漫谈叙事性作品及其教学 潘文Bin 叙事性作品,顾名思义就是以Xu事功能为主的一种文学作品。《语文课程标准》Zai第三学段的阅读教学目标中,对叙事性作品De阅读提出了明确的要求: 些问题的认Shi。 一 叙事性作品主要Shi通过生活事件的叙述和具体环境的描绘来塑造Ren物形象的。比如《船长》这篇课文是通Guo叙述哈尔威船长在 叙事性作品最突Chu的特点就是 通常情况下,情节的Zhan开一般分为开端、发展、高潮和结局四个部Fen。开端是情节的起点,也是事件矛盾的起因。Zai开端部分,一般对主要人物和矛盾的基本性质有Yi个大体的勾画或预示。发展是叙事性作品De主体成分,是矛盾冲突的逐步展开和发展,Ren物的性格和命运在发展部分得到了多方面的展现。Gao潮所表现的是矛盾冲突达到了顶点,是对立双方决Ding胜负的关键时刻,所以人物性格在高潮Zhong得到了充分而鲜明的表现。结局是矛盾的解决,Shi人物事件发展的必然结果。譬如《船长》这Pian课文是按照 起因,即开端; Zai叙事性作品当中,人物是情节得以发生Fa展的动力。一般而言,情节是为表现人物服务的,Yin此,同情节相比,人物在作品中的作用是第一Wei的。因为社会历史本由人的活动构成,Ren在现实生活中的地位决定了他在叙事性作品Zhong的地位。从文学的审美性上说,美的本质是人De本质力量的感性显现。文学的审美属性Jue定了它必须通过对社会生活的把握去反映人,Jie示社会生活和历史发展中人类如何通过实践活动Shi现了人的本质力量的对象化。正因为如此,叙Shi性作品把人物形象的刻画摆在中心位置,使事件De叙述和场景的描写为塑造人物形象服务。比如《Qian学森》这篇课文叙述的是我国著名的科学家钱Xue森在美国时,一刻也没有忘记祖国,以及回Guo后为我国运载火箭和导弹的研制及发射Zuo出的卓越贡献。所有的这些内容都是为塑造Qian学森的爱国形象服务的,尤其是文章中描写的那Xie人物的精彩语言,感情炽烈,对比强烈,活化形象,Rang人真切地感受到钱学森那颗火热的拳拳报国Zhi心。 细节是指叙事性作品中的Na些细微而又具体的典型情节。细节具体渗透在对Ren物、事件或场景的描写之中,它往往是用Ji其精彩、细腻的笔墨将人物的真善美和假Chou恶和盘托出。例如课文《郑成功》中的有这Yang一段描写: 一天,他登上军营附近De一座山头,临风眺望。郑成功指着东南方向问卫兵: Er 叙事性作品的语言是富有鲜明Te色的,它是由人物语言和叙述人语言https://zuciwang.com/zhuanti/蓉的反义词.html两部分构成。Suo谓人物语言,即作品中人物的对话、独白。Zuo品中的人物语言是性格化的语言,它能充分地揭示Ren物的性格特征和表现人物的心理状态。Suo谓叙述人语言,即是指作者在作品中描绘人物、叙Shu事件、描写环境、评价生活等使用的语言。Yue读叙事性作品首先要学生引导关注文本De语言,要让学生在主动积极的思维和情感活动中,Chu摸文本的语言,了解事件的梗概。想象具体De场景,体味精彩的细节,感受人物的形象,Shou到情感的熏陶,获得思想的启迪,享受审美De乐趣。 其实,叙事性作品所蕴Han的情趣、韵味和意义往往都是通过人物而体Xian出来的。这就意味着在阅读叙事性作品的时候,You其要注意聚焦作品中的人物。那么,如何引 Dao学生聚焦作品中的人物呢?人们常说 我Men知道,内容是通过形式来表现的。一篇好的叙事Xing作品,总是把人物放在矛盾中去塑造,总是站Zai矛盾的最前面,紧扣主题,精心选材,详略得当,Ren物语言的运用也具有鲜明和独特的个性。Yin此。在教学中,我们还要善于抓住人物的塑造、材Liao的选择和语言的运用等方面的特点,来Yin导学生揣摩文章的表达顺序,体会作者的思Xiang感情,领悟文章基本的表达方法。譬如《Fu荆请罪》这篇课文是历史小话剧。我们Zhi道,剧本一般都是通过尖锐的戏剧冲突来展Shi物性格特点的。这篇历史小话剧在写法上就Zhu意充分揭示戏剧冲突,在尖锐激烈的戏剧冲突中刻Hua人物,展示性格。教学时,我们可以循着小话剧的Te点,引导学生抓住文中矛盾冲突来学习感悟人Wu的特点:第一,挡道与避让--廉颇与Zuo相如争位次,比高下,一再挡道;蔺相如不与Ji较,一再避让。这个矛盾的冲突,表现了廉Po的居功自傲,蔺相如的顾全大局。第二,请罪Yu宽容--廉颇得知蔺相如一再避让的缘You,背负荆条,主动上门请罪;蔺相如因Wei廉颇知道了他的心思,满心欢悦地接待。这是矛Dun冲突的解决,表现了廉颇的真诚改错,蔺相Ru的宽容大度,两人和解的关键在于共同维护国家利Yi。这样抓住矛盾冲突来进行教学,就能有效Di引领学生在走进文本、感受人物的形象的过Cheng中,获得言语智慧的滋养和人文精神的熏陶。 San 叙事性作品是通过叙事来反映现实生Huo,表达思想感情的。为了使学生能真正体Hui到叙事性作品的意蕴,教学时,我们应该着Li引导学生经历以下三个过程。 其一,观Qi貌。刘勰在《文心雕龙》中提出了 师:Shuo说你们自己通过阅读课文,对郑成功这个人有Liao哪些了解? 生l:我知道郑成功Shi民https://zuciwang.com/zhuanti/荣幸之至下一句是?.html族英雄,他收复了宝岛台湾。 生2:Wo知道郑成功有一颗强烈的爱国、爱民之心,他Bu仅收复了台湾,还建设了台湾,受到台湾人民的Yong戴。 (师相机板书:民族英雄、收Fu台湾、建设台湾) 师:这节课,我们将Yue读课文的前半部分,一同走进郑成功收复Tai湾的历史画卷中。请同学们自由朗读3-6自然Duan,想象郑成功收复台湾前后的画面。 (生Zi由朗读课文,读后在文中圈画) 师:你Men看到了哪几幅画面? 生1:我De眼前出现了郑成功眺望宝岛的画面和郑成功浩Hao荡荡率兵出征的画面。 生2:我的眼前还Chu现了郑军官兵勇猛杀敌的战斗场面。 Sheng3:我还看到了台湾人民热烈欢迎郑成Gong军队的画面。 (师相机板书:眺望、出征、Zhan斗、欢迎) 从这个教学片断中,Wo们不难发现由于教者把握住了叙事性作品的特点,Jing心设问,巧妙引导,调动学生运用多种感官积极Zhu动地去触摸文本的语言,与文本进行广泛的对话,Cong而把文本中的那些凝固的文字转化成生动鲜Huo的画面复现在学生的脑海之中。 其Er.寻其味。任何一篇阅读叙事性作品在语言文字的Bei后都会蕴藏着深远悠长的情趣和无限深邃De意蕴。所以,在阅读时绝不能只停留在文本的表Ceng徜徉,而要把审美的触角进一步向文本的深处Yan伸。这就要进入阅读叙事性作品的第二个过程--Wo们把它称之为 其味 师:(Chu示幻灯)请同学们看图画,郑成功眺望到了Shi么? 生1:郑成功眺望到了大海。 Sheng2:郑成功眺望到了宝岛台湾。 师:同Xue们,厦门和台湾之间隔着一百多公里的台湾Hai峡,郑成功虽然看不见台湾,但他的心一直Qian挂着台湾。我们来读读他说的话。 (出示Ju子:郑成功慷慨激昂地说: 师:谁来读Zheng成功说的话。 (一生读) Shi:再用心读读郑成功说的这番话,想想你们从中体Hui到了什么? 生1:我从 Shi:说体会就应该这样,抓住关键词语来说! Sheng2:我从 生3:从 师:请你们Lian系上下文想一想,郑成功为什么会这样呢? Sheng:因为荷兰侵略者强占了台湾,残酷地奴役Tai湾同胞。 师:是呀,荷兰侵略者Qiang占了台湾,实行强制统治,把大批中国人抓到南洋Dang苦力,把土地占为己有,强迫人民缴纳各种Zu税,还大肆掠夺台湾的大米、甘蔗等物产。Tai湾各族人民每年的辛苦所得,都变成了白花花De银子,一船船地运往荷兰。同学们,这些Jiu是文中 (生声情并茂地朗读) Cong这个寻 本身就是一个富有韵味的追问和Tan寻的过程,也是对 其三,悟其Dao。这是阅读叙事性作品的第三个过程。所谓的 Shi:刚才我们走进了课文,品味了语言。Dui民族英雄郑成功有了深刻的认识,现在Qing我们再来读读文章的课题,深情地呼唤 Sheng:(读)郑成功! 师:再次朗读这个课Ti,你们的心中涌起了怎样的情感? 生1:Wo心中涌起的是一种自豪。因为民族英雄郑Cheng功太伟大了,我为我们中华民族有这样De爱国、爱民的民族英雄而感到自豪! 生2:Wo心中涌起的是一种激动,因为我再次朗读这个课Ti,强烈地感受到题目 生3:此时此刻我Xin中有许多感情交织在一起,既骄傲,又激Dong,但更多的是一种责任,因为郑成功收复的台Wan目前还没有回到祖国的大家庭! Shi:是的,郑成功的高大形象已经变成了一座丰Bei留在了我们的脑海里。那么,郑成功的Xing象为什么能如此清晰地展现在我们的面前呢?这得Yao感谢作者,因为是作者用语言文字栩栩如生地Ke画了郑成功的形象。请大家再浏览一下课文,体Hui作者怎样来写郑成功的? 生:(答略) Cong这个教学片断中,我们可以看出教者在引导学生 Zong上所述,我们感到 有诗云:
低年级叙事性文章的阅读方法 Xin课标指出,低年级阅读教学要让学生能Yong普通话正确、流利、有感情地朗读课文;能结合Shang下文和实际了解词句的意思,逐步学会独立Si考,学会读书;能在阅读的实践过程中喜欢阅Du,积累词语。据此,我觉得我们应该结He低年级学生的认知规律,从优化阅读课课堂入Shou,采用“分层阅读”的教学方式,这样De教学效果比较好。第一层阅读:正确、流利 Dui于低年级学生来说,尤其是一年级学生,Ta们刚学完拼音,借助拼音识字的能力还比较Cha。因此,我总给学生充足的时间去读书。1.Shi间安排。 在实际的教学过程中,我从不An排学生回家预习。因为低年级学生回家预Xi除了给家长加重负担外,还可能会因为缺Shao科学的指导而导致预习不到位。因此,我总是把晨Du时间作为学生的预习时间,让学生有充足的时间去Du课文。 2.朗读课文。 Xue生朗读前,我对学生有明确的阅读要求:用普通Hua朗读课文,读准字音,发音清楚,不读错字,Bu丢字,不唱读,不重复字词。这些要求看似非Chang简单,但实际落实时,发现对学生来说Zhen的很难,尤其是不唱读,小朋友在幼儿园读儿歌Shi,形成了这种坏习惯,很多孩子都是一字一顿De读,根本不会词语连读,更不讲究句子De停顿。尤其是叙事性的文章,一般长句子比Jiao多,学生很容易把句子读破,所以一开始,老Shi就要逐句示范。 3.有效落实。(1)Xue生试读。我要求学生按要求边看拼音边读汉Zi,不求快,但求字字落实,句句落实。(2)同Zhuo互读。我要求一个学生读时,另一个学生必须Shou拿笔,边听,边圈点,边勾画,圈出读错的地方,Gou出读得不够好的地方,画出读得好的地方,并Ti出改正意见,从而提高自己的阅读能力。(3)Jiao师检查。检查既有利于激励学生的朗读热情,You有利于学生发现自己的不足,同时教师Huan可以根据反馈信息进行及时指导。 Di二层阅读:读熟、读懂 1.读熟。 Du熟是在读通的基础上,要求学生在阅读时做到通顺Liu畅,有一定的速度。在教学过程中,我体会Dao让学生读熟文本,有利于学生掌握字词Ju,了解课文内容。因此,我便采用赛读的方式激Fa学生多次朗读。具体方式有以下几种:(1)Fen成小组赛读;(2)同学之间挑战读; (3)Yu老师比一比。如教学《一株紫丁香》时,我Shou先把评分标准写在黑板上:读错、读漏一个Zi扣0.5分,词语读得特别流利加0.5分,句子Du得特别好加1分,整篇课文读得通顺流Chang加1分。然https://zuciwang.com/zhuanti/荣鹰的意思.html后,我便把学生分成小组进行赛读,并Ping出小组优胜奖。接着,我采取挑战赛的方Shi,让学生自由选择比赛的对手。最后,我范读后,Gu励学生与我比一比。这样,学生在不知Bu觉中就把课文读熟了。 2.读懂。 Yu读熟相比,读懂则有了质的飞跃。它可使Xue生逐步学会独立思考,学会读书。有些Jiao师认为低年级学生只要字会写,书会背就可以了, Bu需要“读懂”。因此,很多教师在教学中对Xue生缺少信任,总是在想:这个问题是不是Tai难了?他们能解决吗?当学生的思维稍有障Ai,教师便立刻将问题“包办”。久而久Zhi,学生便从不需思考到不愿思考,最终变得Bu会思考了。我在教学中则坚持信任自己的学生,Jin量点拨而不是“包办”。如教学《猴子种果树》Yi课时,我提了这样一个问题:“猴子辛辛苦苦种Huo了果树,可又因为别人一句话就把果树拔了,你Zen么看待它这种行为?”学生纷纷举手发言:“Ta太没耐心了。”“它没有主见。”“它只想早点吃Guo子,一点也不珍惜自己的劳动成果。”这Shi,学生的思维已被激活,他们通过思考,成功地解Jue了问题。学完课文,我对学生说:“如Guo你是猴子,你会怎么做呢?”学生说:“我Bu会随便听信别人的话,会耐心地等下去。”“Wo会先打听好哪种果树又好种,结果子又Kuai,然后再去种树。”“如果我是猴子,我不Hui把成活的树拔掉,而是再种上杏树、桃树什Me的,这样我就能吃上好多种果子了。”多聪明的孩Zi啊!经过这样的过程,学生对学习更加充满了信心。 Di三层阅读:乐背、活用 低年级学生好Dong、爱玩,形象思维占主导地位,但他们De机械记忆非常好。因此,在读懂课文的基础上,Shun应儿童的这一心理特点,采用儿童喜闻乐见De形式作为练习背诵的辅助手段,可让学生喜学Le背,进而达到积累词语的目的。 1.Jie助课文插图练习背诵。 如《秋Gu娘的信》一课,由于课文中的插图就是故事情节De体现,于 是我要求学生边看插图,Bian回忆课文内容。学生很容易就把看到的图像信息转Hua成了文字符号,课文的背诵自然也就水到渠Cheng了。 总之,通过这几次的培训,和Wo在自己课堂中的实践,我觉得,在低年级的叙Shi性教学中,指导孩子一句一句把课文读通,读Dong,是最基本的事,在此基础上,再慢慢提Gao孩子的有感情朗读水平。在操作过程中,我Jue得直接告诉孩子应该怎么读,这种方法很好,比Ru,上次我们听的叶老师的《梅兰芳学艺》里提到的,Zhi接告诉他那个地方要重读,那里要读慢一点,Huo者读https://zuciwang.com/zhuanti/容易引起歧义的成语.html出疑问语气等等,这样,通过一点点De积累,学生慢慢的学会了读课文的方法,自然Hui举一反三,慢慢掌握有感情读课文的技巧,渐Jian培养孩子读课文的兴趣,有效为他们以后的学习Da下基础。
叙事性文章的阅读 (A) The teacher who did the most to encourage me was, as it happened, my aunt. She was Myrtle C. Manigault, the wife of my mother’s brother Bill. She taught in second grade at all-black Summer School in Camden, New Jersey. During my childhood and youth, Aunt Myrtle encouraged me to develop every aspect of my potential, without regard for what was considered practical or possible for black females. I liked to sing; she listened to my voice and pronounced it good. I couldn’t dance; she taught me the basic dancing steps. She took me to the theatre ____ not just children’s theatre but adult comedies and dramas --- and her faith that I could appreciate adult plays was not disappointed. My aunt also took down books from her extensive library and shared them with me. I had books at home, but they were all serious classics. Even as a child I had a strong liking for humor, and I’ll never forget the joy of discovering Don Marquis’s Archy & Mehitabel through her. Most important, perhaps, Aunt Myrtle provided my first opportunity to write for publication. A writer herself for one of the black newspapers, she suggested my name to the editor as a “youth columnist”. My column, begun when I was fourteen, was supposed to cover teenage social activities---and it did---but it also gave me the freedom to write on many other subjects as well as the habit of gathering material, the discipline of meeting deadlines, and, after graduation from college six years later, a solid collection of published material that carried my name and was my passport to a series of writing jobs. Today Aunt Myrtle is still an enthusiastic supporter of her “favorite niece”. Like a diamond, she has reflected a bright, multifaceted(Duo面的) image of possibilities to every pupil who has crossed her path. 65. Which of the following did Aunt Myrtle do to the author during her childhood and youth? A. She lent her some serious classics. B. She cultivated her taste for music. C. She discovered her talent for dancing. D. She introduced her to adult plays. 66. What does Archy & Mehitabel in Paragraph 3 probably refer to? A. A book of great fun. B. A writer of high fame. C. A serious masterpiece. D. A heartbreaking play. 67. Aunt Myrtle recommended the author to a newspaper editor mainly to ____. A. develop her capabilities for writing. B. give her a chance to collect material C. involve her in teenage social activities D. offer her a series of writing jobs. 68. We can conclude from the passage that Aunt Myrtle was a teacher who _____. A. trained pupils to be diligent and well-disciplined B. gave pupils confidence in exploiting their potential C. emphasized what was practical or possible for pupils D. helped pupils overcome difficulties in learning In 1974, after filling out fifty applications, going through four interviews, and winning one offer, I took what I could get ---- a teaching job at what I considered a distant wild area ; western New Jersey. My characteristic optimism was alive only when I reminded myself that I would be doing what I had wanted to do since I was fourteen---- teaching English. School started, but I felt more and more as if I were in a foreign country. Was this rural area really New Jersey? My studies took a week off when hunting season began. I was told they were also frequently absent in late October to help their fathers make hay on the farms. I was a young woman from New York City, who thought that ”Make hay while the sun shines”just meant to have a good time. But, still, I was teaching English. I worked hard, taking time off only to eat and sleep. And then there was my sixth-grade class ------seventeen boys and five girls who were only six years younger than me. I had a problem long before I know it. I was struggling in my work as a young idealistic teacher. I wanted to make literature come alive and to promote a love of the written word. The students wanted to throw spitballs and whisper dirty words in the back of the room In college I had been taught that a successful educator should ignore bad behavior. So I did, confident that, as the textbook had said, the bad behavior would disappear as I gave my students positive attention. It sounds reasonable, but the text evidently ignored the fact that humans, particularly teenagers, rarely seem reasonable. By the time my boss, who was also my taskmaster ,known to be the strictest, most demanding, most quick to fire inexperienced teachers, came into the classroom to observe me, the students exhibited very little good behavior to praise. My boss sat in the back of the room. The boys in the class were making animal noises, hitting each other while the girls their nails or read magazines. I just pretended it all wasn’t happening, and went on lecturing and tried to ask some inspiring questions. My boss, sitting in the back of the room, seemed to be growing bigger and bigger. After twenty minutes he left, silently. Vision s of unemployment marches before my eyes. I felt mildly victorious that I got through the rest of class without crying, but at my next free period I had to face him. I wondered if he would let me finish out the day. I walked to his office, took a deep breath, and opened the door. He was gitting in his chair, and he looked at me long and hard. I said nothing. All I could think of was that I was not an English teacher; I had been lying to myself, pretending that everything was fine. When he spoke, he said simply, without accusation, “You had nothing to say to them.” “You had nothing to say to them.” he repeated, “No wonder they’re bored. Why not get to the meat of the literature and stop talking about symbolism.” Talk with them, not at them. And more important, why do you ignore their bad behavior?” We talked. He named my problems and offered solutions. We role played. He was the bad student, and I was the forceful, yet warm, teacher. As the year progressed, we spent many hours discussing literature and ideas about human being. And their attentions, he helped me identify my weakness and my strengths. In short, he made a teacher of me by teaching me the reality of Emerson’s words: “The secret to education lies in respecting the pupil.” Fifteen years later I still drive that same winding road to the same school. Thanks to the help I received that difficult first year, the school is my home now. 55.It can be inferred from the story that in 1974_______. A.The writer became an optimistic person B.The writer was very happy about her new job C.It was rather difficult to get a job in the USA D. It was easy to get a teaching job in New Jersey 56.According to the passage, which of the following is most probably the writher’s problem as a new teacher? A.She had blind trust in what she learnt at college. B.She didn’t ask experienced teachers for advice. C.She took too much time off to eat and sleep. D.She didn’t like teaching English literature 57.What is the writer’s biggest worry after her taskmaster’s observation of her class? A.She might lose her teaching job. B.She might lose her students’ respect C.She couldn’t teach the same class any more. D.She couldn’t ignore her students’ bad behavior any more 58.Which of the following gives the writher a sense of mild victory? A.Her talk about symbolism sounded convincing B.Her students behaved a little better than usual. C.She managed to finish the class without crying. D.She was invited for a talk by her boss after class. 59.The students behaved badly in the writer’s classed because_____. A.they were eager to embarrass her B.she did n’t really understand them C.they did n’t regard her as a good teacher D.she did n’t have a good command of English 60.The taskmaster’s attitude towards the writer after his observation of her class can be best described as________. A.cruel but encouraging B. Fierce but forgiving B.C.sincere and supportive D.angry and aggressive For a while, my neighborhood was taken ever by an army of joggers(Man跑者). They were there all the time: early morning, noon, and evening. There were little old ladies in gray sweats, young couples in Adidas shoes, middle-aged men with red faces. “Come on!” My friend Alex encouraged me to join him as he jogged by my house e very evening. “You’ll feel great.” Well, I had nothing against feeling great and if Alex could jog every day, anyone could. So I took up jogging seriously and gave it a good two months of my life, and not a day more. Based on my experience, jogging is the most overvalued form of exercise around, and judging from the number of the people who left our neighborhood jogging army. I’m not alone in my opinion. First of all, jogging is very hard on the body. Your legs and feet a real pounding(Zhui击)ruining down a road for two or three miles. I developed foot, leg, and back problems. Then I read about a nationally famous jogger who died of a heart attack while jogging, and I had something else to worry about. Jogging doesn’t kill hundreds of peopl e, but if you have any physical weaknesses, jogging will surely bring them out, as they did with me. Secondly, I got no enjoyment out of jogging. Putting one foot in front of the other for forty-five minutes isn’t my idea of fun. Jogging is also a lonely pastime. Some joggers say, “I love being out there with just my thoughts.” Well, my thoughts began to bore me, and most of them were on how much my legs hurt. And how could I enjoy something that brought me pain? And that wasn’t just the first week: it was practically every day for two months. I never got past the pain level, and pain isn’t fun. What a cruel way to do it! So many other exercises, including walking, lead to almost the same results painlessly, so why jog? I don’t jog any more, and I don’t think I ever will. I’m walking two miles three times a week at a fast pace, and that feels good. I bicycle to work when the weather is good. I’m getting exercise, and I’m enjoying it at the same time. I could never say the same for jogging, and I’ve found a lot of better ways to stay in shape. 52. From the first paragraph, we learn that in the writer’s neighborhood ______. A. jogging became very popular B. people jogged only during the daytime C. Alex organized an army of joggers D. jogging provided a chance to get together 53. The underlined word “them”(Paragraph 3) most probably refers to _____. A. heart attacks B. Back problems C. famous joggers D. physical weaknesses 54. What was the writer’s attitude towards jogging in the beginning? A. He felt it was worth a try. B. He was very fond of it. C. He was strongly against it. D. He thought it must be painful. 55. Why did the writer give up jogging two months later? A. He disliked doing exercise outside. B. He found it neither healthy nor interesting. C. He was afraid of having a heart attack. D. He was worried about being left alone. 56. From the writer’s experience, we can conclude that______. A. not everyone enjoys jogging B. he is the only person who hates jogging C. nothing other than jogging can help people keep fit D. jogging makes people feel greater than any other sport.