十九大报告相关内容 习近平指Chu,大会的主题是: 不忘初心,牢记使命,Gao举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,决胜全Mian建成小康社会,夺取新时代中国特色社Hui主义伟大胜利,为实现中华民族伟大复兴De中国梦不懈奋斗。 Remain true to our original aspiration and keep our mission firmly in mind, hold high the banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, secure a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, strive for the great success of socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, and work tirelessly to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. Bao告提出了四个重要概念,一起学习! ❶ Zhong国特色社会主义进入了新时代 ▌经过长Qi努力,中国特色社会主义进入了新时代,这是Wo国发展新的历史方位。With decades of hard work, socialism with Chinese characteristics has crossed the threshold into a new era. This is a new historic juncture in China's development. ★ ✩Zhe个新时代,是承前启后、继往开来、在新的历Shi条件下继续夺取中国特 色社会主义Wei大胜利的时代, This new era will be an era of building on past successes to further advance our cause, and of continuing in a new historical context to strive for the success of socialism with Chinese characteristics. ✩Shi决胜全面建成小康社会、进而全面建设社会主Yi现代化强国的时代, It will be an era of securing a decisive victory in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and of moving on to all-out efforts to build a great modern socialist country. ✩Shi全国各族人民团结奋斗、不断创造美好Sheng活、逐步实现全体人民共同富 裕De时代, It will be an era for the Chinese people of all ethnic groups to work together and work hard to create a better life for themselves and ultimately achieve common prosperity for everyone. ✩Shi全体中华儿女勠力同心、奋力实现中华民族伟大Fu兴中国梦的时代, It will be an era for all of us, the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, to strive with one heart to realize the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. ✩Shi我国日益走近世界舞台中央、不断为人类作Chu更大贡献的时代。 It will be an era that sees China moving closer to center stage and making greater contributions to mankind. ❷ Wo国社会主要矛盾已经转化 ▌中国特色社Hui主义进入新时代,我国社会主要矛盾已经转化为人Min日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发Zhan之间的矛盾。 As socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era, the principal contradiction facing Chinese society has evolved. What we now face is the contradiction between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people's ever-growing needs for a better life. ★ Bi须认识到,我国社会主要矛盾的变化是关Xi全局的历史性变化,对党和国家工作提出了许多新Yao求。 We must recognize that the evolution of the principal contradiction facing Chinese society represents a historic shift that affects the whole landscape and that creates many new demands for the work of the Party and the country. Bi须认识到,我国社会主要矛盾的变化,没有改变我Men对我国社会主义所处历史阶段的判断,我Guo仍处于并将长期处于社会主义初级阶段的Ji本国情没有变,我国是世界最大发展中国Jia的国际地位没有变。 We must recognize that the evolution of the principal contradiction facing Chinese society does not change our assessment of the present stage of socialism in China. The basic dimension of the Chinese context — that our country is still and will long remain in the primary stage of socialism — has not changed. China's international status as the world's largest developing country has not changed. ❸ Xin时代中国特色社会主义思想 ▌Xin时代中国特色社会主义思想明确了以https://www.wenku1.net/list/运用正侧结合的方法写人/下几点内Rong: The Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era makes certain things clear: ✩Xin时代中国特色社会主义思想明确坚持和发Zhan中国特色社会主义,总任务是实现社会主义现代Hua和中华民族伟大复兴,在全面建成小康社会的Ji础上,分两步走在本世纪中叶建成富强民主文明和Xie美丽的社会主义现代化强国; It makes clear that the overarching goal of upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics is to realize socialist modernization and national rejuvenation, and, on the basis of finishing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, a two-step approach should be taken to build China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful by the middle of the century. ✩Ming确新时代我国社会主要矛盾是人民日益增长的美Hao生活需要和不平衡 不充分的发展之Jian的矛盾,必须坚持以人民为中心的发展思Xiang,不断促进人的全面发展、全体人民共同富Yu; It makes clear that the principal contradiction facing Chinese society in the new era is that between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people's ever-growing needs for a better life. We must therefore continue commitment to our people-centered philosophy of development, and work to promote well-rounded human development and common prosperity for everyone. ✩Ming确中国特色社会主义事业总体布局是“五位Yi体”、战略布局是“四个全面”,强调Jian定道路自信、理论自信、制度自信、文化自信; It makes clear that the overall plan for building socialism with Chinese characteristics is the five-sphere integrated plan, and the overall strategy is the four-pronged comprehensive strategy. It highlights the importance of fostering stronger confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics. ✩Ming确全面深化改革总目标是完善和发展中国特色She会主义制度、推进国家治理体系和治理能力现Dai化; It makes clear that the overall goal of deepening reform in every field is to improve and develop the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics and modernize China's system and capacity for governance. ✩Ming确全面推进依法治国总目标是建设中国特色社Hui主义法治体系、建设社会主义法治国家; It makes clear that the overall goal of comprehensively advancing law-based governance is to establish a system of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics and build a country of socialist rule of law. ✩Ming确党在新时代的强军目标是建设一支听党指挥、Neng打胜仗、作风优良的 人民军队,Ba人民军队建设成为世界一流军队; It makes clear that the Party's goal of building a strong military in the new era is to build the people's forces into world-class forces that obey the Party's command, can fight and win, and maintain excellent conduct. ✩Ming确中国特色大国外交要推动构建新型国际关Xi,推动构建人类命运共同体; It makes clear that major country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics aims to foster a new type of international relations and build a community with a shared future for mankind. ✩Ming确中国特色社会主义最本质的特征是中Guo共产党领导,中国特色社会主 义制度的最Da优势是中国共产党领导,党是最高政治领导Li量,提出新时代 党的建设总要求,突出Zheng治建设在党的建设中的重要地位。 It makes clear that the defining feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the Communist Party of China; the greatest strength of the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the leadership of the Communist Party of China; the Party is the highest force for political leadership. The Thought sets forth the general requirements for Party building in the new era and underlines the importance of political work in Party building. ★ Xin时代中国特色社会主义思想,是对马克思Lie宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三Ge代表”重要思想、科学发展观的继承和发展, The Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era builds on and further enriches Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development. Shi马克思主义中国化最新成果,是党和人民实践Jing验和集体智慧的结晶, It represents the latest achievement in adapting Marxism to the Chinese context, and encapsulates the practical experience and collective wisdom of our Party and the people. Shi中国特色社会主义理论体系的重要组成部分,Shi全党全国人民为实现中华民族伟大复兴而奋斗的行Dong指南,必须长期坚持并不断发展。 It is an important component of the system of theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and a guide to action for all our members and all the Chinese people as we strive to achieve national rejuvenation. This Thought must be adhered to and steadily developed on a long-term basis. ❹ She会主义现代化强国 ▌综合分析国Ji国内形势和我国发展条件,从二〇二〇年到Ben世纪中叶可以分两个阶段来安排。 Based on a comprehensive analysis of the international and domestic environments and the conditions for China's development, we have drawn up a two-stage development plan for the period from 2020 to the middle of this century. ✩Di一个阶段,从二〇二〇年到二〇三五年,在全Mian建成小康社会的基础上,再奋斗十五年,Ji本实现社会主义现代化。 In the first stage from 2020 to 2035, we will build on the foundation created by the moderately prosperous society with a further 15 years of hard work to see that socialist modernization is basically realized. ✩Di二个阶段,从二〇三五年到本世纪中叶,Zai基本实现现代化的基础上,再奋斗十五年,Ba我国建成富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代Hua强国。In the second stage from 2035 to the middle of the 21st century, we will, building on having basically achieved modernization, work hard for a further 15 years and develop China into a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious, and beautiful. https://www.wenku1.net/list/中考试题探究试题荟萃化学/Jin句总结 1、不忘初心,方得始终。 Never forget why you started, and you can accomplish your mission. Zhong国共产党人的初心和使命,就是为中国人Min谋幸福,为中华民族谋复兴。The original aspiration and the mission of Chinese Communists is to seek happiness for the Chinese people and rejuvenation for the Chinese nation. Zhe个初心和使命是激励中国共产党人不断前进的根本Dong力。 This founding aspiration, this mission, is what inspires Chinese Communists to advance. 2、Xing百里者半九十。中华民族伟大复兴,绝不是轻轻Song松、敲锣打鼓就能实现的。 As the Chinese saying goes, the last leg of a journey just marks the halfway point. Achieving national rejuvenation will be no walk in the park; it will take more than drum beating and gong clanging to get there. Every one of us in the Party must be prepared to work even harder toward this goal. 3、Shi界上没有完全相同的政治制度模式,政治制Du不能脱离特定社会政治条件和历史文化传统Lai抽象评判,不能定于一尊,不能生搬硬套外国政Zhi制度模式。No two political systems are entirely the same, and a political system cannot be judged in abstraction without regard for its social and political context, its history, and its cultural traditions. No one political system should be regarded as the only choice; and we should not just mechanically copy the political systems of other countries. 4、Jue不允许以言代法、以权压法、逐利违法、徇私Wang法。 No one in a position of power is allowed in any way to override the law with his own orders, place his authority above the law, violate the law for personal gain, or abuse the law. 5、Ren民有信仰,国家有力量,民族有希望。 When a people have ideals, their country will have strength, and their nation will have a bright future. 6、Jian持房子是用来住的、不是用来炒的定位。 We must not forget that housing is for living in, not for speculation. 7、Qing年兴则国家兴,青年强则国家强。青年一代有Li想、有本领、有担当,国家就有前途,民族就有希Wang。 A nation will prosper only when its young people thrive; a country will be full of hope and have a great tomorrow only when its younger generations have ideals, ability, and a strong sense of responsibility. 8、Qiang化不敢腐的震慑,扎牢不能腐的笼子,增Qiang不想腐的自觉,通过不懈努力换来海晏河清、朗朗Qian坤。 We will strengthen deterrence so officials daren't be corrupt, strengthen the cage of institutions so they're unable to be corrupt, and strengthen their vigilance so that they have no desire to commit corruption. Our political environment will, through tireless efforts, like seas fallen calm and rivers running clear, be clean and free of corruption. 9、Ren民群众反对什么、痛恨什么,我们就要坚Jue防范和纠正什么。 We must guard against and correct with resolve the practices the people oppose and resent. 10、Wo们绝不允许任何人、任何组织、任何政党、Zai任何时候、以任何形式、把任何一块中国Ling土从中国分裂出去! We will never allow anyone, any organization, or any political party, at any time or in any form, to separate any part of Chinese territory from China. Yi下是本次大会的金句: ①新时代Zhong国特色社会主义 Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. ②Bu忘初心,方得始终 Never forget why you started, and your mission can be accomplished. ③Deng高望远,居安思危 Aim high and look far, be alert to dangers even in times of calm. ④Quan面从严治党 Seeing Party self-governance exercised fully and with rigor. ⑤Jian持反腐败无禁区、全覆盖、零容忍 No place has been out of bounds, no ground left unturned, and no tolerance shown in the fight against corruption. ⑥Jian定不移“打虎”“拍蝇”“猎狐” We have taken firm action to “take out tigers”, “swat flies” and “hunt down foxes”. ⑦Bu想腐的堤坝正在构筑 Moral defenses against corruption are in the making. ⑧Xing百里者半九十 The last leg of a journey marks the halfway point. ⑨Da道之行,天下为公 We should pursue a just cause for common good. ⑩Da铁还需自身硬 It takes a good blacksmith to make steel. ⑪Yu时俱进 keep up with the times
根据地点的不同,我认为这本书的内容Ke以分为3部分。 第一部分,当简爱在盖茨Hei德府上。由于简爱是一个孤儿,她在那Li过的并不开心,表兄妹和舅妈并不喜欢Jian爱,而且约翰里德经常欺负简爱。一次,Yue翰训斥简爱没有资格看他妈妈的书,简爱Bao发了她所有的不满,说约翰施个坏孩子,由此简爱Bei关进了红房子,然后简爱就生病了。在劳埃德医Sheng的帮助下,简爱逃离了盖茨黑德府,前往洛伍De上学。 第二部分,在洛伍德,简Ai交了很好的朋友海伦和坦普尔小姐,但最后海Lun病死了,坦普尔小姐也嫁给了一个牧师。最Zhong,洛伍德再也不是原来的洛伍德,简爱Jue定在报纸上登广告。 第三部分,作为Yi名家庭教师,简爱来到了桑菲尔德庄园,这部Fen也是本书的重点。在这里,详细描述了Jian爱和男主罗切斯特的相识,相知,相爱。Luo切斯特被简爱眼睛,微笑所吸引。他们互相喜欢。Dan是,在简爱的婚礼上,她知道了罗切斯特是有妻Zi的,所以她离开了。流浪的简爱巧遇来了Ta的家人并收到一份巨额遗产,而罗切斯特却Yin为他发疯妻子放的一场火失明了,而且还Shi去了左臂。故事的结尾,简爱回到了桑菲尔德庄Yuan,找到了罗切斯特,他们都得到了幸福。 According to the different place, I think the content of this book can be divided into 3 parts. The first part happened in the Gateshead Hall . Because Jane is an orphan, she doesn’t lead a happy life . Her aunt and her cousins all don’t like her . Once, John scolded Jane because she saw his mother's book, all the unhappiness and loneliness of Jane’life at Gateshead Hall came out ,she fighted her cousion and said John is a wicked boy. And Jane was locked up in a room, then Jane was ill . With the help of Dr Lloyd ,Jane fleed the Gateshead Hall and she went to the Lowood. The second part happened in the Lowood. Jane maked some good friends Helen and Miss Temple in here ,but Helen died in the last anMiss Temple. married a clergyman.Lowood would never be the same again ,so , Jane decided to leave .And she put an advertisement in a newspaper . The thirdpart happened in the Thornifield Hall . This part is also the most important .Here ,Jane and Rochester met ,knew and loved each other .However ,at the Jane’ wedding ,she knew the truth Rochester has already a wife and she is creay .And Jane left .Jane met her families and received a big amount legacy. Because Rochester mad wife put a fire ,he is blind and also lost his left arm. The end of the story, Jane was back to Thornifield Hall and she found in Rochester. At last they all got the happiness.
张彤禾 HI,So I'd like to talk little bit about the people Zuo,今天我想来探讨一下 Who make the things we use every day; Zhe些为我们制造日常用品的人们: Our shoes,our handbags,our computers and cell phones, Li如我们的鞋子,手提包,电脑,还有手Ji。 Now, this is a conversatuon that often calls up a lot of guilt. Zhe个话题时常让我们觉得很内疚。 Imagine the teenage farm girl who makes less than Xiang象一下,一个年轻的农村女孩给你缝制跑步鞋 a dollar an hour stitching your running shoes, Ke每个小时还赚不到一美金, Or the young Chinese man who jumps off a rooftop You或者是那个加班为你组装ipad的中国小伙Zi after working overtime assembling your ipad Zai加班之后从楼上跳了下来。 We,the beneficiaries of globalization,seem to exploit Wo们,是全球化的受益者, These victims with every purchase we make, Ke每笔交易却似乎都是在剥削那些受害者, and the injustice Er这种不公平 Feels embedded in the products themselves. Si乎也深深烙印在这些产品之中。 After all, what’s wrong with the world in which a worker Zong而言之,这个世界到底怎么了? On an iphone assembly line can’t even afford to buy one? Yi个在组装iphone 生产线上的员工Que买不起一台iphone? It's taken for granted that chinese factories are oppressive, Ren们理所当然地认为,中国的工厂就是应该被压榨De, And that it’s our desire for cheap goods Yin为我们渴求便宜的产品 That makes them so。 Zao成了这样的局面。 So,this simple narrative equating Weatern demand Hen显然,西方社会的需求 And Chinese suffering is appealing, He中国人对他们遭遇的申诉被连接在一起, especially at a time when many of us already feel guilty You其是当我们中的很多人已经因为我们对世界影Xiang About our impact on the world, Er感到了内疚, But it's also inaccurate and disrespectful. Ran而,这是不正确的,也是不尊重他人的。 We must be peculiarly self-obsessed to imagine that we Wo们极其自恋地去想象着 Have the power to drive tens of millions of people Wo们有力量去操控地球另一边 On the other side of the world to migrate and suffer. Qian万的人民,让他们以如此可怕的方式 In such terrible ways. Qu遭受痛苦或者迁移。 In fact, China makes goods for markets all over the world, Shi实上,中国制造的产品遍布全球, Including its own, thanks to a combination of factors: Ye包括他们自己的市场,这要归结于许多因素De综合: Its low costs,its large and educated workforce, Di成本,大量受过教https://www.wenku1.net/list/膝关节松解效果/育的劳动力, And a flexible manufacturing system Huan有有弹性的工作制度 That responds quickly to market demands. Zhe些都快速地迎合了市场的需求。 By focusing so much on ourselves and our gadgets, Wo们因为太专注于我们自身和产品上, We have rendered the individuals on the other end Suo以忽视了产业链另一端的个体的存在 Into invisibility, as tiny and interchangeable Jiang他们看成是可以随时被替换的,微小的 as the parts of a mobile phone. Xiang手机零件那样。 Chinese workers are not forced into factories Zhong国工人并不是因为我们对于ipods 的无限Ke求Because of our insatiable desire for ipods. Er被迫进入工厂的。 They choose to leave their homes in order to earn money, Ta们选择背井离乡,是为了赚钱, to learn new skills.and to see the world. Wei了学习新的技能,以为为了看看这个世界。 In the ongoing debate about globalization, what’s Zai全球化发展趋势的辩论中 been missing is the voices of the workers themselves. Wo们缺失的,是聆听工人们自己的声音。 Here are a few. Yi下就是一些例子。 Baoyongxiu:”My mother tells me to come home Bao永秀(音译)说:“我妈妈让我回家结婚 and get married,but if i marry now,before i have fully Dan是如果我还没有让自己的得到充分的发展developed myself, i can only marry an ordinary worker, Jiu结婚,我只能嫁给一个平凡的工人, So i’m not in a rush” Suo以我根本不着急。” Chen Ying: “When I went home for the new year, Chen颖(音译)说:“我过年回家的时候 everyone said I had changed.They asked me, Mei个人都说我变了,他们问我: What did you do that you have changed so much? Ni怎么会有这么大的改变? I told them that studied and worked hard.If you tell them Wo告诉他们,我很努力地学习和工作, more,they won’t understand anyway.” Ji便你想给他们讲更多,他们反正也不能理解。” Wu Chunming:”Even if i make a lot of money, Wu春明(音译):“即使我赚了很多钱 It won’t satisfy me. Ye无法满足我自己。 Just to make money is not enough meaning in life.” Zhuan钱并不是生活全部的意义。” XiaoJin:”Now, after i get off work, i study English, Xiao金(音译)说:“现在我下班以后,就会去Xue英语Because in the future,our customers won't Yin为在不久的将来,我们的客户将不仅仅是中国人, be only Chinese,so we must learn more languages.” Suo以,我们需要学习更多的语言。” All of these speakers,by the way, are young women, Yi上的话,都是出自一些年轻女孩的口, 18 or 19 years old. Ta们仅仅18、19岁。 So I spent two years getting to know assembly line workers Yin此,我花了两年的时间去了解流水工作线上的Gong人们Like these in the south China factory city called Dongguan. Li如在中国南部的一个工业城市——东莞。 Certain subjects came up over and over: You一些主要的问题不断的重复着: How much money they made, Ta们到底赚了多少钱, what kind of husband they hoped to marry, Ta们想要嫁给怎样的人, Whether they should jump to another factory Ta们是否想要跳槽 Or stay where they were. Huan是留在一个工厂内。 Other subjects came up almost never, including Ling一些话题,则几乎不被提起 living conditions that to me looked close to prison life; Li如:在我眼中如牢狱般的生活条件 10 or 15 workers in one room, 10-15Ge工人住在一个房间里, 50 people sharing a single bathroom, 50Ge人公用一个厕所, days and nights ruled by the factory clock. Ri以继夜地按照工厂的要求来作息。 Everyone they knew lived in similar circumstances, Ta们每一个人都知道,即便是住在如此的环境里面And it was still better than the dormitories and homes Ye会比他们在中国农村的老家的条件 of rural China。 Hao得多 They workers rarely spoke about the products they made, Gong人们很少谈论他们制造的产品, And they often had great difficulty explaining Ta们往往很难解释清楚 What exactly they did. Ta们到底做了什么。 When I asked Lu Qingmin, Wo访问了吕清明(音译) The young woman I got to know best, Zhe个年轻的女孩是我最了解的, what exactly she did on the factory floor, Wo问她她在工厂里到底从事什么工作 She said something to me in Chinese that sounded like Ta用中文告诉我,听起来像是 “qiu xi” “Qiu西”。 Only much later did I realize that she had been saying Hen久以后,我才知道她说的是 “QC,” or quality control. “QC”,Ye就是质量监控。 She couldn’t even tell me what she did on the factory floor. Ta竟然都不能告诉我她在工厂里做的是什么。 All she could do was parrot a garbled abbreviation Ta能做的就只是模仿一个英文缩写的发音 In a language she didn’t even understand. Er这个语言是她根本就不懂的。 Karl Marx saw this as the tragedy of capitalism, Ma克思认为这就是资本主义的悲哀 the alienation of the worker from the product of his labor. Shu远了工人与他们所制造的产品。 Unlike,say, a traditional maker of shoes or cabinets, Yu传统的鞋匠或者木匠不同, The worker in an industrial factory has no control, Gong人在工厂没有控制权, No pleasure,and no true satisfaction or understanding Zai她所做的工作中,没有快乐, In her own work. Mei有真正的满足或理解。 But like so many theories that Marx arrived at Dan同许多马克思 Sitting in the reading room of the British Museum, Zuo在英国图书馆的阅读室里想出来理论一样, He got this one wrong. Zhe一点,他错了。 Just because a person spends her time Jin仅因为一个人用她的时间 Making a piece of something does not mean Qu制造一件物品,并不代表 that she becomes that,a piece of something. Ta就变成了这件物品 What she does with the money she earns, Ta用她赚的钱去做了什么 What she learns in that place,and how it changes her, Ta在那个地方学到了什么技能,以及她如何Bei改变These are the things that matter. Zhe些才是最重要的。 What a factory makes is never the point,and Yi个工厂制造什么并非重点, The workers could not care less who buys their products. Gong人们也不在乎谁买了他们制造的产品。Journalistic coverage of Chinese factories, Ji着报道了关于中国工厂的新闻 on the other hand,plays up this relationship Ling一方面,也强调了 Between the workers and the products they make. Gong人与产品之前的联系。 Many articles calculate:How long would it take Hen多文章都在计算: For this worker to work in order to earn enough money Zhe些工人要工作多久,赚来的钱 To buy what he’s making? Cai够买一件他们制作的产品? For example,an entry-level-line assembly line worker Ju个例子,一个初级组装生产线的工人 In china in an iphone plant would have to shell out Zai中国组装iphone配件 Two and a half months wages for an iphone. Yao倾其2个半月的工资才能买一台iphone。 But how meaningful is this calculation, really? Dan说真的,这些计算有任何意义吗? For example,I recently wrote an article Zai举个例子,我最近写了一篇文章 In the New Yorker magazine. Deng在纽约客杂志上, But I can’t afford to buy an ad in it. Dan是也供不起我在杂志上登一个广告。 But,who cares?I don’t want an ad in the New Yorker, Dan是,谁在乎?我不需要在纽约客上登广告 And most of these workers don’t really want iphones. Qi实,大部分的工人,也不是真的需要iphones。Their calculations are different. Ta们的计算方式是不同的。 How long should i stay in this factory? Wo在工厂要待多久? How much money can i save? Wo能存多少钱? How much will it take to buy an apartment or a car, Wo需要多少钱才能买个房子,买辆车, To get married,or to put my child through school? Cai能结婚,或者足以送我的小孩去学校? The workers I got to know had a curiously abstract Zhe些我试图去了解的工人们 Relationship with the product of their labor. Dui他们和产品之间的联系有着很抽象的解读。About a year after I met Lu Qingmin, or Min, Da概在我遇到陆青敏,也就是小敏的一年后 She invited me home to her family village Ta邀请我去她农村的家做客 For the Chinese New Year。 Guo春节。 On the train home,she gave me a present; Zai回家的火车上,她给了我一个礼物; A Coach brand change purse with brown leather trim. Yi个棕色皮质的Coach牌零钱包。 I thanked her,assuming it was fake, Wo谢了她,虽然我很自然地认为这应该是个山寨De产品, Like almost everything else for sale in Dongguan. Jiu好像东莞在出售的大部分产品一样。 After we got home,Min gave her mother another present; Hui家以后,小敏给了她妈妈另一个礼物: A pink Dooney&Bourke handbag, Yi个Dooney&BourkePai的粉色手提包, And a few nights later, her sister was showing off Ji天以后,她的姐姐正在展示 A maroon LeSportsac shoulder bag Yi个红褐色的LeSportsac 单肩Bao。 Slowly it was dawning on me that these handbags Man慢地,我好像明白了 Were made by their factory, Zhe些东西都是她们工厂生产的 And every single one of them authentic. Mei一件东西,都是正品 Min’s sister said to her parents, Xiao敏的姐姐告诉她父母 “In American,this bag sells for 320 dollars.” “Zai美国,这个包要卖320美金。” Her parents, who are both farmers,looked on,speechless. Ta的的农民父母看了看,无言以对。 “And that’s not all--Coach is coming out with a new line, Huan有,Coach 正在推出一系列新产品2191 2191,”she said,“One bag sell for 6000.” Ta说:“这个好像要卖6000.” She paused and said,”I don’t know if that’s 6000 yuan or Ta停顿了一下:“我不知道是6000元人Min币,还是 6000 American dollars,but anyway, it’s 6000.” 6000Mei元,无论如何都是6000啦。” Min’s sister’s boyfriend,who have traveled home with her Xiao敏姐姐的男友也回到家 For the new year, said, Yu她一起过年, “It doesn’t look like it’s worth that much.” Ta说:“看起来不值这么多钱。” Min’s sister turned to him and said,”some people actually Xiao敏的姐姐对他说:“有的人 Understand these things. You don’t understand shit.” Jiu是懂这些东西,你懂啥。” In Min’s world, the Coach bags had a curious currency. Zai小敏的世界里,Coach包https://www.wenku1.net/list/电脑记事本游戏/包有一个很奇怪的Jia值。They weren’t exactly worthless, but they were nothing Ta们虽然不是一文不值,但是相比起它们De实际价值 Lose to the actual value,because almost no one they knew Huan是相差甚远,因为他们所结识的人里面 Wanted to buy one, or knew how much it was worth. Ji乎没有人想要买,也没有人知道这值多少Qian。 Once,when Min’s older sister’s friend got married, You一次,小敏大姐的一个朋友结婚 She brought a handbag along as a wedding present. Ta带着一个手提包作为给新人的礼物。 Another time, after Min had already left You一次,小敏已经离开手提包的工厂了 The handbag factory, her younger sister came to visit, Dan她的小妹妹来看她的时候 Bringing two Coach Signature handbags as gifts. Dai了两个经典款Coach作为礼物。 and I found a printed card in English,which read, Kan到一张卡片写着一些英文: “An American classic. “Mei国经典。 In 1941,the burnished patina 1941Nian那些表皮磨光的 Of an all-American baseball glove Mei国棒球手套 Inspired the founder of Coach to create Qi发了Coach的创始人 a new collection of handbags from the same Cu使其研发了一个新系列的手提包: Luxuriously soft gloved-hand leather. She华、柔软的表面和手套的皮质一样。 Six skilled leather workers crafted 12 Signature handbags 6Ming技巧纯熟的皮革工人制造12只经典款手提包 With perfect proportions and a timeless flair. Ta们有着精准而快速的手艺。 They were fresh,functional,and women everywhere Zhe些手提包新颖,具有相当的功能性,世界Ge地的女人都喜欢Adored them. A new American classic was born.” Yi个新的美国经典诞生了。” I wonder what Karl Marx would have made of Min Wo想知道马克思是否会被小敏 And her sisters. He她的姐妹所影响。 Their relationship with the product of their labor Ta们与产品之间的关系 Was more complicated surprising and funny Geng复杂、惊奇而且有趣 Than he could have imagined. Zhe都超出他的想象。 And yet, his view of the world persists,and our tendency Dan是,他对这个世界的观点没变,而我们Que将 To see the workers as faceless masses, Zhe些工人们看成是一群上不了台面的群体, To imagine that can know what they’re really thinking. Xiang象一下,假如我们可以了解工人们的真实Xiang法。The first time I met Min,she had just turned 18 Wo第一次见到小敏的时候,她刚满18岁 And quit her first job on the assembly line Ta刚刚辞去在一家电子设备工厂的 Of an electronics factory. Zu装生产线的工作。 Over the next two years,I watched as she switched jobs Jie下来的两年,我看着她换了5次工作, Five times,eventually landing a lucrative post Zui后固定在一个比较赚钱的职位 In the purchasing department of a hardware factory。 Shi在一个硬件工厂的采购部门。 Later,she married a fellow migrant worker, Bu久,她嫁给了一个打工仔, Moved with him to his village, Ran后移居到了他的村子, Gave birth to two daughters, Sheng了两个女儿, And saved enough money to buy a secondhand Buick Ta们存够了钱给她买了一辆二手别克车 For herself and an apartment for her parents。 Gei她的父母买了房子。 She recently returned to Dongguan on her own Zui近她独自回到东莞 to take a job n a factory that makes construction cranes, Zai一个起重机工厂里找了份工作, Temporarily leaving her husband and children Zan时与她村里的丈夫和孩子 Back in the village. Fen局两地。 In a recent email to me,she explained, Zai最近的一封邮件里,她解释: “A person should have some ambition while she id young “Ren们年轻的时候,应该有所抱负 So that in old age she can look back on her life Na么在他们老的时候,回首过去 And fell that it was not lived to no purpose.” Jiu不会觉得这一生都毫无意义。” Across China, there are 150 million workers like her, Zai中国,有1亿5千万像她一样的工人, One third of them women,who have left their villages Qi中三分之一,是离乡背井的女性, To work in the factories, the hotels,the restaurants Ta们在工厂、酒店、餐厅 And the construction sites of the big cities. Huo者是大城市的建筑工地工作。 Together, they make up the largest migration in history, Zhe么算来,是她们创造了历史上一个庞大的Ren口迁移的数字, And it is globalization, this chain that begins Er这个产业链的起点,就是“全球化”的风靡 In a Chinese farming village Cong中国的农村 And end with iphones in our pockets and Nike on our feet Dao最终进入我们口袋里的iphone和脚Shang的耐克 And Coach handbags on our arms Huan有手中的Coach手提包 That has changed the way these millions of people Zhe改变了数百万人的 Work and marry and live and think。 Gong作、婚姻、生活和思想。 Very few of them would want to go back Ta们其中很少有人 To the way things used to be。 Yuan意回到过去的生活。 When I first went to Dongguan, I worried that Wo第一次去东莞的时候,我很担心 It would be depressing to spend so much time with workers。 Dan心与工人相处的时间会很压抑沮丧。 I also worried that nothing would ever happen to them, Wo也担心他们永远不会改变, Or that they would have nothing to say to me。 Huo者他们也没有什么能对我说的。 Instead,I found young women who were smart and funny Ran而,我发现那些年轻的女性都很聪明、风趣 And brave and generous. Er且勇敢、大方。 By opening up their lives to me, Tong过向我展示他们的生活, They taught me so much about factories Ta们教给我很多关于工厂 And about China and about how to live in the world。 Guan于中国,以及如何生存在这个世界的道理。 This is the Coach purse that Min gave me Zhe就是小敏在回家的火车上 On the train home to visit her family。 Song给我的Coach钱包。 I keep it with me to remind me of the ties that tie me Wo一直保存着它,由此提醒着我与这些 To the young women I wrote about, Wo记录过的年轻女生的联系, Ties that are not economic but personal in nature, Zhe些并不是因为经济而是因为个人情感的Lian系, Measured not in money but in memories。 Jia值并不是在于金钱而是记忆。 This purse is also a reminder that the things that you imagine,Zhe个钱包也是一个提醒, Sitting in your office or in the library, Ni坐在办公室或图书馆里时所想象的东西 Are not how you find when you actually go out He你走出去真正接触的东西 Into the world。 Bing不一样。 Thank you。 Xie谢。