Design and Development of Microcontroller Based Auto-Flow Assembly for Biosensor Application Shiwani Saini C.R.Suri School of Engineering & Technology Institute of Microbial Technology(IMTECH) Sharda University Sector 39, Chandigarh Greater Noida, India India ABSTRACT An automated flow assembly for a biosensor has been developed in this paper. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the field of in-vivo biosensors for continuous monitoring. For this continuous monitoring of biological interactions, a need for the development of auto-flow assembly arises. The automated flow assembly inherently coupled to a biosensor, forms a Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) system. The designed auto-flow assembly consists of three micro-fluidic solenoid valves actuated through a microcontroller AT89C51. A programmable turn-on time for each valve can be entered through a 4x3 keypad and its switching can be controlled by the microcontroller. In addition, a temperature-sensing unit for online monitoring of the buffer temperature at the biosensor has been interfaced to the microcontroller. The automated flow assembly offers the advantage of faster response. The work includes interfacing of the temperature sensor, keypad (for selecting the time), display unit (liquid crystal display) and solenoid valves to the microcontroller and development of the software for the same. General Terms Microcotrollers, automated flow assembly Keywords Microcontroller, biosensor, solenoid valves, flow-assembly, flow injection analysis 1. INTRODUCTION A biosensor is a device that incorporates a biological sensing element either intimately connected to or integrated within a transducer. The usual aim is to produce a digital electronic signal, which is proportional to the concentration of a specific chemical or a set of chemicals. In recent years great amount of work has ensued in the field of biosensors as they offer great opportunities in fields like medicine, environment and defence. Flow assembly is an experimental setup to allow an analyte in gaseous or liquid form to flow through a flow cell onto a biosensor (detector). Since most biosensors for the detection of biological interactions require the analyte to be in liquid or gaseous form, a flow through set up is desired to pump the analyte/sample. The block diagram representation of a flow through set up is shown in figure 1. The earlier flow assemblies utilized a manually operated system as shown in figure 2. This manual flow arrangement consists of a pumping mechanism, multiposition valves, reactors/mixing chambers, display unit and a detector. A pump is combined with a directional valve and the reagent and sample are injected sequentially through the manually operated multiposition selection valve. The sample and the reagent then form a detectable specie to produce a quantifiable signal that can be detected by the detector. Manual arrangements for delivering the sample and reagents through the flow cell  and  have been reported. The system used a sampler which permitted insertion of sample after suitable time interval by a multiposition valve. A miniaturized fiber-optic biosensor operating on the principles of FIA was reported by Scheper and Buckman . It utilized two independent sample loops to inject the sample and a timer system to control the magnetic valves. Simonian , proposed an amperometric biosensor for L-tryptophan determination, which consisted of a flow injection system coupled to an amperometric biosensor. It Figure 1 Schematic representation of a flow assembly utilized a temperature controlled flow-through column to inject the substrate on to the biocatalyst. The signal was processed using a computer. Flow through systems for direct controlling of valves and monitoring of the data through a PC have been reported , , , and . The main aim of the present work is to develop an automated flow assembly in place of a manually operated flow assembly. The automation is carried out with the help of a microcontroller. For most immunobiosensor applications, three different buffers, a washing buffer, a binding buffer and an elution buffer are required. Elution buffer equilibrates the flow cell, binding buffer binds the biological molecule onto the detector and washing buffer washes the flow cell to remove the traces of the buffers used earlier. Each of these buffers requires a separate valve to pump the buffer through the flow cell. The purpose of this automated flow assembly is to pump these buffers through the flow cell containing the detector/biosensor sequentially. The volume of buffers to be passed through the flow assembly can be controlled by selecting the duration for which a specific valve remains turned on. This actuation is controlled by the microcontroller AT89C51. The precise time for each valve to remain switched on is entered through a 4x3 keypad. A temperature sensor AD590 has been interfaced to the microcontroller through an analog to digital converter (ADC) ICL7109 for the purpose of monitoring the temperature of each buffer. A 16x2 characters alphanumeric liquid crystal display (LCD) unit is used to display both, time delay for each valve and the temperature of the analyte. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS The flow assembly required the following basic components 2.1 Microcontroller Microcontroller is a microprocessor whose design incorporates all the features of a microprocessor that is an arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) , PC (program counter), SP (stack pointer), registers and in addition features like RAM, ROM, parallel input/output, serial input/output, counters and clock circuit. Like a microprocessor, a microcontroller is a general-purpose device, but one that is meant to read data, perform limited calculations on that data and control its environment based on those operation of a machine using a fixed program stored in the ROM that does not change over a lifetime of a system. For the purpose of automating the flow assembly, an Atmel AT89C51 microcontroller is used. It is a low power, high performance CMOS, 8-bit, 40-pin microcontroller with 4K bytes of flash programmable and erasable read only memory (EPROM). The on chip flash allows the program memory to be rapidly reprogrammed using a non-volatile memory programmer. 2.2 Peristaltic Pump Liquid pumps maintain the flow of liquid through the valve. A peristaltic pump has been used in this flow assembly as it offers the advantage of the use of silicon/PTFE tubing as the pressure chamber. As a result, the fluid does not contaminate the pump; cleanup requires only change of tubing. In addition the pump offers excellent repeatability in low volume dispensing and metering applications. The valve less design eliminates clogging and siphoning of liquid under most conditions. Moreover, reversibility of flow has an added advantage. The peristaltic pump has a flow rate ranging from 1.5mL/hr to 156.5mL/hr and operates conveniently at a pressure of up to 100 psi. It has the advantage of very low power consumption as the current rating of the pump is 100 mA. 2.3 Micro Fluidic Solenoid Valves Valves are the apparatus designed to maintain, restrict, or meter the flow of materials through pipes, hoses, tubing or entire systems. For this flow assembly, solenoid valves have been used since they have corrosion resistant all plastic body and viton Figure 2 Manually operated flow assembly International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 6– No.1, September 2010 seals. This makes them ideal for use with corrosive and aggressive chemicals. Their operating temperature is in the ambient temperature range (4-65˚C) and pressure requirements are also low (up to 40 psi). These valves can have continuous duty cycle and require only a few milliseconds to energize. Their typical response time is 15-30 ms from inactive to active stage and 5-10 ms from active to inactive stage. They operate on 3V DC, 400mA and their typical power consumption is 1.2W which is very low. 2.4 Display Unit The display unit used is a 16x2 (16 characters, 2 lines) alphanumeric liquid crystal display (LCD), which can be interfaced with a 4-bit or 8-bit microprocessor or microcontroller. Liquid crystal display is preferred since the use of CMOS LCD controller and driver ICs results in low power consumption. Since LCDs consume less power, they are compatible with low power electronic circuits, and can be powered for long duration. Moreover LCDs are lightweight, have long life and wide temperature range. 2.5 Temperature Sensor A temperature sensor AD590 is used to measure the temperature of the analyte. It is a two terminal integrated temperature transducer that produces an output current proportional to absolute temperature. For supply voltages between +4 V and +30 V, the device acts as high impedance, constant current regulator passing 1µA/K. It has a calibration accuracy of 0.5˚C and linearity of 0.3˚C. Laser trimming of the chip’s thin film resistors is used to calibrate the device to 298.2 µA output at 298.2K (25 ˚C). AD590 can be used in any temperature sensing application between -55˚C to +150 ˚C in which conventional electrical temperature sensors are currently employed. Linearization circuitry, precision voltage amplifiers, resistance measuring circuitry and cold junction compensation are not needed in applying the AD590. The AD590 is available in chip form, making it suitable for hybrid circuits and fast temperature measurements in protected environments. It is particularly useful in remote sensing applications, as the device is insensitive to voltage drops over long lines due to its high impedance current output. 2.6 Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) An analog to digital (A/D) converter is required to convert the analog signal from the temperature sensor into a digital signal for the microcontroller to read. For the purpose of reading the temperature of the fluid, a 12-bit microprocessor compatible A/D converter ICL7109 has been used since it is a high performance, CMOS, low power integrating analog to digital converter. The ICL 7109 operates at up to 30 conversions per second and provides the user with high accuracy, low noise (15µVp-p) output. Some of the features include true differential input and reference, drift of less than 1µV/˚C, maximum input bias current of 10pA, and typical power consumption of 20mW. 2.7 Keypad The keypad for this application is a coded keyboard originally used for telephonic applications. These keypads are generally limited to 16 keys or fewer. The keypad interfaced to the microcontroller has 4 rows and 3 columns. 3. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION All the hardware components, keypad, valves, temperature sensor, display unit have been interfaced with the microcontroller as shown in figure 3. The programming has been done in the assembly language. 3.1 Interfacing 4x3 Keypad Each of the rows and columns has one of the ends connected to the 5V supply through 4.7kΩ resistors. The other end is connected to the microcontroller port P0 pins P0.1 through P0.7. The key press is scanned by bringing each X row low in sequence and detecting a Y column low to identify each key in the matrix. The debounce time when the key is pressed or released is 20ms. The delay needed for key debounce is generated by a time delay loop. 3.2 LCD Interfacing The 8 data lines of the display unit are connected to the microcontroller port P1 pins P1.0 through P1.7. Port pins P3.2, P3.3, and P3.4 of the microcontroller furnish the control signals register select (RS), read/write(R/W) and enable (E) respectively. Signal applied to the LCD’s Enable (E) input clocks in the data. The E signal must be a positive going digital strobe, which is active while data and control information are true. The falling edge of the Enable signal enables the data/instruction register of the controller. The E signal is applied only when a specific module transaction is required. When the LCD controller is performing an internal operation the Busy Flag is set and will not accept any instruction. The Busy Flag is therefore checked before every instruction. 3.3 Interfacing Temperature Sensing Unit AD590 temperature sensor, which is a semiconductor device, provides a current output proportional to the absolute temperature. This sensor has a nominal current sensitivity of 1µA/k. The current sensitivity is controlled by a potentiometer to give an output of 298.2µA at a temperature of 298.2k. The output of the temperature sensor is sent to IN HI and IN LO pins of the A/D converter. Figure 4 shows the schematic for the temperature sensing unit. 3.4. Interfacing A/D Converter Only 8-bits of the ADC are used to convert the analog temperature value to the corresponding digital value. With the analog output of the temperature sensor applied to pins IN HI and IN LO of the ADC, a reference voltage of 2V is given to the ADC to begin the conversion. The chip enable pin CE/LOAD is grounded; bits B1 to B8 provide the digital output when the lower byte enable pin LBEN is enabled. The 8 data bits of the A/D converter are connected to port P2 pins P2.0 through P2.7 of the microcontroller. The analog signal is converted to digital data and is available at port 2 of AT89C51. This data is then stored in a register of the microcontroller and displayed on the LCD. 3.5 Interfacing the Solenoid Valves The solenoid valves require actuation from the microcontroller so as to allow the liquid to flow through them. The solenoid valves used in this assembly require a 3V, 400mA dc supply. Since the output current of the microcontroller is only a few µA, it is not capable of driving the valves. Hence a darlington array of two Figure 3 Hardware interfacing to microcontroller Figure 4 Interfacing temperature sensor to microcontroller Figure 5 Darlington array for valve actuation Figure 6 Flowchart for software implementation Figure 6 Flowchart for software implementation transistors, SL100 and a power transistor 2N3055, is used to provide the required current (figure 5). The valve actuation time is programmed through the keypad. Three port pins of the microcontroller P3.5, P3.6 and P3.7, separately provide actuation for each of the three valves. High signal on port pin P3.5 turns on valve 1, a high signal on P3.6 turns on valve 2 whereas high signal on P3.6 turns on valve 3. Only one port pin at a time provides a high signal to switch on the valve connected to it. 4. SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION A dedicated assembly language program for controlling the hardware is written into the flash memory of the microcontroller. This program is first written at the command prompt which is then assembled using the assembler ASM51. The assembler checks the program for logical and syntax errors. Once the program has been checked for errors, a run command is issued that converts the assembled program into hex code. The microcontroller chip is then placed on a 40-pin flash programmer and the program is written into the flash memory in the form of a hex code. The duration for valve actuation can be entered by the user using a 4x3 keypad. The microcontroller program checks whether any key on the keypad has been pressed. Once a valid key pressed has been detected, the valve is turned on for the duration ( in seconds) entered by the user. Time delay is generated using a program code. Once the time delay is complete, the microcontroller port provides a low signal that switches off the valve. This actuation time is displayed on line 1 of the LCD. The temperature sensor then senses the temperature and the A/D converter converts the analog temperature into a digital data and the display unit then displays the temperature of the first buffer solution on line 2 of the LCD. Time delay for the next valve can then be entered. Once the second valve has been turned off, the actuation time for the third valve can then be entered. The flow chart for the software implementation is given in figure 6. 5. RESULTS The results obtained from the temperature sensor AD590 were compared with that of a digital thermometer. The ADC rounded off the analog signal from the temperature sensor into an 8-bit digital output to be displayed on the LCD. The output of AD590 was in millivolts (mV) and was measured using a digital multimeter. The temperature sensor was calibrated to give 1mV signal corresponding to 1°C of temperature. The performance of the flow assembly was investigated to examine the functionality of the valves interfaced to the microcontroller. The peristaltic pump pumped the specific buffer corresponding to the valves 1, 2 and 3 onto the detector for the time periods specified for each valve entered through the keypad. The volume of buffer flow could be monitored by changing the flow rate of the pump. 6. CONCLUSIONS A microcontroller based flow assembly was designed and fabricated. The system provided faster response as compared to manually operated flow assemblies. The results obtained from the ADC conformed to the actual temperature within the ambient temperature range. The flow assembly can be used at different flow rates ranging from 1.5ml/hr to 156.5ml/hr and its performance can be optimized by setting the flow rate according to the application. These automated flow assemblies offer the advantage of rapid sample throughput, small sample volumes, simplicity and minimal handling. Because of inherent sensitivity of certain detectors, FIA procedures hold great prospects in biological and biotechnological applications. Figure 7 Graph comparing the readings of digital thermometer and ADC International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 6– No.1, September 2010 7. REFERENCES Koch, S., Wolf, H., Danapel, C., Feeler, K.A.2000. Optical flowcell multichannel immunosensor for the detection of biological warfare agents. Biosens. and Bioelect. 14 (10-11):779-784. Roda, A., Girotti, S., Grigolo, B., Ghini, S., Carrea, G., Bovara, R., Zini, I.,Grimaldi, R.1991. Microdialysis and luminescent probe:Analytical and Clinical aspects. Biosens. and Bioelect. 6:21-29. Scheper,T., Buckman, A.F.1990. A fiberoptic biosensor based on fluorometric detection using confined macromolecular nicotinamide. Biosens. and Bioelect. 5:125-135. Simonian, A.L., Rainina, E.I., Fitzpatrick, P.F., Wild, J.R.1997. 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第五章利用运算放大器的模拟信号处理 Ben章将介绍对于机电一体化系统中联系各模拟Zu成部分十分重要的运算放大器电路。 本章Xue习目的 通过本章内容的阅读、讨论、Yan究和运用,要求达到以下目https://www.wenku1.net/list/缺课上报预警工作机制/标: 1. Liao解线性放大器的输入/输出特性。 2. Liao解在电路分析中如何利用理想运算放大器的模型。 3. Neng设计倒相放大器、同相放大器、加法器、Cha分放大器、仪表放 大器、积分器、微Fen器和采样/保持放大器。 4. 了解“Zhen实”运算放大器的特性以及局限性。 5.1Gai述 由于几乎所有机电一体化系统和测Liang中都存在电路,所以工程师们对电信号的采Ji和处理有基本的了解是必不可少的。这些Dian信号通常来自将物理量(如温度、应变、Wei移、流速)变换为电流或电压(一般为电压)的传Gan器。传感器输出通常称为模拟信号,它是Lian续且随时间变化的信号。 来自传Gan器的信号通常没有我们希望的形式,而可能以Xia列形式出现: .信号非常弱,Qi数值通常属于毫伏范围; .背景过Yu“嘈杂”,通常是由电磁干扰引起的; .Tong常包含由不良传感器设计或安装引起的错误信息; .Tong常含有由传感器和仪表设计引起的直流偏置。 Zhe些问题中的大部分能加以校正,需要的信号可以Tong过适当的模拟信号处理提取。最简单且最Chang用的信号处理形式是放大,在此,电压信号De幅度被放大。其他信号处理形式包括信号反相、微Fen、积分、相加、相减和比较。 模拟信号Wan全不同于呈离散且只采用有限个数状态或数Zhi的数字信号。由于计算几何微处理器要Qiu数字信号,故涉及计算机测量控制的任何应Yong都要求进行模数(A/D)转换。本章Jiang介绍模拟信号处理的基本原理,其中包括信号处理Dian路的设计和分析。运算放大器是一种在许多Xin号处理电路中用作基本组成部件的集成电路。Di六章将重点讨论数字电路,第八章将讨Lun把模拟信号转换成可以用数字装置,如Ji算机进行处理的模式。 5.2放大器 Ren们已经花费了大量的精力研究与讨论放大器,所以Wo们不能指望重用几页纸就能说清楚这个问题。这里,Wo们将考察放大器的突出特点,并确定如何Neng用集成电路来设计放大器。 在理想情况下,Fang大器只提高幅度而不影响不同分量的相位Guan系。当选择或设计放大器时候,我们必须考虑尺Cun、成本、功耗、输入阻抗、输出阻抗、增益和Dai宽。实际尺寸取决于制作放大器使用的元Jian。在20世纪60年代以前,真空管放大器很Pu遍,但它们是大功 率耗散装置,热耗散很Xian著。便携式放大器既大又重,需要频繁更换 Dian池。自固态技术出现以来,依靠载流子通过固态Ban导体材料的固态 技术已经取代了由庞大De真空管包围住低压气体使电子流动的真Kong 管技术。目前,固态晶体管和Ji成电路已显著的改变了放大器的设计, De到微小型冷态工作的放大器。它们是功耗相当小De装置,很容易制 成带可更换电池的便Xie式放大器。 通常,我们将放大器模Ni成一个二端口器件,输入输出电压均 Yi地位参考,如图5.1所示。放大器的增益You被定义为输出电压幅度 与输入电压幅度之Bi,即 Vin Vout A V /= Zheng常情况下,我们希望放大器呈幅度线性,在Ci,增益对所有频率 为常数。然而,Fang大器可能被有意识的设计或只对某些频率起放大Zuo 用,形成滤波效应。在这种情况下,输Chu特性受放大器的带宽和相关 截止频Lv的控制。 放大器的输入阻抗(in Z )He输出阻抗(out Z )由测量各自的电压与 Dian流之比求出: in in in I V Z /= out out out I V Z /= Dui于下一节所述的运算放大器,in Z 大于100Qian欧,out Z 为几欧或更 小。 5.3Yun算放大器 运算放大器是一种由许多Nei部晶体管、电阻器和电容器组成的低成本通用Ji成电路。它可以与外部分立部件结合,形Cheng各种各样的信号处理电路。运算放大器Shi下列电力路的基本组成部件: .放Da器 .积分器 .加法器 .Wei分器 .比较器 .A/D和D/AZhuan换器 .有源滤波器 .取Yang/保持放大器 在下面几节中,我们将介绍Qi中的大部分应用。运算放大器因其能完成许多不Tong运算而得名。 5.4运算放大器的理想模Xing 图5.2示出理想运算放大器的电路符Hao和接线端名称。理想运算放大器是假定具有无Xian大增益的差动输入、单一输出的放大器。Fu号∞有时在电路图中用来表示无限大增益Bing假定这是理想运算放大器。电压全都以Gong共地为参考。运算放大器是需要连接外部Dian源(±15V)的有源器件。外部电源一般都未Zai电路图上标示出来。由于运算放大器是有源器件,Gu输出电压和电流可能大于加到反相端和同相端得Zhi。 如图5.3所示,运算放大器通Chang包括从输出到负(反相)输入端的反馈。这种Suo谓闭环结构形成放大器的稳定和对增益De控制。当运算放大器电路没有反馈时候,称作运算Fang大器具有开环结构。这种结构因无限大的增益而导Zhi显著的不稳定性,因而很少采用。在下面几节介Shao的例子中,反馈的效用将变得十分明显。 Tu5.4示出可能有助于分析包含运算放大器的电路De理想模型。这个模型以描述理想运算放Da器的下列假定作为依据。 (1) 两个Shu入端具有无限大的阻抗,因此没有从输入电路汲取 Dian流。因而,0==-+I I (5.4) (2) Ju有无限大的增益。结果,输入电压之差Bi须为0,否则 输出将是无限大。在图5.4Zhong,这一点由将两个输入端短路来表示。因此,-+=V V (5.5) Ji使在两个输入端之间表示成短路,我们仍假定Dian流不可能流过这个短路。 (3) 它具有Ling输出阻抗。因此,输出电压不取决于输出电流。 Ying当指出,out V ,+V 和-V Quan都以公共地为参考。此外,为了获取稳 Ding的线性特性,输出与反相输入之间必须有反馈。 Zhe些假定和模型可能显得不合逻辑和混乱,但Dang用在包含负反馈的电路中时,却可以提供与Zhen实运算放大器性能的极好近似。借助这个 Li想的模型,我们只需用基尔霍夫定律和Ou姆定律对运算放大电路进行全面的分析。 5.5Dao相放大器 倒相放大器由将两个外部电Zu器连接到运算放大器上。如图5.7。正如Ming称所包含的意思,这个电路将输入电压倒相Bing进行放大。注意,电阻器F R 形成反馈Huan,这个反馈环总是转到运算放大器的反相Shu入 端,因而意味着为负反馈。 Xian在,我们用基尔霍夫定律和欧姆定律对这个电路进Xing分析。首先,我们用图5.8中虚线框Nei所示的运算放大器的理想模型代替运算放大器。Zai节点C 处应用基尔霍夫电流定律,并利用假定1,Ji没有电流流入运算放大器的输入端 out in i i -= (5.6) Ci外,由于两个输入端在理想型中假定为短路,Suo以C 实际上处于地电位,即 0=c V (5.7) You于电阻器R 两端的电压是 in in V V V c =-,Gu有,R i V in in = (5.8) You由于电阻器F R 两端电压是 out out V Vc V =-,Gu有,F out out R i V =(5.9) Jiang式子(5.6)代入式子(5.9),DeF in out R i V -= (5.10) Jiang式子(5.10)除以式子(5.8),便得Chu输入/输出的关系: /R R /V V F in out -= (5.11) Yin此,放大器的电压增益仅由外接电阻 R和RJue定且总是负值。这 F 个电路称为Dao相放大器的原因是它使输入信号的极性颠倒。这Bian导致对周期信号180°相移。例如,若Jiang图5.9中所示的方波与增益为-2的倒相放大Qi相连,则输出电压out V被倒相Bing经放大,得到与输入由180°相移的幅度更Da的信号。 5.6同相放大器 Tu5.10中所示的同相放大器
智能建筑的设计和建设管理系统 'Zhi能建筑'和'智能家居'技术的概念 Zhi能领域的建筑,智能家居,建筑管理系统(房屋管Li中心)包含了一个巨大的各种技术,各地商Ye,工业,体制和住宅楼宇,包括https://www.wenku1.net/list/公司制度通知格式/能源管理系统He建设控制的功能,建设管理系统的核心是'Zhi能建筑'的概念,其目的是为了控制、监测和优化Jian设服务,例如,照明;加热;安全,闭Lu电视及警报系统;存取控制;视听和娱乐系统;Tong风,过滤和气候控制等;甚至产品的考勤控制和Bao告(尤其是工作人员的运动和供货)潜在De这些概念和周边技术是巨大的,和我们的生活Zheng在发生变化的影响,从智能建筑的设计与发Zhan对我们的生活和工作环境的影响,对设施De规划和设施管理,也是潜在的巨大的。Ren何设施管理人员考虑楼宇发展或网站的搬迁也应考Lv所带来的机会智能建筑技术及概念。这项Mian费的概要文章是由一家总部设在英国的首Xi专家加里米尔斯提供,他在智能建筑,智能家Ju,以及大厦管理系统都有非常熟练以及Gao超的水平。智能建筑物和建筑管理系统在20Shi纪70年代已经在工业界开始应用,从制度He管制使用的自动化生产过程和管理植物的生长。Fa达国家智能建筑在80年代概念和应用软件的Fa展和标准化,使智能楼宇的技术和系统,可以在Yi住宅和商业部门之间转让。 智能Jian筑-控制理论 智能建筑的本质,建She管理系统和智能建筑是在控制技术,使服务一体化,Zi动化和优化的所有服务和设备提供服务和管理环Jing的建设。可编程逻辑控制器(PLC),形Cheng了原来的基础上的控制技术。 Hou来的事态发展,在商业和住宅的申请,是基Yu分布式智能的微处理器。稍后这些技术De采用和发展,让各种网站的建设和服务得以优化,Wang往高产显着并且降低成本和节省大量能源。You很多方法,其中建设服务的建筑物内可以得Dao控制,下降大致可分为二的方法类型: Wen献来自:Intelligent building,2005Nian第8期 基于时间-提供暖气或照明服务等,Zhi有在需要时基本参数的优化-经常使用的名词,代Biao环境方面的服务,如温度的空间加热或照度的照明。 Nuan气-基于时间的控制 基于时间的Kong制,可以用来打开和关闭供暖系统(和/或热水)Zai预先选定的时期(一天,一周等)。优化Can数:无论任何条件下,控制,确保建设达到预期De温度,开始入住。 暖气-优化基于参Shu(温度)控制的例子 温度控制:Bao护对冻结或霜冻保护一般涉及运行供暖系统水Beng和锅炉,当外部温度达到了一套水平(0 ° CShi)。 补偿系统:当室外温度下降,将控制Liu温度,在加热电路相对外部温度。 这将Ti供一个上升的电路流温度。 散热器恒温Fa:这些意义上的空间温度在一个房间内He节流阀的流量相关,所以通过装上散热Qi或变换器控制。 比例控制:涉及交换She备,并自动关闭,以规管输出。其他的方法可以Bao括恒温器,红外传感入住的(被动式红外线感Ying器),用户手册和控制。 照明控制Fang法 不同的控制系统的存在,再次基于Shi间的控制和优化基于参数的情况下的水平照Du或特定用途的照明是必需的。 区域:灯开Guan就相应的使用和布局的照明领域,如果Zhi有一小部分,为了避免照明一大片,它需要Qing亮。 时间控制:开关和关闭自动Zai每个区域,以预设的时间表,轻损耗。被动式红Wai线(红外)入住遥感:在地区是被侵入的间歇,Ru住传感器可以用来表明是否或没有任何人是Dang前和切换轻或关闭。 轻一级的监测:Zhe包括调光开关或人工照明,以维持一个轻的水平Lai衡量一个光电。 建设管理系统和智能建Zhu-节约能源 直到最近几年,能源效率一直Shi大厦的业主和投资者比较低的优先和低限Du的考虑。但是,随着急剧增加的和认识能源Shi用的关注和进步,符合成 本效益的技Shu,能源效率正在迅速成为一部分房地产管Li,设施管理和运作策略的概念,现在也Zuo出重大大举进入国内住宅建筑部门。 Zhao明,节约能源的最多可以有75 %的原电Lu的负荷,它代表5 %的能源消费总量的住宅和Shang业部门。 节约能源的潜力,从水Jia热,冷却,或热水的生产,最多可以有10 %,Dai表多达7 %的能源消费总量的国内住宅及商业Bu门。 经验研究表明,在奥地利的潜在加热He冷却可节省的能源是高达30 %,在公共建筑Wu。甚至让事实,即建筑物所使用的研究可能已Bei那些有特别高的能源用量,这个数字是一Ge令人印象深刻的一个。(资料来源:eu2Fen析和市场调查,欧洲的建筑技术在中环Ji中东欧国家-g opa) 建设Guan理系统和智能建筑-环境和温室气体的好处减少Dui温室气体排放量的依赖和相关的减少能源的使用。 Zhi能建筑和楼宇管理系统的技术直接有助于减少能Yuan的使用,在商业,工业,体制和国内住宅部Men。 在短期内,智能楼宇和适当的应用Guan理系统的建设有利于环境。 立Fa和环境标准,卫生和安全规定,和全球趋势对改善Shi内空气质量标准,都是显着的办法,并提供一个连Xu认可的需要-建设管理系统和智能建筑技术。 Zheng府的措施在世界各地也有强劲的发展,并通过Da厦管理系统的技术。例如,英国碳信托允许增强资Ben免税额(非洲经委会),以作抵销对税Wu关于能源效率的制度,从而使储蓄的30 %左You,为所有能源相关的建设管理系统和智能楼宇设备,Yi及相关的安装和设计成本。 建设Guan理系统和智能建筑-市场趋势 Zi细解释,是必要的。在英国,通过控制技术进Ru新的建设和翻新的主要行业是比较高的:估Ji在数年前的英国市场的建设管理控制系统的新Jian和主要翻新,所有部门,建议通过市场(如在1994Nian-源u k1评估英国能源的R TD,越- 1994):Nuan气控制70 %。热水系统控制的90 %。Kong调控制80 %。不过,根据欧洲委员Hui的记录多达90 %的现有的建筑物已不适用Huo无效的管制,其中有许多需要完成的整修控Zhi系统。 此外传统的控制系统停止短Qi自动化智能建筑的全部功能。一个重要的Yin素是人类所需的最优秀的有效运作,即Shi控制系统正确地指明和安装。鉴于典型的装置He设备经常存在的问题,为建设占用(住宅)或Jing理(商业)的使用情况操作是否正确和正确De运作是至关重要的有效的结果。 教Yu用户,改善系统的设计方便用户,并提供有Guan指示和信息都是至关重要的,使理论转化Wei实践,并实现潜在的效益和节省。 Jian设管理系统和智能大厦-的实际利益 能源De有效的制度,平衡建设的电灯,日光和Ji械系统以谋求最大利益。加强照明设计是一个多Dian器布局。它必须考虑的需要及附表占用,季节和Qi候的日光变化,及其对建筑物的机械系统的影Xiang。 照明系统 加入日光到建She是一个方法,以达到能源效益的设计。Zi然日光'收获' ,可以使人们更快乐,更健Kang,更具生产力减少需要的电灯,大量的金钱可以节Sheng能源。几乎每一个商业大厦是一个潜在的节能项Mu,如电力照明系统,可设计为暗灰色,Yu供货的日光。高达75 %的照明能源Xiao耗可节省。此外,通过减少电灯照明,并尽量减少Tai阳能热增益,控制的照明还可以减少建筑物的Kong调负荷。 机械系统 暖通空调系Tong和控制措施,包括应用分配制度的空气进入工作区,Shi机械零件的建筑物,影响热舒适性。这些系统必须Gong同努力,提供建筑的舒适度。而不是通常的一部Fen的美学大厦,他们是至关重要的其业务和Cheng员的满意度。 头号办公室投诉,是因为Gong作场所是太热,人数第二的是办公室太冷。Hen多人应付加入的球迷,空间加热器,涵盖了喷Kou,投诉,进行'恒温战争'与他们的合作Gong人,或者干脆离开办公室。住户可以驱车前往分心,Shi图调整舒适,其空间。不适当的温度,Shi度,通风,室内空气品质也有重大影响的生 Chan力和健康。当我们热舒适我们更好地开展工作,Dian更长的时间,放松,呼吸更容易,我们的Zhu意力集中越好。 为了提供一个Shu适和健康的室内环境建设机械系统必须: Ti供一个可接受的水平,温度和湿度和安全防Fan,气味和室内空气污染物。创造意识的可居住Xing,通过空气流动,通风和轻微的温度变化。Rang乘员,可以控制和修改条件,以符合个人喜好。 Zu力大厦管理系统和智能建筑技术 “Wo们的楼宇已具能源效益的” 。(是整个建筑的节Neng,抑或是业主,限制他的重点,以公用地方及毛E租用空间?) “我们宁愿设备与最低De成本时,首先装修租客空间” 。(是否规范 You任何的想法谁承担增加的经营成本,这样的Ce略呢?) “我们需要一个为期两年De简单的回馈或更少” 。(这是仍然是现实,Jian于该回报率对货币市场是从字面上了其中De十分之一是什么这是20年前?) “住Hu支付所有的能源成本,并会得到所有的储Xu” 。(请勿住户真 的支付所有De能源,还是只能源超过预先设定的基准年或Xi牲停止?)“我们正在出售的建设” 。(Wo们是否应该承担,然后降低营运开支和收获增加资Chan价值并不重要?) 智能家居 Jian设管理系统为住宅的申请与广泛采用数字技Shu将有一场深刻变革,我们如何与他人沟通。甚至Ru何,在我们的家园,我们商店进行服务,Jie收新闻,管理我们的财政状况,了解世界,Bing开展业务,管理资源,寻找娱乐,当我们进入Lao年并保持独立性和自主性。这些活动的日Yi发生在家庭中。作为我们的看法,银行,商店,大Xue,社区和城市的变化反应的新技术,使建筑建立管Li制度,正在成为一个不平凡的新的重要性。 Yin为它存在的今天,家庭不能满足这些需求,或利用Xin的机会所造成的社会和技术的变化。大多数人住De空间不能满足他们的需要。 直到最近,大Duo数房屋被有线仍略多于主要电子电路,数电话Xian,和几个电视电缆。时代变了。电器及保安系统Cheng办商经常安装低压电缆通信网,这就是广Fan的智能家居或'智能家居系统。 服Wu和设备,利用这些网络包括:安全;家庭影院和Yu乐;电话,门电话和内部通信;个人电Nao及互联网网络;监视摄像头;车道的车辆Chuan感器;沟通恒温; 摩托窗口百叶窗和窗Lian;输入系统;和灌溉系统。 智能Jia园 智能家居'是另一种的任期为1Zhi能化住宅的建设,或一个智能家居。几年前,这Xie概念很少考虑未来和幻想。现在他们的现实。这Xie条款是现在常用来定义一个居住使用控制系Tong的整合居住的各种自动化系统。 整合民Zheng系统,使它们能够互相沟通,通过控制系统,Cong而使单一的按钮和语音控制同时在预先编程De情景或经营模式下控制各种家用系统。 Fa展智能家居系统,集中讨论如何在家及其相关技Shu,产品和服务应该演变,以最好地满足面Lin的机遇和挑战的未来。的可能性和排列是Wu止境的。这里是一些例子: 智能Jia居示例1 情况下,如'我家'可引Fa迫切的一个按钮上的一个关键环远程控制从您的Che辆作为你的做法的车道上。控制系统接收的关键Huan远程控制的命令。这将触发预先编程的函数Xu列。例如出发,把对照明在车道,车库,Zou廊,和厨房。然后解除武装的保安系统,Da开车库门,打开进入室内车库门,调整暖Qi,以预设的温度,并轮流对整个内部音Xiang系统播放你最喜爱的CD ,同时你可以洗澡。控Zhi系统编程,以满足特定用户的需求,开创了连续Zi动操作的家用系统,在回应一个按钮命Ling的基础上,形势和或时间。 智能家居案Li2 在上午07时30分,你要清醒De声音,你最喜爱的CD中发出的背景; Deng在您的卧室开关',让您醒来在自己的时间。Gai楼下闯入者警报系统是激活的。在厨房的咖Fei机轮流上作出饮料。地面的窗帘和百叶窗打开;Mao巾加热器在浴室宽慰毛巾。你甚至还没有起床。 Intelligent buildings design and building management systems Overview of 'intelligent buildings' and 'intelligent homes' technologies The field of Intelligent Buildings, Intelligent Homes, Building Management Systems (BMS) encompasses an enormous variety of technologies, across commercial, industrial, institutional and domestic buildings, including energy management systems and building controls. The function of Building Management Systems is central to 'Intelligent Buildings' concepts; its purpose is to control, monitor and optimise building services, eg., lighting; heating; security, CCTV and alarm systems; access control; audio-visual and entertainment systems; ventilation, filtration and climate control, etc.; even time & attendance control and reporting (notably staff movement and availability). The potential within these concepts and the surrounding technology is vast, and our lives are changing from the effects of Intelligent Buildings developments on our living and working environments. The impact on facilities planning and facilities management is also potentially immense. Any facilities managers considering premises development or site relocation should also consider the opportunities presented by Intelligent Buildings technologies and concepts. This free summary article is contributed by Gary Mills, a leading UK-based expert in the field of Intelligent Buildings, Intelligent Homes, and Building Management Systems. The origins of Intelligent Buildings and Building Management Systems have roots in the industrial sector in the 1970's, from the systems and controls used to automate production processes and to optimise plant performances. The concepts and applications were then adapted, developed and modularised during the 1980's, enabling transferability of the technology and systems to the residential and commercial sectors. ntelligent buildings - control theory The essence of Building Management Systems and Intelligent Buildings is in the control technologies, which allow integration, automation, and optimisation of all the services and equipment that provide services and manages the environment of the building concerned. Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC's) formed the original basis of the control technologies. Later developments, in commercial and residential applications, were based on 'distributed-intelligence microprocessors'. The use of these technologies allows the optimisation of various site and building services, often yielding significant cost reductions and large energy savings. There are numerous methods by which building services within buildings can be controlled, falling broadly into two method types: Time based - providing heating or lighting services, etc., only when required, and Optimiser Parameter based - often utilising a representative aspect of the service, such as temperature for space heating or illuminance for lighting. Heating - time-based control Time-based controls can be used to turn on and off the heating system (and/or water heating) at pre-selected periods (of the day, of the week, etc). Optimiser Parameters: whatever the conditions, the controls make sure the building reaches the desired temperature when occupancy starts. Heating - optimiser parameter-based (temperature) control examples Temperature control: protection against freezing or frost protection generally involves running heating system pumps and boilers when external temperature reaches a set level (0°C). Compensated systems: will control flow temperature in the heating circuit relative to external temperature. This will give a rise in the circuit flow temperature when outside temperature drops. Thermostatic radiator valves: these sense space temperature in a room and throttle the flow accordingly through the radiator or convector to which they are fitted. Proportional control: involves switching equipment on and off automatically to regulate output. Other methods can include thermostats, occupancy sensing PIR's (passive infra-red sensors), and manual user control. Lighting control methods Different control systems exist, again time-based control and optimiser parameter-based where a level of illuminance or particular use of lighting is required. Zones: lights are switched on corresponding to the use and layout of the lit areas, in order to avoid lighting a large area if only a small part of it needs light. Time control: to switch on and off automatically in each zone to a preset schedule for light use. Passive Infra-Red (PIR) Occupancy sensing: In areas which are occupied intermittently, occupancy sensors can be used to indicate whether or not anybody is present and switch the light on or off accordingly. Light level monitoring: this consists of switching or dimming artificial lighting to maintain a light level measured by a photocell. Building management systems and intelligent buildings - energy savings Until recent years, energy efficiency has been a relatively low priority and low perceived opportunity to building owners and investors. However, with the dramatic increase and awareness of energy use concerns, and the advances in cost-effective technologies, energy efficiency is fast becoming part of real estate management, facilities management and operations strategy. The concepts are also now making significant inroads into the domestic residential housebuilding sectors. For lighting, energy savings can be up to 75% of the original circuit load, which represents 5% of the total energy consumption of the residential and commercial sectors. Energy savings potential from water heating, cooling, or hot water production, can be up to 10%, which represents up to 7% of the total energy consumption of the domestic residential and commercial sectors. Experiences from studies in Austria suggest potential heating and cooling energy savings are up to 30% in public buildings. Even allowing for the fact that buildings used in the study may have been those with particularly high energy usage, the figure is an impressive one. (Source: EU2 Analysis and Market Survey for European Building Technologies in Central & Eastern European Countries - GOPA) Building management systems and intelligent buildings - environmental and greenhouse gas benefits Greenhouse gas emission reductions depend on and correlate to reductions in energy use. Intelligent Buildings and Building Management Systems technologies contribute directly to the reduction in energy use, in commercial, industrial, institutional and domestic residential sectors. In short, Intelligent Buildings and suitably applied Building Management Systems are good for the environment. Legislation and environmental standards; health and safety regulations; and global trends towards improving indoor air quality standards are all significant drivers of - and provide a continuous endorsement of the need for - Building Management Systems and the Intelligent Buildings technologies. Government Initiatives around the world are also driving the development and adoption of Building Management Systems technologies. For example the UK Carbon Trust allows Enhanced Capital Allowance (ECA) to be offset against taxation on energy efficient systems, which enables savings of around 30% for all energy-related Building Management Systems and Intelligent Buildings equipment, and the associated installation and design costs. Building management systems and intelligent buildings - market trends Careful interpretation is required. In the UK, adoption of controls technologies into the new build and major refurbishment sectors is relatively high: Estimates a few years ago of the UK market for Building Management Control Systems for new build and major refurbishment, all sectors, suggest market adoption of (as at 1994 - Source UK1 An Appraisal of UK Energy RTD, ETSU -1994): Heating controls 70%. Hot water system controls 90%. Air conditioning controls 80%. However according to European Commission as many as 90% of all existing buildings have inapplicable or ineffective controls, many of which require complete refurbishment of control systems. Moreover conventional control systems stop short of automated Intelligent Buildings full capabilities. A significant human element is required for optimal effective operation even if control systems correctly specified and installed. Given typical installations and equipment there is often a difficulty for building occupants (residential) or managers (commercial) to operate them correctly. Usage and correct operation are vital for effective results. Education of users; improved systems-design user-friendliness, and the provision of relevant instructions and information are all critical to enable theory to translate into practice, and for potential effectiveness and savings to be realised. Building management systems and intelligent buildings - practical benefits Energy-effective systems balance a building's electric light, daylight and mechanical systems for maximum benefit. Enhanced lighting design is more than an electrical layout. It must consider the needs and schedules of occupants, seasonal and climatic daylight changes, and its impact on the building's mechanical systems. Lighting systems Adding daylight to a building is one way to achieve an energy-effective design. Natural daylight 'harvesting' can make people happier, healthier, and more productive. And with the reduced need for electric light, a great deal of money can be saved on energy. Nearly every commercial building is a potential energy saving project, where the electric lighting systems can be designed to be dimmed with the availability of daylight. Up to 75% of lighting energy consumption can be saved. In addition, by reducing electric lighting and minimizing solar heat gain, controlled lighting can also reduce a building's air conditioning load. Mechanical systems The HVAC system and controls, including the distribution system of air into the workspaces, are the mechanical parts of buildings that affect thermal comfort. These systems must work together to provide building comfort. While not usually a part of the aesthetics of a building, they are critical to its operations and occupant satisfaction. The number one office complaint is that the workplace is too hot. Number two is that it's too cold. Many people cope by adding fans, space heaters, covering up vents, complaining, conducting 'thermostat wars' with their co-workers, or simply leaving the office. Occupants can be driven to distraction trying to adjust the comfort in their space. Improper temperature, humidity, ventilation, and indoor air quality can also have significant impacts on productivity and health. When we are thermally comfortable we work better, shop longer, relax, breathe easier, focus our attention better. In order to provide a comfortable and healthy indoor environment the building mechanical system must: Provide an acceptable level of temperature and humidity and safe guard against odours and indoor air pollutants. Create a sense of habitability through air movement, ventilation and slight temperature variation. Allow the occupant to control and modify conditions to suit individual preferences. Resistance to building management systems and intelligent buildings technology building energy-efficient, or is the landlord limiting his focus to common areas and gross leased spaces?) out tenant space. realistic, given that the percentage return on money markets is literally one-tenth what it was 20 years ago?) tenants really pay all energy or just the energy over a pre-set base year or expense stop?) the operating expenses and reaping the increased asset value are not important?) Intelligent homes Building management systems for residential applications With the widespread adoption of digital technologies there will be a profound change in how we communicate with others. Even how, in our homes, we shop for goods and services, receive news, manage our finances, learn about the world, and, conduct business, manage resources, find entertainment, and maintain independence and autonomy as we enter old age. These activities increasingly take place in the home. As our perception of banks, shops, universities, communities, and cities change in response to new technologies, so home building management systems are taking on an extraordinary new importance. As it exists today the home cannot meet these demands or take advantage of new opportunities created by social and technological changes. Most people live in spaces poorly tailored to their needs. Until recently, the majority of homes were wired with little more than the main electrical circuits, a few phone lines, and a few TV cables. Times have changed. Electrical and security system contractors routinely install low voltage communication network cables for a wide range of intelligent home or 'smart home' systems. Services and equipment that utilise these networks include: security; home theatre and entertainment; telephones, door-phones and intercoms; PC and internet networks; surveillance cameras; driveway vehicle sensors; communicating thermostats; motorized window blinds and curtains; entry systems; and irrigation systems. Smart homes 'Smart home' is an alternative term for an intelligent residential building, or an intelligent home. A few years ago these concepts weer considered futuristic and fanciful. Now they are reality. These terms are now commonly used to define a residence that uses a control system to integrate the residence's various automation systems. Integrating the home systems allows them to communicate with one another through the control system, thereby enabling single button and voice control of the various home systems simultaneously, in pre-programmed scenarios or operating modes. The development of smart home systems focus on how the home and its related technologies, products, and services should evolve to best meet the opportunities and challenges of the future. The possibilities and permutations are endless. Here are some examples: Smart home example scenario 1 A scenario such as 'I'm Home' could be triggered by pressing one button on a key-ring remote-control from your vehicle as you approach the driveway. The control system receives the key-ring remote-control's command. This will then trigger a pre-programmed sequence of functions. For example starting by turning on the lighting in the driveway, garage, hallway, and kitchen. It then disarms the security system, opens the garage door, unlocks the interior garage entry door, adjusts the heating to a preset temperature, and turns on the whole-house audio system playing your favourite cd, whilst drawing you a bath. The control system is programmed to meet specific user requirements, initiating sequential automatic operation of the home systems, in response to 'one button' commands based on the situation and or time. Smart home example scenario 2 At 7:30am and you awake to the sound of your favourite cd playing in the background; the lights in your bedroom switch on; 'fading up' to allow you to wake up in your own time. The downstairs intruder alarm system is de-activated. In the kitchen the coffee machine turns on to make a drink. The ground floor curtains and blinds open; the towel heater in the bathroom warms the towels. And you haven't even got up yet.