Why don’t you give
it a try ? A. left B. leave C. leaving D. to leave
16. 【201310】 The airport _______ next year will help promote tourism in this area.
A. being completed B. to be completed C. completed D. having been completed
17. 【2013四川8】 ________ which university to attend, the girl asked her teacher for advice.
A. Not knowing B. Knowing not C. Not known D. Known not
18. 【2013重庆30】When I was little, my mother used to sit by my bed, ______me stories till I fell
A. having told B. telling C. told D. to tell
19. 【2013安徽32】_______ in the early 20th century, the school keeps on inspiring children’s love of
art. A. To found B. Founding C. Founded D. Having founded
20. 【2013陕西14】The witnesses ______ by the police just now gave very different descriptions of
the fight. A. questioned B. being questioned
C. to be questioned D. having questioned
21. 【2013湖南31】_______ warm at night, I would fill the woodstove, then set my alarm clock for
midnight so I could refill it. A. Staying B. Stayed C. To stay D. Stay
1. Have you seen Henry lately My boss wants to know ________.
A. how he is getting along B. how is he getting along
C. what he is getting along D. what is he getting along
2. It is generally considered unwise to give a child ____ he or she wants.
A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever
3. He asked me ________ with me.
A. what is the trouble B. what wrong was
C. what was the matter D. what trouble it is
4. I wonder how much ________.
A. does the watch cost B. did the watch cost
C. the watch costed D. the watch costs
5. ______ surprised me most was ______ such a little boy of seven could play the violin so well.
A. That…what B. What…that C. That…which D. What…which
6. When I arrived, Bryan took me to see the house ____I would staying.
A. what B. when C. where D. which
7. Nowadays people are more concerned about the environment _____ they live.
A. what B. which C. when D. where
8.The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing.
A. which B. that C. whom D. who
9.This is the reason ______he didn't come to the meeting.
A. in which B. with which C. that D. for which
10. Did you find the notebook ______ Jim had given me for my birthday?
A. who B. whom C. which D. whose
11. The man ________ coat is black is waiting at the gate.
A. who's B. whose C. that D. of which
12. The police caught the man _______ stole my handbag.
A. he B. that C. whom D. which
13. George Mallory was an English teacher _______ loved climbing.
A. who B. whom C. he D. which
14. He is so busy. He cannot afford enough time with his son _____ he wants to .
A. even if B. as if C. because D. before
15. __________the rain has stopped, let’s continue to work.
A. For B. Now that C. That D. Because
16. ____________, I am sure that the boy is honest.
A. Whatever people say B. No matter people say
C. What people say D. It doesn’t matter people say
17. I usually watch TV in the evening ____________I have to study for an examination.
A. because B. unless C. while D. the moment
18. No matter ________hard it may be，I will carry it out.
A. what B. whatever C. how D. however
19. I saw Mr. Smith last Sunday. We had not seen each other ________I left London.
A. as B. before C. since D. till
20. He got excited at the news，________ I was calm. A. when B. while C. because D. after
When I was 8 years old, I once decided to run away from home. With my suitcase and some sandwiches in a bag, I started for the front door and said to Mom, “I’m leaving.”
“If you want to that’s all right,” she said. “But you came into this home without anything and you can leave the same way.” I my suitcase and sandwiches on the floor heavily and started for the door again.
“Wait a minute,” Mom said. “I want your back. You didn’t wear anything when you arrived.” This really angered me. I tore my clothes off—shoes, socks, underwear and all—and “Can I go now?” “Yes,” Mom answered, “but once you close that door, don’t expect to come back.”
I was so that I slammed (砰地关上) the door and stepped out on the front porch. I realized that I was outside, with nothing on. Then I noticed that down the street, two neighbor girls were walking toward our house. I ran to behind a big tree in our yard at once. After a while, I was the girls had passed by. I dashed to the front door and banged on it loudly.
“Who’s there?” I heard.
“It’s Billy! Let me in!”
The voice behind the answered, “Billy doesn’t live here anymore. He ran away from home.” Glancing behind me to see if anyone else was coming, I begged, “Aw, c’mon, Mom! I’m your son. Let me in!”
The door inched open and Mom’s smiling face appeared. “Did you change your about running away?” she asked.
“What’s for supper?” I answered.
36. A. packed B. returned C. cleaned D. repaired
37. A. drop out B. go by C. move around D. run away
38. A. pressed B. shook C. threw D. pulled
39. A. bag B. clothes C. sandwiches D. suitcase
40. A. explained B. suggested C. continued D. shouted
41. A. angry B. sorry C. frightened D. ashamed
42. A. Certainly B. Naturally C. Suddenly D. Possibly
43. A. play B. bide C. rest D. wave
44. A. sure B. proud C. eager D. curious
45. A. house B. tree C. door D. yard
46. A. also B. still C. even D. already
47. A. conclusion B. promise C. concern D. decision
43. Before the sales start, my mum makes a list of ___ we need for the coming season.
A why B what C how D which
44. Susan rides her bicycle to work every day. This is ___ she keeps fit.
A what B which C how D when
45. ___ I got on the bus, I realized I had left my wallet at home.
A When B If C Because D Though
46. ____ we are all part of the global village, everyone becomes a neighbour.
A. Even though B . In case C. As if D. Now that
The morning had been a disaster.My tooth was aching,and I’d been in an argument with a friend.Her words still hurt：“The trouble with you is that you won’t put yourself in my place.Can’t you see things from my point of view?”Ishook my head stubbomly—and felt the ache in my tooth.I’d thought I could hold out till my dentist came back from holiday,but the pain was really unbearable.I started calling the dentists in the phone book,but no one coule see me immediatcly.Finally,at about lunchtime,I got lucky.
“If you come by right now,”the receptionist said,“the dentist will fit you in .”
I look my purse and keys and rushed to my car.But suddenly I began to doubt about the dentist.What kind of dentist would be so eager to treat someone at such short notice?Why wasn’t he as busy as the others?
In the dentist’s office,I sat down and looked around.I saw nothing but the bare walls and I became even more worried.The assistant noticed my nervousness and placed her warm hand over my ice-cold one.
When I tole her my fears,she laughed and said ,“Don’t worry.The dentist is very good.”
“How long do I have to wait for him?”I asked impatiently.
“Come on ,he is coming.Just lie down and relax.And enjoy the artwork,”the assistant said. “The artwork?”Iwas puzzled.
The chair went back,suddenly I smiled.There was a beautiful picture,right where I could enjoy it ：on the ceiling.How considerate the dentist was ！At that moment,I began to understand what my friend meant by her words.
What a relief！
56.Which of the following best describes the author’s feeling that morning?
A.Cheerful. B.Nervous. C.Satisfied. D.Upset.
57.What made the author begin to doubt about the dentist?
A.The dentist’s agreeing to treat her at very short notice.
B.The dentist’s being as busy as the other dentists.
C.The surroundings of the dentist’s office.
D.The laughing assistant of the dentist.
58.Why did the author suddenly smile?
A.Because the dentist came at last.
B.Because she saw a picture on the ceiling.
C.Because she could relax in the chair.
D.Because the assistant kept comforting her.
59.What did the author learn from her experience most probably?
A.Strike while the iron is hot.
B.Have a good word for one’s friend
C.Put oneself in other’s shoes
D.A friend in need is a friend indeed.
1. I won’t call you, ________ something unexpected happens.
A. unless B. whether C. because D. while
2. _______ he had not hurt his leg, John would have won the race.
A. If B. Since C. Though D. When
Collecting information about children’s health is his job. 收集有关儿童健康的信息是他的工作。
It’s necessary to discuss the problem with an experienced teacher. 与一位有经验的老师讨论这个问题是有必要的。
（1）It’s difficult (important, necessary) for sb. to do
（2）It’s kind (good, friendly, polite, careless, rude, cruel, clever, foolish, brave) of sb. to do.
It’s no good (use, fun) doing.
It’s (a) waste of time one’s doing.
It’s worth while doing.
His teaching aim of this class is to train the students’ speaking ability. 他这节课的教学目的是要训练学生说的能力。
Its full-time job is laying eggs. 它的（指蚁后）的专职工作是产卵。
The task of this class is practising the idioms. （现在分词做表语）
With the help of the teacher, the students are practising the idioms. （现在进行时）
4、常用作表语的现在分词有：interesting, amusing, disappointing, missing, puzzling, exciting, inspiring, following等。现在分词表示进行与主动。
The joke is amusing .这笑话很逗人。
The problem is puzzling. 这个问题令人不解。
The village is surrounded by high mountains.（过去分词做表语）
The enemy was surrounded by the Red Army.（被动语态）
He is well educated.（过去分词做表语）
He has been educated in this college for three years.（被动语态）
used, closed, covered, interested, followed, satisfied, surrounded, done, lost, decided, prepared, saved, shut, won, completed, crowded, dressed, wasted, broken, married, unexpected等。
Climbing is tiring. 爬山很累人。
They are very tired. 他们很疲劳
After hearing the exciting news, he gave a speech in an excited voice.
want, wish, hope, expect, ask, pretend, care, decide, happen, long, offer, refuse, fail, plan, prepare, order, cause, afford, beg, manage, agree, promise等。
enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid, excuse, delay, imagine, keep, miss, appreciate, be busy, be worth, feel like, can’t stand, can’t help, think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent…(from), keep…from, stop…(from), protect…from, set about, be engaged in, spend…(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on等。
3、在forget, remember, stop, regret, try, mean等动词后跟不定式与动名词意义不同，不定式表示谓语动词之后的动作，而动名词表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前，常用一般式doing代替完成式having done.
He forgot to tell me to post the letter.（他忘了叫我发信。）
I shall never forget finding that rare stamp on an ordinary envelope. 我永远也忘不了在一个普通信封上发现了那枚珍贵的邮票。
Remember to write to us when you get there. 到那里，记得给我们写信。
I don’t remember meeting him. 我不记得见过他。
I regret to tell you that I can’t go to your birth-day party. 我很遗憾告诉你我不能去参加你的生日晚会了。
They regretted agreeing to the plan. 他们后悔同意这个计划。
He tried to pretend to share in the pleasure with his friend. 他尽力假装与朋友分享欢乐。
She tried reading a novel, but that couldn’t make her forget her sorrow. 她试着看看小说，但也不能使她忘记伤心事。
I didn’t mean to hurt you. 我没有企图伤害你。
A friend indeed means helping others for nothing in return. 真正的朋友意指不图回报地帮助别人。
4、动名词作need, want, require, be worth的宾语时，用主动式代替被动式。
The washing-machine needs repairing.（或用：needs to be repaired）这台洗衣机需要修理。
The point wants referring to. 这一点要提到。
This English novel is worth reading. 这本英文小说值得一读。
The situation in Russian required studying. 俄国形式需要研究。
ask, tell, beg, allow, want, like, hate, force, invite, persuade, advise, order, cause, encourage, wait for, call on, permit, forbid
The doctor advised him to stay in bed for another few days. 医生嘱咐他再卧床休息几天。
We wish him to remain and accept the post. 我们希望他留下来接受这个职位。（注意hope后不跟不定式做宾补。）
2、有些动词后的复合宾语用不带“to“的不定式，这些动词有：see, watch, notice, hear, feel, make, let, have等。例如：
We noticed him enter the house. 我们留意到他进了那所房子。
The boss made them work twelve hours a day. 老板让他们一天干12小时工作。
Mother made a cake to celebrate his birthday. 妈妈做了一个蛋糕给他庆贺生日。
He had a meeting to attend. 他有个会要开。
3、下列动词后的复合宾语用分词做宾补：see, watch, notice, observe, hear, feel, make, set, have, leave, keep, find等。用现在分词还是用过去分词做宾补，要看分词与宾语的关系。例：
We heard him singing the song when we came in. 当我们进来的时候，听见他正唱那首歌。
We have heard the song sung twice. 我们听过这首歌唱过两遍了。
He had no house to live in but a lot of work to do. 他没有房子住却有好多活要干。
Our monitor is the first to arrive. 我们班长是第一个到的。
a walking stick 拐杖（动名词做定语，意为a stick for walking）
a sleeping car 卧铺车厢（动名词做定语，意为a car for sleeping）
the rising sun 正在升起的太阳（现在分词做定语，意为the sun which was rising）
the changing world 变化中的世界（现在分词做定语，意为the world which is changing）
a piece of disappointing news 使人失望的消息（意同a piece of news which disappointed us）
in the following years 在后来的几年中（意同in the years that followed）
a well dressed woman 衣着讲究的女士（意同a woman who is dressed well）
a car parked at the gate 停在门口的小汽车（意同a car which was parked at the gate）
He hurried home only to find his money stolen. 他匆忙赶到家中，发现钱被盗了。（结果状语）
To make himself heard, he raised his voice. 为了被听清楚，他提高了嗓门。（目的状语）
All of us are surprised to see his rapid progress. 看到他的进步，我们都很吃惊。(原因状语)
Seen from the top of the hill, the town is beautiful. 从山上看，这座城市很美。（条件状语）
Coming into the room, he found his father angry. 当走进房间时，他发现父亲生气了。（时间状语）
Being tired, they went on working. 虽然累了，但他们继续工作。（让步状语）
Having been hit by the big boy on the nose, the little boy began to cry. 由于被大孩子打了鼻子，那个小男孩哭了。（原因状语）
He put a finger in his mouth, tasted it and smiled, looking rather pleased. 他把一个手指放进嘴里，尝了尝，笑了，看起来挺高兴。（伴随状语）
二. 重难点讲解： A cook will be immediately fired if he is found _______ in the kitchen.
A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke D. smoked
______ the house on fire, he dialed 911.
A. To see B. Seeing C. Seen D. Having seen
1. Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could _______ a good college.
A. enter B. to enter
C. entering D. entered
陷阱：容易误选A。有的同学一看到空格前的情态动词 could 就断定此处应填动词原形 enter。
分析：其实正确答案应是B。此句为省略句，即在 could 后省略了动词 do，若把句子补完整应为Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could do to enter a good college。即句中的不定式短语（to enter a good college）是用作目的状语的，而不是与情态动词（could）一起构成谓语。请再看类似例句：
（1） They did what they could to comfort her. 他们尽量安慰她。
（2） They did everything they could to save her life. 他们尽一切力量拯救她的性命。
（3） He studies as hard as he could to catch up with his classmates. 他拼命学习以便赶上他的同学。
（4） He ran as fast as he could _____ to catch the early bus.
A. to hope B. hope
C. hoping D. hoped
此题的答案是 C不是A，其中的现在分词短语 hoping to catch the early bus 用作伴随状语。
（5） He spent every minute he could _____ spoken English.
A. practise B. to practise
C. practising D. practised
此题答案选 C，这与前面动词 spent 的搭配有关，即 spend … （in） doing sth。若将此句补充完整，即为 He spent every minute he could spend in practising spoken English.
（6） Before going abroad he devoted all he could ____D____ his oral English.
A. improve B. to improve
C. improving D. to improving
此题答案选D，注意两点：一是 devote … to … 是固定搭配，意为“把„„贡献给„„”；二是其中的 to 是介词，不是不定式符号，后接动词时要用动名词。
2. He knows nothing about it, so he can’t help _______ any of your work.
A. doing B. to do
C. being doing D. to be done
陷阱：容易误选B，根据 can’t help doing sth 这一结构推出。
can’t help to do sth = 不能帮助做某事
can’t help doing sth = 禁不住做某事，情不自禁地做某事
She can’t help ____ the house because she’s busy making a cake.
A cleaning B. to clean
C. cleaned D. being cleaned
While shopping, people sometimes can’t help _____ into buying something they don’t really need.
A. to persuade B. persuading
C. being persuaded D. be persuaded
此题应选C，句中的 can’t help 意为“禁不住”（注意根据句意用被动形式）。
3. All her time _______ experiments, she has no time for films.
A. devoted to do B. devoted to doing
C. devoting to doing D. is devoted to doing
（1） devote 意为“致力于，献身于”，主要用 devote…to…或be devoted to，其中的to 是介词，不是不定式符号，故后接动词时要用动名词，不用不定式。
（2） 选A错误：若将 do 改为 doing 则可以。
（3） 选B正确：all her time devoted to doing experiments为独立主格结构，用作状语。
（4） 选C错误：因为all her time 与 devote 为被动关系，故应将devoting改为devoted。
（5） 选D错误：若单独看 All her time is devoted to doing experiments，此句并没有错，但问题是逗号前后两个简单句没有必要的连接方式，所以从整体上看仍不对，假若在后一句的句首加上and或so，则可选D，或将D将中的is 改为 being也可选它。
（1） All the preparations for the project ______, we’re ready to start.
A. completed B. have been completed
C. had been completed D. been completed
（2） Such _______ the case, I couldn’t help but______ him.
A. being, support B. was, support
C. has been, supporting D. is, to support
（1） All the preparations for the project ______, and we’re ready to start.
A. completed B. have been completed
C. had been completed D. been completed
（2） Such _______ the case, I couldn’t help but______ him.
A. being, support B. was, support
C. has been, supporting D. is, to support
4. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ______ it more difficult.
A. not make B. not to make
C. not making D. do not make
分析：其实答案应选B，句中的逗号相当于连词 and 或 but，not to make it more difficult 是对逗号前的不定式 to make life easier 的补充说明。此句的意思是“新技术的目的是为了使生活变得更容易，而不是使生活变得更困难”。两个不定式同时用以说明句子主语 purpose 的内容。请做以下类似试题（答案选B）：
The purpose of the scheme is not to help the employers but _____ work for young people.
A. provide B. to provide
C. providing D. provided
5. The murderer was brought in, with his hands ______ behind his back.
A. to be tied B. being tied
C. tied D. having tied
分析：最佳答案为C。从意义上看，hands 与 tie 的关系应属被动关系，故排除D。在
A、B、C三个选项中，选项A比较容易排除，因为不定式表示将来意义，在此与语境不符。现将B和C作一比较：B为现在分词的被动式，它表示两层意义，一是表被动，二是表进行，也就是说 his hands being tied 的实际意思是“他的手正在被捆住”，这显然与语境不符。而C为过去分词，它也表示两层意义，一是表被动，二是表示动词的完成或完成后的状态，此句中的 with his hands tied behind his back 可视为手被捆在背后的一种状态。由此可知最佳答案为C。请看下面一题：
Anyone ______ trying to take knives on heard flights would be caught by the police.
A. finds B. found
C. being found D. will find
（1） The court hears about 120 cases a year; visitors are welcome to see a case ______.
A. argued B. to be argued
C. to be arguing D. being argued
（2） The silence of the library was sometimes broken by an occasional cough or by the sound of pages _______.
A. turned B. having turned
C. to be turned D. being turned
6. Remind me _______ the medicine tomorrow.
A. of taking B. taking
C. to take D. take
陷阱：容易误选A。受 remind sb of （doing） sth 这一常用结构的影响。
remind sb of [about] sth = 使某人想起某事
remind sb of doing sth = 提醒某人做过某事（暗示动作已发生）
remind sb to do sth = 提醒某人去做某事（暗示动作尚未发生）
I reminded him of his promise. 我提醒他做过的诺言。
My wife reminded me of seeing that film. 我妻子提醒我曾经看过那部电影。
Can you remind me to phone her tomorrow? 你明天能否提醒我给她打电话?
7. Once your business becomes international, _____ constantly will be part of your life.
A. you fly B. your flight
C. flight D. flying
分析： 最佳答案为D。由于空格后出现了constantly这一副词，这就说明不能选B或C，因为B、C均为名词，不能受副词 constantly 的修饰。A和D均是可能的，因为其中有动词 fly。但若选A，you fly 是一个主谓结构，与其后的谓语 will be 相冲突，所以只能选D，即动名词flying在此用作主语。
8. Not only should you get used ______ under difficult conditions but you also you pay more attention ______ your work well.
A. to work, to do B. to working, to doing
C. to work, to doing D. to working, to do
分析： 正确答案为B，因为 get used to与pay attention to 这两个结构中的to均为介词，不是不定式符号，故后接动词时要用动名词，不能动词原形。类似地，以下各结构中的 to 也是介词，不是不定式符号，后接动词时也应用动名词，而不是动词原形：
look forward to doing sth 盼望做某事
be opposed to doing sth 反对做某事
object to doing sth反对做某事
stick to doing sth 坚持做某事
get down to doing sth 开始做某事
take to doing sth 喜欢上做某事
admit to doing 承认做了某事
pay attention to doing sth 注意做某事
devote one’s time to doing sth 把某人的时间用于（奉献于）做某事
be equal to doing sth 等于做某事，能胜任做某事
What do you say to doing sth 你认为做某事怎么样
9. Both of my parents insisted _______ a computer for me, but I don’t think it is necessary.
A. to buy B. buying
C. on buying D. in buying
分析：答案应选C。其实，动词 insist 后既不能接不定式也不能接动名词，因为insist 通常用作不及物动词；若语义上需接宾语，要借助介词 on或upon，即用于 insist on [upon] （doing） sth；但它有时的确也可用作及物动词，不过其宾语通常只能是 that 从句，而不能是普通的名词、代词或动名词。如：
He insisted on seeing her home. 他坚持送她回家。
I insisted that he （should） stay. 我坚持要他留下。
10. “Do you have anything more ______, sir?” “No. You can have a rest or do something else.”
A. typing B. to be typed
C. typed D. to type
陷阱：容易误选D，根据 have sth to do 这一常用结构推出。
分析：最佳答案是B。确实，在“have+宾语+不定式”结构中，用作定语的不定式通常用主动式表示被动含义，如 I have some clothes to wash等，即尽管其中的 some clothes 与其后的不定式 to wash 具有被动关系，但却习惯上用主动式表示被动意义。但值得指出的是，这类句型的主语与其后的不定式具有主动关系，如 I have some clothes to wash 中的 to
wash 就是由该句主语 I 来完成的。而上面一题的情形有所不同，即其中的 to type 这一动作不是由句子主语 you来完成的，而是由说话者“我”来完成的。比较：
Are you going to Shanghai? Do you have anything to take to your son? 你要去上海吗？你有什么东西要带给你儿子吗？
I’m going to Shanghai next week. I have a lot of things to take with me. 下个星期我要去上海，我随身要带很多东西去。
11. She took her son, ran out of the house, _____ him in the car and drove quickly to the nearest doctor’s office.
A. put B. to put
C. putting D. having put
分析：正确答案选A。句中的took, ran, put, drove 为四并列的谓语动词，其时态应一致。类似地如（答案选A）：
I got out of the taxi, _____ the fare and dashed into the station.
A. paid B. paying
C. to pay D. having paid
Hearing the news, he rushed out, ______ the book ______ on the table and disappeared into the distance.
A. left; lain open B. leaving; lying open
C. leaving; lie opened D. left; lay opened
此题答案选B，leaving 在此表结果，lying open 与其前的动词leave有关，leave 后接现在分词作宾语补足语，表示使某人或某物处于做某事的状态中。
12. The boss insisted that every minute ______ made full use of ______ the work well.
A. be, to do B. was, doing
C. be, doing D. was, to do
（1） 第一空填 be，是因为insisted 后接that从句，从句谓语要用“should+动词原形”这样的虚拟语气，其中的should也可省略。
（2） 第二空要填to do，是因为此句谓语为被动语态，假若将此句转换成主动语态，则是 …should make full use of every minute to do the work well, 句中涉及 make use of … to do sth （利用„„做某事）这一结构。另外，还有 make the most of （尽量利用），make the best of （尽量利用）等短语也可能用于此类试题。请看以下类似例子：
（1） The old professor told us every part of the materials should be made use of ______ the power station.
A. to build B. building
C. build D. built
此题答案选 A，不是 B。为便于理解，可先考虑以下结构：
…make use of every part of the materials to build the power station
由此可见，make use of 的宾语是 every part of the materials，其后的不定式 to build the power station 为目的状语。
（2） Does the way you thought of _______ the water clean make any sense?
B. to make
C. how to make D. having made
1. He looked around and caught a man ______ his hand into the pocket of a passenger.
A. put B. to be putting
C. to put D. putting
2. When you’re learning to drive, _______ a good teacher makes a big difference.
A. have B. having
C. and have D. and having
3. I felt it a great honour ______ to speak to you.
A. to ask B. asking
C. to be asked D. having asked
4. I would love _______ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report.
A. to go B. to have gone
C. going D. having gone
5. Before you decide to leave your job, _______ the effect it will have on your family.
A. consider B. considering
C. to consider D. considered
6. Robert is said _______ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in.
A. to have studied B. to study
C. to be studying D. to have been studying
7. It is said that in Australia there is more land than the government knows _______.
A. it what to do with B. what to do it with
C. what to do with it D. to do what with it
8. Anyone _______ bags, boxes, or whatever, was stopped by the police.
A. seen carry B. seen carrying
C. saw to carry D. saw carrying
9. Mr Reed made up his mind to devote all he had to _______ some schools for poor children.
A. set up B. setting up
C. have set up D. having set up
10. The discovery of new evidence led to _______.
A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief
C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught
11. She looks forward every spring to _______ the flower-lined garden.
A. visit B. paying a visit
C. walk in D. walking in
12. To test eggs, _______ them in a bowl of water: if they float they’re bad, if they sink they’re good.
A. put B. putting
C. to put D. to be putting
13. “Where is David?” “He is upstairs ______ ready to go out.”
A. to get B. getting
C. to be getting D. having got
14. “Mum, why do you always make me eat an egg every day?” “________ enough protein and nutrition as you are growing up.”
A. Get B. Getting
C. To get D. to be getting
15. He was reading his book, completely _______ to the world.
A. lost B. losing
C. to lose D. to have lost
16. We looked everywhere for the keys, but they are nowhere _______.
A. to find B. to have found
C. to be found D. being found
17. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him _______.
A. not to B. not to do
C. not do it D. do not do
18. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found _______ in the kitchen.
A. smoke B. smoking
C. to smoke D. smoked
19. Finding her car stolen, _______.
A. a policeman was asked to help
B. the area was searching thoroughly
C. it was looked for everywhere
D. she hurried to a policeman for help
20. “How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers?” “The key ______ the problem is to meet the demand ______ by the customers.”
A. to solving, making B. to solving, made
C. to solve, making D. to solve, made
21. “What do you think made Mary so upset?” “_______ her new bike.”
A. As she lost B. Lost
C. Losing D. Because of losing
22. The research is so designed that once _______ nothing can be done to change it.
A. begins B. having begun
C. beginning D. begun
23. Though ________ money, his parents managed to send him to university.
A. lacked B. lacking of
C. lacking D. lacked in
24. Tony was very unhappy for _______ to the party.
A. having not been invited B. not having invited
C. having not invited D. not having been invited
25. Though I have often heard this song _______. I have never heard you _______ it.
A. being sung, sang B. sang, singing
C. sung, sing D. to be sung, to sing
1. 选D。catch sb doing sth 意为“碰上某人在做某事”或“逮住某人做某事”。
2. 选B。这是一个含when 引导时间状语从句的主从复合句，having a good teacher 在主句中用作主语。
3. 选C。句中的 it 为形式主语，不定式 to be asked to speak to you 为真正主语，因“我”与ask为被动关系，故用被动式。
4. 选 B。like 和 love后接不定式或动名词均可，但 would love / like 后只能接不定式，据此可排除选项 C、D。表示过去未曾实现的愿望，其后要接不定式完成式，即选 B。
5. 选A，before 引导的是时间状语从句，填空句为主句，而此主句为一祈使句，故动词用原形。其中 it will have … 为修饰名词 the effect 的宾语从句。
6. 选 A。根据句中的 studied 可知，他曾到国外留过学，也就是说“留学”这个动作已结束并发生在谓语动作（is said）之前，故用完成式，即选 A。
7. 选 C。do with 与 what 连用可以表示“处置”、“放置”、“利用”等。如： What shall I do with it? 怎样处置它好呢?
What have you done with my umbrella? 你把我的雨伞放到哪里去了?
I don’t know what to do with this strange object. 我不知道这怪东西有什么用。
8. 选B。anyone seen carrying bags…为 anyone who was seen carrying bags 之略，其中过去分词短语 seen carrying bags … 用作定语修饰代词 anyone。另外，句中的 who was seen carrying bags 为 see sb doing sth 这一结构的被动式。
9. 选 B。devote…to… 的意思是“把„„贡献给„„”或“致力于„„”，其中 to 是介词，不是不定式符号，若后接动词要用动名词。句中的 he had 为定语从句，用以修饰 all，注意不将 had to 视为同一个语义结构。
10. 选 C。lead to 意为“导致”，其中的 to 是介词，不是不定式符号，若后接动词要用 动名词。由于逻辑主语 the thief 与catch 为被动关系，故答案选 C。
11. 选 D。look forward to 意为“期盼”，其中 to 是介词，后接动词要用动名词。注意不能选 B，因为 pay a visit 不能带 the flower-lined garden 作宾语，假若在 paying a visit 后加上介词 to，则可选 B。
12. 选A。句首的 to test eggs 为目的状语，填空句为祈使句谓语，故要用动词原形。
14. 选C。to get enough protein and nutrition 表目的。
15. 选A。（be） lost to sth 为习语，意为“不再受某事物的影响”、“将某事物置之度外”。
16. 选C。因keys 与 find 是被动关系。
17. 选 A。不定式的否定式总是将否定词 not 置于不定式符号 to 之前，而不能置于其后，同时结合 tell sb （not） to do sth 这一结构可排除选项 C、D。当不定式的动词是前面已出现过的相同的动词时，为避免重复，通常省略该不定式而只保留不定式符号 to。
18. 选 B。find 后可接现在分词（表示动作在进行）或过去分词（表被动关系）作宾语补足语，但是不接不定式。另外，由于he 与 smoke 是主动关系，故选 B。
19. 选 D。非谓语动词作状语时，其逻辑主语就是句子主语。比较四个选项，finding her car stolen 的逻辑主语显然是 she，而不是 a policeman, the area, it 等，故选 D。
20. 选 B。the key to… 意为“„„的关键”，其中的 to 是介词，不是不定式符号，若后接动词要用动名词。另一方面，名词 demand 与 make 是被动关系（make demands 提出要求），同时根据句中的 by the customers，可确定答案选 B。
21. 选 C。答句是针对疑问词 what 的回答，而问句中的疑问词 what 在句中用作主语，所以答句也应是一个能用作主语的东西，比较四个选项，只有C合适。其完整回答形式为 Losing her new bike made Mary so upset. 比较，下面一题要填不定式，因为四个选项中只有 To choose a new chairman 能回答疑问词 why：
“Why was a special meeting called?” “______ a new chairman.”
A. Choose B. Choosing
C. To choose D. Chosen
22. 选 D。由于 the research 与 begin 是被动关系，故用过去分词 begun。Once begun 可视为 once it is begun 之省略。
23. 选 C。由于 his parents 与 lack money（缺钱）是主动关系，故用现在分词，又因为 lack 是及物动词，故后接宾语无需用介词，故选 C。
24. 选 D。非谓语动词的否定式要将否定词 not 放在整个非谓语动词之前，据此可排除
A、C。另外，由于 Tony 与 invite 是被动关系，故选 D。
25. C。第一空填 sung，因为 song 与 sing 是被动关系；第二空填 sing，因为 you 与 sing 是主动关系。
动词不定式、分词（现在分词，过去分词）和动名词统称为非谓语动词。现代英语将现在分词和动名词合为一大类叫作v + ing形式。这些动词的形式不能在句中单独作谓语用，因而没有语法主语。但可以有逻辑主语。由于没有语法主语，也就不受人称和数的限定，因为不是谓语，也就没有时态和语态，但这些词仍能表示动作和状态，所以仍有表示与其他动词相对时间关系的形式。由于与其它词有逻辑上的主谓关系，因此也有表示主、被动的形式，同时也有自己的宾语和状语，一起构成非谓语动词的短语（动词不定式短语，分词短语，动名词短语）。非谓语动词在英语语法中占有特殊且重要的位置。非谓语动词形式多样，应用广泛，且在句中起着很活跃的作用，也是语法项目中的重点和难点，学好非谓语动词，才能正确进行口语和书面的交流。
动词不定式由“to+ 动词原形”构成，如：to study, to play，动词不定式虽然不能作谓语动词用，但仍留着动词的特征，它可以带有所需要的宾语或状语而构成动词不定式短语，如：to study hard, to play table tennis。
（1）作主语：To help each other is good.（动词不定式作主语时，一般可用it作形式主语，而将作主语的动词不定式置于句末，如：It is good to help each other.
（2）作表语：My job is to drive them to the power station every day. 动词不定式在系动词be之后作表语，与表示将来时的be + 动词不定式结构有所区别，如：Our plan is to set up another middle school for the peasants’ children.我们的计划是给农民子弟再成立一所中学。（句中的谓语动词为is，动词不定式to set up… 为表语，主语为plan，但plan并不是动词不定式的逻辑主语，即动词不定式 to set up所表示的动作不是主语plan产生的。）We are to set up another middle school for the peasants’ children.我们将为农民的子弟再成立一所中学。（句中的are to set up整个结构为句中谓语，主语为we，同时也是动词不定式to set up所表示的动作的逻辑主语，即动词不定式to set up所表示的动作是由we产生的）。
（3）作宾语：① 作及物动词的宾语，如：She wishes to be a musician.；② 作某些形容
词的宾语：可以有动词不定式为宾语的形容词一般有glad, sorry, afraid, pleased, determined, willing, eager, anxious, ready, sure等，如：I am determined to give up smoking.；③ 动词不定式一般不作介词的宾语，但动词不定式之前如有疑问词时，就可作介词的宾语，如：Can you give us some advice on what to do next?
（4）作宾语补足语，如：Tell the children not to play on the street. 如果句中的谓语动词为see, hear, watch, notice, have, make, let等，作宾语补足语的动词不定式须将to省去，如：I saw a little girl run across the street.
（5）动词不定式在句中作宾语，如带有宾语补足语时，须先用it作形式宾语，而将该动词不定式后置，如：I don’t think it right to do it that way.
（6）作定语：动词不定式作定语时，须位于被其修饰的名词或代词之后，如：Is this the best way to help him? 和定语用的动词不定式如果是不及物动词，不定式后面就要用必要的介词，如：He is the man to depend on. 如果被不定式修饰的名词为place, time, way，不定式后面的介词，习惯上可以省去，如：The old man is looking for a quiet place to live.
（7）作状语：动词不定式可以作下列的状语：① 目的状语： Every morning he gets up very early to read English. 为了强调不定式表示目的的作用，可在不定式前加in order to或so as to（以便或为了），但应注意in order to位于句首或句中均可，而so as to不能位于句首，如：She reads China Daily every day in order to （so as to） improve her English. 将表示目的的不定式置于句首，也可强调目的的作用，如：To master a foreign language, one must work hard at it. ② 结果状语：They lived to see the liberation of their home town.他们活到亲眼见到了他们家乡的解放。③ too + 形容词或副词 + 动词不定式，表示“足能„”的结果，如：You are old enough to take care of yourself now.
3. 复合结构不定式：由for + 名词（或代词宾格）+ 动词不定式即构成复合结构的动词不定式。其中for本身无意义。for后面的名词或代词是不定式的逻辑主语，这种不定式在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语或状语，如：It is very important for us to get everything ready for the harvest. 当作表语用的形容词表示不定式的逻辑主语的性质或特征时，就用介词of而不用for引出不定式的逻辑主语，这些形容词一般有good, nice, kind, wise, silly, stupid, foolish, right, wrong, careless, impolite等，如：It is very kind of you to help him every day.
4. 疑问词 + 动词不定式：疑问代词和疑问副词后可加动词不定式构成不定式短语，在句中可作主语、表语或宾语，如：How to prevent them from swimming in this river is a problem.
5. 动词不定式的否定式：动词不定式的否定式是由not + 动词不定式构成，如：It’s wrong of you not to attend the meeting.
6. 动词不定式的时态形式所表示的时间关系：（1）一般式：动词不定式一般式所表示的动作是和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生，但在多数情况下，是在谓语动词所表示的动作之后发生，如：We decided to plant more trees this spring.（其后），They often watch us play table tennis.（同时）；（2）完成式：动词不定式完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前，如：I am sorryto have kept you waiting.（3）进行式：动词不定式进行式所表示的动作正在进行中，而且与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生，如：She happened to be writing a letter in the room when I came in.
7. 动词不定式的被动语态用法：如果动词不定式的逻辑主语为这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者时，不定式一般就用被动语态形式，如：What is to be done next hasn’t been decided yet.
1. — Can you ride a horse?
— No, I never had the chance ____.
A. for learning it B. for learning how
C. how to learn it D. to learn how
2. Paul said, “Give me a chair _____.”
A. to sit B. sit C. sit on D. to sit on
3. I ran too fast ______ where I was going.
A. to notice B. for me to notice
C. to notice for me D. and notice
4. — Have you enjoyed your visit here? — Yes, I’ll be very sorry______ .
A. for leaving B. of leaving
C. to leave D. with leaving
5. — I’ll help you whenever you need me. — Good. I’d like _____me tomorrow.
A. you helping B. that you will help
C. you to help D. that you help
6. — I didn’t hear you come in last night. — That’s good. We tried_____ noisy.
A. not be B. not to be
C. to be not D. to not be
7. Because of air pollution being greatly reduced, this city is still ______.
A. a good place which to be lived in B. lived as a good place
C. a good place to live in D. living in as a good place
8. — Why was the official meeting called? — ______ new officers.
A. Select B. Selecting
C. To select D. For selecting
9. — Where did he go? — He went to another store ______.
A. to buy pencils B. for buying pencils
C. buy pencils D. buying pencils
10. — My baby has a heart trouble. — Did the doctor find it difficult ______ ?
A. in treating B. treating
C. for treating D. to treat
11. — Did the judge ask you many questions? — Yes, and ______.
A. they were difficult to be answered
B. to answer them was to be difficult
C. they were difficult to answer
D. they had difficulty in answering
12. That beggar seems _____ anything yesterday.
A. not to have eaten B. not to eat
C. didn’t eat D. to not have eaten
13. The lost child desired nothing but _____ home.
A. go B. to go
C. going . D. went
14.That box is____.
A. too heavy for me to carry B. too heavy for me to carry it
C. so heavy for me to carry D. very heavy for me to carry
15. Would you be ______ to do me a favour, please?
A. so kind as . B. too kind
C. as kind as D. enough kind
16. To learn to speak English well,_____.
A. much practice is needed B. one needs much practice
C. much practice is needed by one D. one is needed much practice
17. Tom kept quiet about the accident ______ lose his job.
A. so not as to B. so as not to
C. so as to not D. not so as to
18. Last summer I took a course on ______ .
A. how to make dresses B. how dresses be made
C. how to be made dresses D. how dresses to be made
19. The house is not large enough ____ .
A. to live in B. to be lived in
C. to live D. for living
20. Nobody likes ______.
A. to speak ill of B. to be spoken ill of
C. speaking ill of D. spoken ill of
21. I know him ______ a good football player while in college.
A. to have been B. to be
C. was D. had been
22. I was surprised______.
A. watching him to eat so quickly B. watch him eat so quickly
C. watching him eat so quickly D. to watch him eat so quickly
23. Mr. White was seen ______ the Palace Museum.
A. enter B. to enter
C. entered D. to entering
24. I saw Mary ____ the house.
A. open the door and go into B. to open the door and to go into
C. open the door and to go into D. open the door and went into
25. Paul does nothing but _____ all day long.
A. play B. to play
C. playing D. played
26. Now we could not do anything but ______ for him here.
A. waited B. waiting
C. to wait D. wait
27. I don’t know her and I don’t ______ .
A. want B. want to
C. want it D. to want
28. — Go to the theatre with me, will you?
— I should like ______, but I don’t have time.
A. to B. too
C. to do D. to go to
29. To play fair is as important as ______.
A. to play well B. play well
C. we play well D. playing well
30. It is the greatest happiness on earth ______.
A. loving and to be loved B. to love and being loved
C. to love and to be loved D. love and be loved
31. _____ is better to love than _____ .
A. That, to be loved B. That, be loved
C. It, be loved D. It, to be loved
32. It’s very foolish _____ it?
A. for you to say B. of you to say
C. with you saying D. in your saying
33. It ______ me two hours to find your new house.
A. cost B. took
C. spent D. used
34. We did not expect our offer _____ so quickly.
A. rejected B. to reject .
C. to be rejected D. rejecting
35. He told her ______ there at once.
A. get B. gets
C. should get D. to get
36. We all think it most foolish ______ this mistake.
A. for you making B. of you to make
C. you to make D. for you to make
37. I really don’t know ____ .
A. to swim B. how to swim
C. to swim how D. how swim
38. — What do you think about English? — It’s a difficult language _____.
A. speaking B. to be spoken
C. to speak D. spoken
1~5 DDACC 6~10 BCCAD 11~15 CABAA 16~20 BBAAB 21~25 ADBAA DBAAC 31~35 DBBCD 36~38 BBC
Identify the function of the
italicized nonfinite clause (非谓
语从句) in each sentence.
(a) To tell you the truth, I
(b) I was surprised at Sid's
criticizing my work.
(c) For them, to lose their son
was a great tragedy.
(d) Do we have the money to
buy that car?
顾名思义, 非谓语动词就是在句中不作谓语的动词。它有三种形式: 不定式、分词和动名词～分词又有过去分词和现在分词之分。
being 或having been～则将它们删除。
例,(If you see from the top of the hill, you will find the city a very beautiful garden.
加工整理条件状语从句“If you see from the top of
Seeing from the top of the hill, you will find the city a very beautiful city.
例2(If the city is seen from the top of the hill, the city looks like a beautiful garden.
Seen from the top of the hill, the city
looks like a beautiful garden.
主语 “the city”保持一致～加工成功:
例3.Things that have been lost never come again.
“that”～ 得到句子“have been lost”,
形式～得到句子“having been lost”,
Things lost never come again.
1. The building which was built over
there last year will be used as a hospital.
2. The building which is being built over there now will be used as a hospital.
3. The building which is to be built over there next year will be used as a
1. The building built over there last year will be used as a hospital.
2. The building being built over there now will be used as a hospital.
3. The building to be built over there next year will be used as a hospital.
When leaving the railway station, she kept silent.
Ann was singing while she was dancing.
The flight of No. 737 had taken off
before he arrived.
All the people having been here, the leader declared the meeting open.
The task finished, they would have nothing to do.