1、关系代词(that, who, whom, whose, which)Suo代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并Zai句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。 Li1. Is he the man who/that wants to see you?(who / thatZai从句中作主语,指人) 例2. He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.(whom / thatZai从句中作宾语,指人) 例3. They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down.(whoseZai句中作定语,指人) 例4. Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. (whoseZai句中作定语,指物。若指物,它还可以同of whichHu换)例5. The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. Ni拿的包快散了。(which / thatZai句中作carry的宾语,指物) 2、Guan系副词(when, where, why, that)Ke代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在Cong句中作状语。关系副词when, where, whyDe含义相当于 例6. Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. Li7. Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? Li8. His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born.Li9. He can’t find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. Er、判断用关系代词和关系副词 方Fa1:用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取Jue于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾Yu,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则Yao求用关系副词。请改错: 1. This is the mountain village where I visited last year. 2. I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. Xi惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词where, whenLian系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。句1和句2Dewhere, when都应改为which.。 Fang法2:准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、Wei、宾、定、状),根据第一点(区别),也能Zheng确选择出关系代词/关系副词。 Li10.This museum is ___ you visited a few days age? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one Li11. This is the museum ____ the exhibition was held. A. where B. that C. on which D. the one (Da案:例 1 D,例 2 A) Zai例10中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on whichDu不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做Liao主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关Xi代词,所以应选D。 而例11中, Zhu、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表Di点,既可用副词where,又因in the museumCi组,可用介词in + which 引Dao地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,Suo以选A。 关系词的选择依据在从Ju中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、Ding、宾语时,选择关系代词(who, whom, that, which, whose);Xian行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副Ci( where 地点状语,when 时 Jian状语,why 原因状语)。 方Fa3:当先行词是all, everything, anything, nothing,the one, much, few, any, littleDeng,或先行词是形容词最高级时,或在there be Ju型中,或当先行行词既有人又有物时,关系代词Yongthat, 而不用which。 Li12. Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. Li13. The soldiers and their guns that we sent to the front were lost. Fang法4:在引导非限定性定语从句时,和Zai介词后不能用that,应用which。 Li14.(错)The tree, that (Gai为which)is four hundred years old, is very famous here. Li15.We depend on the land from which we get our food.
这些词代替指人,whom在定语从句Zhong指人, (1)Is he the man who/that wants to see you? Ta是那个想见你的男人吗?(who/thatZai从句中作主语) (2)He is the man (whom/that) I saw yesterday. Ta就是我昨天见到的那个人。(whom/thatZai从句中作宾语) (3)The man whom you spoke to just now is our English teacher. Gang刚和你说话的那个男人是我们的英语老师。(whomZai从句中作宾语)注:who在定语从句中Zhi人,作主语和宾语,作宾语时可省略;做及物动词Huo介词的宾语,可省略。 2,which,that Yong来指物(有六种情况只可用that而不Yongwhich) (用作主语、宾语,作Bin语时可以省略),例如: (1)The prosperity which/that had never appeared before took on in the countryside.Nong村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which/thatZai从句中作主语) (2)The package (which/that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped.Ni拿那个包裹快要散开了。(which/thatZai从句中作宾语)注:which在定语从句中指物,Ke作主语或及物动词或介词的宾语,作宾语时可Sheng略;that在定语从句中既可指人又可Zhi物,在定语从句中作主语、宾语 He表语,作宾语时可省略,指人时,相当于whoHuowhom,指物时,相当于which,作Jie词宾语时,介词不可提到that前,当介词提Qian时,需要用which或whom 来代Ti。 2、whose (只用作定语) “whose”Biao示谁(可以为人也可以为物)的(东西) Li:A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan.Shuang亲都死了的孩子叫做孤儿。(“whose parents”Biao示那个孩子的双亲) He lives in a room whose window faces south.Ta住的那个房子的窗户是朝南的。(“whose”Biao示那个房子的窗户) 关系代词:在Ju中作主语、宾语或定语。 1. thatJi可代表事物也可代表人,“which”代表Shi物;它们在从句中作 主语或宾语,作宾Yu可省略“that”在从句中作宾语时常可省Lue关系词,“which”在从句省略。[eg:This is the book (which)you want.] 2.Ru果which在从句中作“不及物动词+Jie词”的介词的宾语,注意介词不要丢掉,Er且介词总是放在关系代词which的前Mian,但有的则放在它前面的位置。 3. Dai表物时的that常被省略; c)Bei形容词最高级修饰时;既有人又有物时; e)Zheng个句中前面已有“which”,“why”行 Guan系副词:在句中作状语 关系副Ci=介词+关系代词 why=for which where=in/ at/ on which(Jie词同先行词搭配) when=during/ on/ in/…… 1. “where”Shi关系副词,当然也不用“that”引导。 By the time when you arrived in London, we had stayed there for two weeks. Dang你到达伦敦的时候,我们在那里已经待了Liang个星期。 I still remember the place where I met her for the first time. Wo 仍然记得我第一次见到她的地Fang。 Each time when he goes to business trip, he brings a lot of living necessities, such as towels, soap, toothbrush etc. Ta每次出差都带着生活必需品,如毛巾,Fei皂,牙刷等其他东西。 2. Dang从句的逻辑主语是some, any, no, somebody, anybody, nobody, something, anything, everythingHuonothing时,常用“there is”Kai头。 There is somebody here who wants to talk to you. Zhe里有人要和你说话。 分作进一步说Ming,通常是引导词和先https://zuciwang.com/zhuanti/梦想名句.html行词之间用逗号隔开,Jiang从句拿掉后其他部分仍可成立。 Guan系副词 1、why 关系Fu词why主要用于修饰表原因的名词(主要是the reason),Tong时它在定语从句中用作原因状语。如: We don’t know the reason why he didn’t show up. Wo们不知道他为什么没有来。 She didn’t tell me the reason why she refused the offer. Ta没跟我讲她拒绝这项工作的原因。 Yu关系副词when和where不同,why可以Huan成that或省略。如: That’s one of the reasons (why, that) I asked you to come. Zhe就是我请你来的原因之一。 另外,与关系Fu词when和where可以引导非限制性定语从Ju不一样,why 只能引导限制性定语Cong句,不能引导非限制性定语从句。如: Ta失去工作的主要原因是他喝酒。 误:The main reason, why he lost his job, was that he drank. Zheng:The main reason why he lost his job was that he drank.(Tong位语从句) 2、when Guan系副词when主要用于修饰表时间的名词,同Shi它在定语从句中用作时间状语。如: There comes a time when you have to make a choice. Ni必须作出抉择的时候到了。 Gone are the days when they could do what they liked. Ta们为所欲为的日子一去不复返了。 We’ll put off the picnic until next week, when the weather may be better. Wo们将把野餐推迟到下星期,那时天气可能会好Yi点。 注意不要一见到先行词为时间名词,Jiu以为一定要用关系副词when来引导定语从句,Tong时还要看它在定语从句中充当什么成分——Ru果在定语从句中用作时间状语,就用when;Ru果在定语从句中不是用作时间状语,而是用作主Yu或宾语,那就不能用when,而要用that, whichDeng。如: Don’t forget the time (that, which) I’ve told you. Bu要忘记我告诉你的时间。 关系代词that / whichZai定语从句中用作动词told的宾语,正因为是Yong作宾语,所以也可以省略。 3、where Guan系副词where主要用于修饰表地点De名词,同时它在定语从句中用作地点状语。如: This is the village where he was born. Zhe就是他出生的村子。 That’s the hotel where we were staying last summer. Zhe就是我们去年夏天住的旅馆。 Barbary was working in Aubury, where she went daily in a bus.Ba巴拉在奥伯里工作,每天得坐公共汽车去上班。 Yu前面when的情况一样,注意不要一Jian到先行词为地点名词,就以为一定要用关系副词whereLai引导定语从句,同时还要看它在定语从句中Chong当什么成分——如果在定语从句中用作地点状语,Jiu用where;如果在定语从句中不是用作地点Zhuang语,而是用作主语或宾语,那就不能用where,Er要用that, which等。如: He works in a factory that [which] makes TV sets. Ta在一家电视机厂工作。
1. 指人:who, whom, that Is he the man who/that wants to see you? (who/thatZai句中作主语，不能 省略。) He is the man (whom/that) I saw yesterday.(whom/thatZai从句中作宾 语，可以省略。) 2. Zhi物:which, that The bank which/that was opened last week is a modern one.(which/thatZai句中作主语，不能省略。) The briefcase (which/that) you are carrying is heavy. (which/thatZai从句 中作宾语，可以省略。) 3. Suo有格:whose (指物时可以同of whichHu换,指人和of whom 互换) They rushed over to help the man whose car (the car of whom)had broken down. Please pass me the book whose cover(of which the cover/the cover of which) is green. Zhu:根据句子意思和结构需要，必须使用适当的介词. Jie词后关系词 不能省;介词后不能Yongthat: Do you know the boy (whom/that) I talked to just now? =Do you know the boy to whom I talked just now? The palace to which I often pay a visit was built in the 17th century. Yesterday I bought a pen with which I can write my composition. Guan系副词:when, where, why (Xiang当于“介词，which”结构) 1. when Zai从句中作时间状语 I still remembered the day (that/which) we first met on. (Zheng) I still remembered the day on that we first met. (Wu) I still remembered the day on which/ when we met. (Zheng) 比较:I still remember the day (that/which) we spent together. 2. whereZai定语从句中作地点状语 Shanghai is the place where /in which I was born. Shanghai is the place (which/that) I was born in. Bi较:Shanghai is the place (which/that) I visited last year. 3. WhyZai定语从句中作原因状语 Is this the reason why /for which he refused our offer? Bi较: This is the reason (that/which) I gave to my teacher. Suo以:判断使用关系代词或关系副词不能光看Xian行词是否是表示时间, 地点,原因的名Ci，必须分析从句谓语动词与先行词的逻辑关系。Ru 果关系词在从句中作状语则分别用when,whereHuowhy 等关系副词; 如作主语或宾Yu，则仍用关系代词which或that。