Love Your Life and The life I desired However mean your life is, meet it and live it ; do not shun it and call it hard names. It is not so bad as you are. It looks poorest when you are richest. The fault-finder will find faults in paradise. Love your life, poor as it is. You may perhaps have some pleasant, thrilling, glorious hours, even in a poor-house. The setting sun is reflected from the windows of the alms-house as brightly as from the rich man's abode; the snow melts before its door as early in the spring. I do not see but a quiet mind may live as contentedly there, and have as cheering thoughts, as in a palace. The town's poor seem to me often to live the most independent lives of any. May be they are simply great enough to receive without misgiving. Most think that they are above being supported by the town; but it often happens that they are not above supporting themselves by dishonest means. Which should be more disreputable. Cultivate poverty like a garden herb, like sage. Do not trouble yourself much to get new things, whether clothes or friends, Turn the old, return to them. Things do not change; we change. Sell your clothes and keep your thoughts. That must be the story of innumerable couples, and the pattern of life of life it offers has a homely grace. It reminds you of a placid rivulet, meandering smoothly through green pastures and shaded by pleasant trees, till at last it falls into the vast sea; but the sea is so calm, so silent, so indifferent, that you are troubled suddenly by a vague uneasiness. Perhaps it is only by a kink in my nature, strong in me even in those days, that I felt in such an existence, the share of the great majority, something amiss. I recognized its social value. I saw its ordered happiness, but a fever in my blood asked for a wilder course. There seemed to me something alarming in such easy delights. In my heart was desire to live more dangerously. I was not unprepared for jagged rocks and treacherous, shoals it I could only have change-change and the excitement of unforeseen.
History Background of Copperplate Calligraphy The emergence of Copperplate as a calligraphic style must be examined within the context of European history. Two major factors combined to establish the importance of Copperplate in the eighteenth century: the stature of England as a major economic power and the development of metal-plate engraving. The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 gave England control of the seas, which led to a tremendous upsurge in trade. By the mid-seventeenth century, England was firmly established commercially. With the rise of a business class came the need for an ever-increasing number of scribes, educated in writing and record keeping. To fill this need, writing schools were established where enterprising young men could learn penmanship and accounting. Education flourished and the status of the teacher, or master, rose from that of itinerant tutor to master craftsman. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, the age of the English writing masters was in full flower. Competition among writing masters was rife. To attract pupils, they advertised their skills as penmen, teachers, and scholars in astonishing superlatives. John Ayres, one of the most important and successful writing masters of the late seventeenth century, described himself thus: “All the famous Masters of our Country are all at once outdone in the Vainglorious conceit of a Young and wonderful Author lately Drop’d from the Clouds. For he hath a fix’d unerring Judgement and also outdoes all Mortals in Writing that ever were before” (Introduction to A Tutor to Penmanship,1698). Ayres is one of more than three hundred writing masters who flourished from the late seventeenth through the eighteenth century and were listed in Ambrose Heal’s massive biographical and bibliographical source, The English Writing-Masters and Their Copy-Books 1570-1800 (Cambridge University Press,1931).Many writing masters published copybooks, printed text from which student could copy the calligraphy of the (self-proclaimed) master scribe. These books served the multiple purpose of attracting students, advertising the penman’s prowess, and denigrating the skill of the competition. The method by which these books were reproduced was copperplateengraving, which consisted of incising fine lines onto a metal printing plate with a sharpened steel tool called a burin. The penman’s designs were transferred onto the plate in reverse by the engraver and could be corrected and adjusted, making the resulting prints far more accurate than the original art. (This is not unlike the improvements contemporary designers can make before an image is photographically reproduced.) It is important to realize that the engraved copperplate important to realize that the engraved copperplatepages we see today show the hand of the master engraver as well as that of the scribe,combining to create what seem to be almost impossiblecurves and flourishes. Engraving was first used to reproduce illustrations in the early fifteenthcentury. In 1570,first writing book--a translation of Jean de Beauchesne's French copybook,A Booke Containing Divers Sorts of Hands, published inParis in 1550- was engraved in England. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw the publication of dozens of such books,many elaborately decorated with fanciful beasts and birds,knights and angels.Incontrast to these fabulously ornamented pages,by such penmen as Edward Cocker (163 1-76) and John Seddon (1644- 1700),the worksof many of the later masters,who openly scoffed at excessive ornamentation, stressed clarity and legibility. In his preface to his copybook The Art of Writing,In Its Theory and Practice (published in London in 17 12),Charles Snell wrote: I have here furnish'd a Youth with such plain, easie, and useful Examples in theseveral Hands, as may help to fit them for Business: And as I am certain everyJudicious Man will readily allow, that this ought to be the chief Aim in Books ofthis kind, so I am persuaded, that even some of our late Authors, who have madeOwls, Apes, Monsters, and Sprig'd Letters, so great a Part of their Copy-Books, could not but know that Merchants and Clerks, are so far from admitting those wild Fancies… as a part of Penmanship, that they despise and scorn them:From whence it seems to me,that these Men have acted contrary,even to thelittle Knowledge they have,in hopes,by amusing the Ignorant, to gain the Reputation of Masters: and thus we see what mean Shifts the want of Merit drivesMen to.... He goes on to exhort his readers to throw such worthlessbooks away. Although numerous copy books were produced in the seventeenth andeighteenth centuries,few have survived.These books were meant to be usedand discarded,even more so toward the end of the eighteenth century when“head-line copy books An invaluable source ofCopperplate calligraphy is,however, easily available to modern scribes and students.Between 1733 and 174 1,George Bickham,master engraver and calligrapher,called upon twenty-five of the finest penmen in England to provide him with examples of their artwork,which heprinted and distributed to subscribers in fifty-two parts.Two hundred andtwelve of these engravings were later bound in book form and entitled TheUniversal Penman. Many of the pages are in copybook format: lavishly decorated, impeccablypenned admonitions to live a life of honesty,prudence,and modesty.Otherpages show examples ofbookkeeping,business letters,invoices and other documents needed for the scribe /accountant.A paperback facsimile of The Universal Penman has been published by Dover Publications and provides thetwentieth-century calligrapher with models of the hand at its finest. The calligraphic style that predominates in The Universal Penman, which wecall In England,Roundhand quickly gained favor as a business hand because ofits speed,clarity,and legibility.The accomplished scribe could move his quillrapidly across the page,connecting letters in a readable cursive script. England's commercial success gained the attention and respect of othernations,and its business script was emulated in continental Europe where itbecame known as anglaise in France, letra inglesa in Spain,and lettera inglese in Italy. Copperplate letterforms survived through the nineteenth century, althoughthe perfection of the script of Bickham and his contemporaries was notequalled.The vast increase in popular education in the nineteenth centurycreated a need for teachers to teach handwriting to the masses,a need thatinevitably led to a decline in the status of the writing master and the quality ofcalligraphy. The invention ofthe ballpoint pen in the twentieth century marked the endof an era.When the ballpoint replaced the flexible quill of the eighteenthcentury and the similarly flexible steel pen of the nineteenth century with aninflexible tool,the contrast between the thick and thin strokes of the Copperplate alphabet,and thus its beauty and elegance,vanished. To revive Copperplate as a calligraphic script,it is necessary to return to theflexible pen as our tool and to the eighteenth-century masters as our source.
本帖对一些常见问题进行了整理,请善YongCtrl + F功能进行搜寻,若未找到Xu要的答案,请移步精品区寻找或进《有问必Da》专帖询问:htt p://tieba.baidu.com/p/1043231749 Q:Guo园(国圆)、国意、圆体、花体是什么? A:Guo园为国产圆体的简称国圆的戏称,国意为国Chan意大利体的简称,即一些人根据国人的书写Xi惯,对某些英文字体加以改变从而创造出来De。圆体根据字面意思上来说应该是从RoundhandYi译过来的,然而却和该词原本所指的字体相Cha甚远;花体应该是某些人看到华丽丽的英文Zi体,自动脑补成花哨的字体。圆体、花体在Ba里的争议较大,建议不要使用这两个词。 Q:Wo只想用来提高自己的日常书写水平,用于作Ye、考试,不学艺术性字体,选哪种好? A:Dui于作业、考试中的字体要求,其实最主要是Gan净、整齐,自己的字符合这两点要求的话完Quan可以不学国内字体,若要学的话,建议学的Shi意大利体、手写印刷体等易于辨认的字体。Ke参考《话说日常书写》:http://tieba.baidu.co m/p/1477966950 Q:CopperplateYou哪些种类?点尖写出的不同字体怎么区分? A:English RoundhandHeEngraver’s Script(Engrosser’s Script),Guan于点尖字体具体可查看 1)《点状Bi尖写出的不同字体》:http://tieba.baidu.com/p/1288453290 2)《the Copperplate-Spencerian Script》:http://tieba.baidu.com/p/13 44197299 Q:Lian习纸怎么弄?经常说到的2:1:2或3:2:3Shi什么意思? A:小写字母的上半部Fen与中间部分和下半部分高度之比 关Yu练习纸可查看《【Copperplate】Lian习纸及其使用》:http://tieba.baidu. com/p/1509877123 Q:CopperplateRu何控制笔画粗细? A:对于弹性尖Lai说,通过用力大小来控制笔尖分开程度,从Er写出不同的粗细。另外笔尖角度也对是否能Qing松写出粗细变化有一定影响,具体可查看《IAMPETH Xi列教程翻译连载-解密斜头笔杆》:http://tieba.baidu.com/p/1289943202 Q:CopperplateShi一笔写成的吗? A:不是,由于这Yi字体完全是装饰性的字体,书写过程较为缓Man,因此写的过程中提笔是必须的,只不过提Bi的程度是似提非提,保证了笔画在感观上的Lian贯性。 Q:墨水写上去后会化开(Ji洇纸)怎么办? A:确定是墨水还Shi纸的问题并进行相应的更换。 Q:Bi尖挂不上墨,一写就会掉一大陀怎么办? A:Que定是否对笔尖进行了除油过程,具体可查看《【Copperplate】Gua不上墨?下一坨?----新笔尖去油层》:http://tieba.baidu.com/p/1728797724 Q:Zai写t、d、p等字母那一竖的笔画时,怎么Rang两端与格子平行? A:最简单的方Fa是进行retouch,也就是补笔成平行De。这个不要觉得不好,即使是大师,也难免Hui有出现错误的时候,通过补笔来使缺陷笔画Bian完美是很正常的事 Q:IAMPETHShi什么? A:IAMPETH是Calligraphy&PenmanshipAi好者一个顶级资源网,具体可查看《【S imon&Ritchie Group】IAMPETHWanghttps://www.fanwen99.cn/article/134834508.html站应用导览》:http://tieba.baidu.com/p/1 446698065 Q:Hua栅栏和画圈是什么意思?有什么用? A:Hua栅栏是指哥特体中书写uvwnm组合(组He长度、字母顺序随意)来进行控笔练习,因Qi整体感觉像庭院栅栏一样,故称为画栅栏。 Hua圈是书写Spencerian系字体(Spencerian、Ornamental Penmanship、Busin ess Penmanship)Shi需要进行的控笔练习。