量变与质变在现实生活中的作用 Nei容摘要:量变与质变作为辩证法三大规Lv的其中一条,对我们的现实生活有着极其重要De作用。 关键词:量变与质变,Xian实生活 一,量变和质变的辩证关系 Di一,量变是质变的必要准备。 战国Shi著名思想家荀子在所著的《劝学篇》中写Dao: “不积跬步, 无以至千里;不积小流, Wu以成江海。”征途千里是一步步完成的,江海Hao瀚是涓涓细流汇聚而成的。阐明了没有量Bian的积累,质变就不会发生的道理。 第二,Zhi变是量变的必然结果。 胡长青、成克杰、Wang怀忠、田凤山等人,曾是党和国家的高级领导干Bu,由于放松自己世界观的改造,在社会主义经Ji建设浪潮中贪污腐败,从小贪到大贪,最终蜕化Bian质,变为历史的罪人,受到了法律的惩罚。Gu人云:“勿以恶小而为之,勿以善小而不为。” Ren何事物的变化都有一个量变的积累过程,没有Liang变的积累,质变就不会发生。任何事物单纯的量变Du不会永远持续下去,量变达到一定程度必Ran引起质变。老子说:“合抱之木、生于毫末,九层Zhi台、起于垒土,千里之行、始于足下”。也Shuo明了没有量变的积累,质变就不会发生的道理。 Di三,量变和质变的相互渗透有两种情形。 Yi方面,在总的量变过程中有阶段性和局部Xing的部分质变。 所谓阶段性的部分质Bian,是说事物的根本性质未变,而比较次要的性质发Sheng了变化,使事物的发展呈现出阶段性的特征,Yin而叫阶段性的部分质变。 蚕的一生经Li了从卵、幼虫、蛹、成虫的过程,每一次变化Du是阶段性的部分质变。 所谓局Bu性的部分质变,是说事物就全局来说,性质未Bian,而其中个别部分发生了性质的变化。这种Bian化,它只要不改变全局,就属于局部性的Bu分质变。 在的社会学理论建立Zai黑格尔的三段式上,我们又听到这种老一套的Ze难,说马克思主义是黑格尔辩证法,这种责难看来Yi被批评马克思的资产阶级批评家用得够滥De了。这帮先生不能从实质上对这个学说提出任何Fan驳,就拼命抓住马 克思的表达方式,攻Ji这个理论的起源,想以此动摇这个理论的根基。Mi海洛夫斯基先生也毫不客气地采用了这种手法。En格斯在反驳攻击克思辩证法的杜林时说:Ma克思从未打算用黑格尔的三段式来“证明”任He事物,马克思只是研究和探讨现实过程。【1】 Er,在现实生活中的例子 我国经Li了八年艰苦抗战,打败了日本帝国主义De侵略,可以说长期抗战是https://www.fanwen99.cn/article/199022789.html量变,日寇最后Tou降是质变。日寇投降后中国人民又为中国De独立、和平而进行新的斗争,即人民解放战争。新Zhong国建立后,中国人民又为了实现富强、民主、文明De社会主义现代化国家而奋斗,现在进行着伟大De改革开放的新革命,并取得了巨大的成Jiu。所有这些变化,都是在新的性质出现以后Kai始新的量变。 我刘翔是我国著Ming田径运动员,在雅典奥运会上夺得田径(110Mi栏)的金牌,并在2006年瑞士洛桑Tian径超级大奖赛中,以12秒88的成绩打破了110Mi栏的世界纪录。刘翔的身高、体重、年龄和体育Cheng绩等等,这些都是可以用数量来表示的规定性。 San,事物发展过程中的量变和质变及其相互转化 Da千世界,万物峥嵘,在整个宇宙中我们看到的事Wu繁花似锦、无限多样。那么,我们又是怎Yang去认识每一个事物,并把它同其它事物Qu别开来呢?其实,我们认识事物就是去认Shi这一事物的质,这样我们就可以将这一事物Tong其他事物相互区别。否则就谈不上对事物De认识。 认识事物质的规定性具有重Yao意义,它是我们认识事物的客观基础和实践De起点。 在第一次国内革命战争时Qi,面对中国社会复杂的阶级状况,毛泽东撰写Liao“中国社会各阶级的分析”一文,明确地Ti出了“谁是我们的敌人?谁是我们的朋友?这个Wen题是革命的首要问题”。通过对中国社Hui各阶级的本质和特点的分析,分清敌、我、友,Wei新民主主义革命的总路线奠定了基础。【2】Zhi变是事物性质的根本变化,是事物由一种质Tai向另一种质态的飞跃,体现了事物渐进过Cheng和连续性的中断。 冬虫夏草是我Guo高原地带的一种名贵的中草药。它的形Cheng过程是:蝙蝠蛾为繁衍后代,产卵于土壤中Zhuan变成幼虫。此时,虫草菌侵入土壤中正在冬眠De幼虫体内不断繁殖,噬食幼虫的“五脏六Fu”,将其内脏吃的得一干二净,只留下躯壳, Zhi使幼虫死亡。在新的一年天气转暖时,虫草菌Zi幼虫头部生长出地面,被人们发现后挖出晾Gan,变成所谓的“草”。 参考文献 【1】:En格斯《反杜林论》一书中的一章(注:指弗·恩格Si《反杜林论》第1编第13章《辩证法。Fou定的否定》,见《马克思恩格斯选集》第3Juan第169-183页。 【2】中国社Hui各阶级的分析
Revising lexis: quality or quantity? Ci汇复习中的量变和质变 This article discusses how much attention language teachers should pay to vocabulary acquisition research, particularly with regard to repeated encounters with lexical items. Introduction Sometime in the middle of the last century, Benjamin Whorf, famous for his contention that language shapes thought, made a controversial statement about the Eskimo language having seven words for snow. Frequently quoted or, rather misquoted overtime, Whorf’s number of snow w ords was inflated to nine, twenty, fifty, and even one hundred. A similar snowball effect seems to be taking place with the contentious issue of how many exposures a vocabulary item needs for its retention. About 20 years ago, researchers originally proposed that a second language (L2) learner needs six exposures to a word in order to retain it. However, with the emergence of more and more research into vocabulary acquisition, the number swelled to 10, then 15 and has now reached 20. Do we really need 20 exposures to the word? How realistic is it? What constitutes an exposure? How many or how well? First, my personal experience as a language learner as well as a language teacher shows that you can well do with fewer than six encounters if you have an acute communicative need. For example, if you are desperately groping for a word in L2, and a teacher (or a competent language speaker) supplies it on the spot you are quite likely to remember it. I have learnt many words in French and Spanish exactly this way, by “echoing” what my conversation partner or teacher has said. Evidently, it is not only “how many times” but also “how well” that should matter. If you come across a lexical item many times but do not do much with it (known as incidental learning), you probably need countless repetitions before it is committed to memory. Conversely, if you are more actively involved in processing the language you meet (known as intentional learning) you are more likely to remember it. It is therefore up to teachers, to create situations and provide meaningful contexts in which learners can have the opportunity to recycle and reuse the language they have learnt. In or out of context? Decontextualised language practice was frowned upon during the heyday of Communicative Language Teaching. However, more and more evidence suggests that decontextualised vocabulary learning is perfectly justified (see for example Laufer, 2006). Students on EAP courses require many academic words such as fundamental, evolution, and welfare to understand dense scientific texts. In order to comprehend them you need to reach a certain level (according to Nation, usually 6000 – 8000 words), and decontextualised rote learning can often be the only way. However, how can you grasp, let alone use, such expressions as come to think of it or the next thing I know…without meeting them over and over again in meaningful contexts? Testing the optimal number of encounters is also extremely difficult because there are an infinite number of external factors. One such factor is learnability. Some words are inherently difficult to learn. For example, buy more or less corresponds to the Spanish comprar and should not pose much difficulty for a Spanish-speaking learner of English while many other verbs cannot be mapped onto the same concepts in your first language (L1). For example, pursue does not have a direct word-for-word correspondence with Hebrew. Join can be rendered into French as rejoindre,s'engager, adhé or devenir membre. It depends on rer what you want to join in order to choose the right French word, i.e. on the collocations of the verb. Teaching or researching? To combat this and other intervening factors researchers often resort to using made-up words (known as “non-words”) in their studies, which I personally have ethical reservations about. Another problem with the studies attempting to count the number of encounters is that they mainly focus on the passive knowledge of vocabulary. For a practitioner teaching Communicative courses where the main aim is so get students to speak and use new language such research is neither valid nor of much use. When I teach a new lexical chunk in class, I attempt to push the learners’ output as soon as possible by encouraging them to experiment with the new language in different situations. If I were to put my students under experimental conditions, I would have to deliberately stall them while busy counting the number of times a particular chunk was encountered before the learners could produce it. Individual words versus multi-word items Most researchers investigating the number of encounters needed to remember new vocabulary unfortunately overlook collocations. It is ironic that the same linguists who strongly propound the importance of learning vocabulary in chunks are preoccupied with counting exposures with individual words. Establishing how many encounters a learner needs with a new collocation is even trickier What constitutes a new collocation? An intermediate level learner may be: a) familiar with the words meet and requirement but not know that they can collocate (meet the requirements); b) familiar with one of the words (reach) in a collocation (reach a compromise) c) unfamiliar with any of the words (e.g. bear resemblance) Somewhat paradoxically, evidence suggests that type A collocations may present more difficulty for learners than entirely new collocations (type C). It could be the novelty effect that makes learners pay more attention to new collocations and overlook partially familiar ones, hence frequent errors such as *did a mistake or *made homework. Furthermore, some research suggests that lexical chunks, which alliterate (e.g. slippery slope, prim and proper), tend to be learnt faster than the ones which do not display such a pattern (see Boers & Lindstromberg 2005). Coursebooks & schools Unfortunately, course books do not provide enough encounters with lexical items. Nowadays most course books are organised thematically. While learners may be exposed to the same lexis within a particular unit, few course books ensure the same lexis is recycled across the textbook, i.e. over a series of units. It is therefore the teachers’ responsibility to ensure that the language our students come across is revised in subsequent lessons and regularly recycled. I once came across an article, which suggested optimum revision intervals as follows: 10 minutes after the initial encounter 1 day after the initial encounter 1 week after the initial encounter 1 month after the initial encounter 6 months after the initial encounter Is it feasible in a school setting? Most EFL classes take place once a week, while in secondary schools there are a lot of timetabling constraints to ensure that the above intervals are adhered to. I would therefore recommend revising new lexis as often as possible whenever an opportunity arises. Teachers can make a good habit of finishing every lesson with a review of the language they have collected on the board during the lesson and starting every new lesson with a quick revision of the language covered earlier on the course. As regards productive knowledge, the teacher should be able to spot when learners are trying to retrieve a partially learnt item and help them by eliciting it. The teacher may aid the students with prompts and questions or, in other words, provide the necessary scaffolding. Conclusion While researchers continue to argue how many encounters with a word are necessary in order for the learner to retain it and what the optimal conditions for retention are, most agree that frequent recycling is essential for effective vocabulary learning. It is our responsibility as teachers to make sure that regular revisiting of the lexis is part of a language course.
东莞中公教育 生活中的考研政Zhi:质变与量变的关系 中公考研政治教研室De老师准备了“生活中的考研政治:质变与量变的关Xi”,帮助大家在基础阶段备考考研政治马原。 Sui着6月的到来,相信不少同学已经把减肥提上Liao议事日程。从我们马克思主义哲学的角度Kan,变胖和减肥恰好就体现了量变和质变的Bian证关系。 哲学上所说的量变指的是事Wu数量的增减和次序的变化,是保持事物De质的相对稳定的不显著的变化,体现了Shi物渐进过程的连续性。正因为如此,很多同Xue会发现自己“一不小心”就变胖了,因为在你体Zhong逐渐增加的过程中,体重的变化体现为一种Bu显著的、渐进性的量变,这种不显著性往往让同学Men对自己的体重掉以轻心。 相应的,哲Xue上把事物性质的根本变化叫做质变,它指的是事物You一种质态向另一种质态的飞跃,体现的是事物渐Jin过程和连续性的中断。区分量变和质变的标准是事Wu的变化是否超过度,也就是事物保持自Ji质的范围、数量和界限。当你的体重从处于正Chang范围内到超越这个范围,我们就说你“变胖了”,Fa生了“胖”的质变。这是一种显著的、飞跃Xing的变化,因此同学们虽然难以发觉自己体重逐Jian增长的过程,但一旦体重超越正常范围,达Dao“胖”的水平,会立刻醒悟到自己“变胖了”。 Cong变胖这件事中,我们可以体会到量变质变之间的辩Zheng关系。即首先,量变是质变的必要准备,任何Shi物的变化都有一个量的积累的过程,没有量Bian的积累,质变的发生。同学们虽然做不到一口马上Chi成一个胖子,但是变成胖子确实是同学们自己Jiao踏实地、一口一口吃成的。 其Ci,质变是量变的必然结果,单纯的量变Bu会永远持续下去,量变达到一定程度必定会Yin起质变。这提醒了正在看这篇文章的同学们:Ji使你体重较低,也不能掉以轻心每天胡吃海Sai,因为哪怕每天多吃一点,只要持之以恒,达到Yi定程度都将引起质变。 最后,量变He质变是相互渗透的。一方面,在总的量变过程Zhong阶段性和局部性的部分质变;另一方面,在质变过Cheng中也有旧质在量上的收缩和新质的量上的扩Zhang。 1