essay的开头-essay开头怎么写(Starting an Essay)
狗。从您的清单，你会选择一个缩小的话题。Pick a topic. Most likely, your teacher will give you
a list of subjects. http://www.ukassignment.org/essayfw/19644.htmlChoose a topic that you have some familiarity with and something that interests you. If you enjoy the topic, you will be more apt to understand the research and have a desire to learn about the subject. Research and then narrow the topic. If you choose dogs, what is it that you want to talk about? Make a list of three to five possible subtopics: how to choose a dog, the best kind of dog, or how to buy a crate for a dog. From your list, you will choose one narrowed topic.
Write a preliminary thesis. The thesis statement is a statement of position. It directs the paper by stating what the content is. The thesis is not a question, but one statement that should be positioned at the end of the introductory paragraph. If you decide to write about choosing a dog, you may choose a preliminary statement as follows: When choosing a dog, consider the costs, size, and needs of the dog. The thesis organizes the paper. The paper may be about the costs of raising a dog, the size of the space required for the dog, and the attention the dog will need. Notice the thesis is general. You will make the thesis more specific once you have written the paper and know exactly what you want to discuss under costs, size and needs.(留学作业网
有一只狗的好处的一般性发言。Visualize an upside-down triangle. This may sound strange, but
a good introduction will drive the rest of the paper. The paper will fall into place because it's organized, focused, and manageable. Begin with a general statement and slowly narrow that statement to the thesis, which is the tip of the upside-down triangle. If you're writing about choosing a dog, begin with a general statement about the benefits of owning a dog. From there,
discuss benefits and why it's important to choose a dog carefully. End with your thesis. The introduction will be about seven sentences in length, or half of a page.
加流畅的论文语句出来。Include transition. As you visualize the upside-down triangle, you need to make each sentence of the introduction transition to the next sentence in order to narrow the material. Your goal is to narrow the broad introductory sentence down to the thesis. Use transitional devices such as transitional words: therefore, however, since, finally. Transitional words will help your writing flow to the thesis statement.
案，你就可以开始写作了。Review the introduction and thesis statement. Ask yourself the following: Does this introduction lead into the topic I really want to write about? Do I need to rewrite the thesis to make it more specific to my topic? Can I develop an essay based on this introduction? Do I need to lengthen or shorten the introduction? Is my writing clear and focused? Once you are satisfied with the introduction, you have a start to writing an essay.
Tips & Warnings选择一个主题和副主题，试着用新闻问题(谁,什么,什么时候,在
缩小主题到管理主体。When choosing a topic and subtopics, try asking journalism questions: Who? What? When? Where? Why? Research the answers to the questions formed from the five W's. The answers will help you narrow the topic to a manageable subject.
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Essay 由 introduction , main body, conclusion, reference四部分组成,下面以 这篇文章为例,教你如何写作一篇符合格式的 essay
全文统一用 times new roman字体,小四, 1.5倍行距
文章中请不要用 I , WE , OUR , YOU , YOUR 之类的主观性强的 1, 2人称,可以用被动语态或其 他句型代替
1.0 Introduction (分两部分 )
Allainz the biggest insurance wants to further expand its business, globally. Among all the countries India and China are two most attractive markets. Before deciding which market to involve in, a detailed market research is indispensable. This essay just gives a comprehensive study over the two markets. (第一个部分介绍 essay 的主要内容 )
Firstly, this essay will make a general overview of the insurance industry globally, and the second part is the information of the Allianz Group. Subsequently it will make some market analysis of Chinese insurance market. The analysis of Indian insurance market lies in the fourth part of the easy. Finally it will put forward some recommendation for the marketing selection and entering strategy for the Allianz group. (Introduction 第 二 部 分 介 绍 这 篇 文 章 的 结 构 , 按 照 firstly, secondly, … finally 的固定形式介绍文章结构,你只需列入 body 里面介绍的每一 点 )
(Introduction 之后是 main body,把文章分成几个小点讨论,每一点写个小标 题,加粗 )
2.0 The general overview of the insurance industry globally
The insurance industry is the industry dealing in risk and larger sum of money is indispensable for the business of this line. Insurers promise to compensate individuals and businesses for future losses, in exchange for a premium, thus taking on the risk of personal injury, death, and damage to property, unexpected financial disaster and just about any other misfortune. Insurance companies also purchase their own type of insurance, called reinsurance, which allows them to insure large risks and to spread the risk on smaller accounts. Insurance companies rely on investment income to make a profit, since premium alone is typically not adequate to pay claims.
In the past 10 years, the world actual GDP increased by 2.9%, averagely, keeping a
stable increase. The GDP increased 3.4% and reached 44.4453 trillion dollars in 2005, globally. Simultaneously, the insurance industry developed rapidly and played a more and more important role in the world economy activities. The total revenue of insurance industry was only 1.406 trillion dollars, but it increased to 3.426 trillion dollars, with the annual increase rate of 5.72%.
3.0 The information of the Allianz Group
The Allianz Group is one of the world's leading insurers and financial services providers. It was founded in Berlin, in 1890. Allianz Group provides its more than 60 million customers worldwide with a comprehensive range of services in the areas of property and casualty insurance, life and health insurance, and asset management and banking. In fiscal year 2005, Allianz's total revenues amounted to some 100.9 billion Euros. At the end of 2005 Allianz Group had more than 1.26 trillion Euros in assets, under management. Of this, 743 billion Euros were assets managed for third parties.
4.0 Two feasible markets for Allianz group to enter
China and Indian, as the two biggest developing countries in the world, hold great attraction to foreign companies. Large portion of the 500 biggest companies of the world now have invested in or are preparing to develop in the two countries. Both China and India have huge population, thus possess immense potential markets. Allianz who wants to seek for further development and keep its leadership in the insurance industry must extend its business to China and India. As a matter of fact the Allianz Group has already invested in China and India, but the total investment cannot justify the large market of the two countries, so the leaders of Allianz decide to further extend its business in the two countries. Nevertheless, for the two countries, which one shall be prior? Further investigation and analysis will reveal which country is more attractive to Allianz.
4.1 Analysis of Chinese insurance market(请多使用大标题, 小标题, 让逻辑结构 更加清晰。 )
a. The cultural analysis of China
China is a nation with a glorious long history. During the splendid 5,000 thousand years, the Chinese nation has created the unprecedented culture. There are over 1.3 billion people and mandarin is the official and most widely used language. The Chinese nation is formed of 56 different nationalities and the Han nationality is the majority which has over 90% of the total population. China does not have state religion, but Buddhism is the most popular religion, next to that is the Dao religion (a religion originates in China). Some of the minorities believe in Muslin. In recent years, the education develops fast in China and the college students consist of a large part. Chinese have their special culture and it will influence the business dramatically. For example in China black represents death and red is the color of happiness. Eight is a lucky number for Chinese, while 4 is a disaster (Jin and Xiu, 2006)
b. The economic, political and legal analysis
Since Chinese government adopts the open up policy, Chinese economy boosts year by year and China is one of the countries that have the most rapid development speed. In the years between 1999 and 2004 the GDP increased by 10.8 on average. The economic environment improves a lot and the country gradually changed from government planned economy to market economy. With the population of over 1.3 billion people, China has the largest market. The fast economic growth promotes demand for production machines and consumption products. As the service line lags behind compared with the industry, there is great potential for service products.
Prior to 1979, foreign companies were not allowed to enter China. However, significant changes took place since then. Chinese government put forward a serial of policies to promote Chinese foreign trade and attract foreign investment. In 2002, the total value of import and export reached 620.79 billion US dollars and absorbs 52.74
billion US dollars. Chinese market opens step by step and it expedites its steps after joining the WTO. Before 2005 foreign companies are not allowed to handle in lots of lines, especially the service industry such as finance and insurance. Many lines have limited the shares that a foreign company can have. Nevertheless, China loosens these restrictions and many companies can operate separately.
c. Market audit and competitive market analysis.
China’s insurance market develops at a fast speed. The rapid growth of premium income stimulated the insurance asset to a rapid expansion. By the end of 2005, the total insurance asset had amounted to RMB 1522.594 billion, and the total insurance capital had exceeded RMB 100 billion. The insurance companies hold treasury bonds of RMB 358.83 billion, financial bonds of RMB 178.51 billion and corporate bonds of RMB 10.76 billion. There are 1.815 million staffs engaged in insurance, accounting for over 40% of the total number of staffs in financial enterprises in China. At present, only 4% of the 1.3 billion people have personal insurance. As more and more people will own their private cars and house property, the premium is destined to rise, so it will become more attractive.
Along with the rapid growth of economy, the insurance policies change fast, especially the market access which has improved greatly. In 1992 China began to allow limited access to foreign American International Group (AIG) is the first foreign insurer to conduct insurance business in China. Following it Tokyo Marine and Fire Insurance and Winterthur Swiss Insurance entered in 1994 and 1996, respectively. In 2004, a number of insurance companies got the authorization for establishment, including the first agricultural insurance company, the first construction insurance company and the first pension insurance company. By the end of 2005, there are 93 insurance corporations altogether in China, among which six were insurance groups and 82 were insurance companies (including 40 foreign insurance companies and 5 insurance asset management companies).
Nevertheless, Chinese insurance industry is still at the initial stage. The unbalanced development of economy caused the difference in the development of insurance industry in different areas. For instance, in Guangdong and Shanghai, the insurance market is abundant in both demand and supply, which is far more prosperous than that of Central and Western China. There is limited opening of the insurance market to selected foreign insurance companies. Besides, to protect domestic insurers, geographic limitations were placed on foreign insurers as well as restrictions on their scope of business. Management license is needed, whereas, the speed to release the license is very slow. The leading insurance companies are still the Chinese domestic insurance organization. The People's Insurance Company of China controls 68% non-life insurance, and for the life insurance market three Chinese insurance occupy 87% of the market shares (Ding, 2006).
4.2 Analysis of Indian insurance market
a. The culture of India
India has the second largest population of 1billion people, among which 0.82 billion are Hindu, 0.11billion are Muslim, 2.7 million Nazarene, and also some Buddhist. Different religious has different habit. For example, Hindu worship cattle and protest against butchering cattle. In recent years, there are conflicts between Indian culture and western culture, seriously. On February 14th , 2001, Indian religious group organized a pageant to oppose the Saint Valentine's Day.
In India, there's no 'Indian' language. Eighteen languages are officially recognized by the constitution, but over 1600 minor languages and dialects were listed in the 1991 census. Hindi is the predominant language in the north, while in the south, very few people speak Hindi. The Indian upper class clings to English. Only about 3% of Indians have a firm grasp of the language (Alan, 2006).
b. The economic and legal conditions of India and its economic policies
India's population continues to grow at about 1.8% per year and is estimated at one billion. While its GDP is low in dollar terms, India has the world's 13th-largest GNP. About 62% of the population depends directly on agriculture. Industry and services sectors are growing in importance and account for 26% and 48% of GDP, respectively, while agriculture contributes about 25.6% of GDP. More than 35% of the population lives below the poverty line, but a large and growing middle class of 150-200 million has disposable income for consumer goods. The economy develops fast in India, in recent years and it has posted an excellent average GDP growth of 6.8% since 1994. A growth rate of above 8% was achieved by the Indian economy during the year 2003-04. Indian economy has steadily increased since 1979, at the average rate of 5.7% per year in the 23-year growth record. Indian economic growth is constrained, however, by inadequate infrastructure, cumbersome bureaucratic procedures, and high real interest rates (Mulford , 2005).
5.0 Conclusion (结论部分注意一点,就是一般都固定的以 In conclusion开头 )
In conclusion, from the deep research on the Chinese and India insurance, different conditions for insurance is clear to us. Although both markets are potential, Chinese insurance market is more preferential for the Allianz group to further develop. Meanwhile, it is urgent to develop, or Allianz may loss the huge market in future under the sever competition. This essay analyses the general development of the insurance market and the insurance market conditions of China and India, respectively. Through comparison it draws the conclusion that the Allianz Group should extend its business in china first. Furthermore recommendations are brought forth to choose the appropriate method to enter Chinese insurance market.
Alan, M. (2006). Shifting Tides-Culture in Contemporary China. Beijing University Press.
Ding Z. (2006). Research on the Development and Problems of Modern Insurance in China. Journal of Kaifeng University, 20(1), pp 19-23.
Jin H. and Xiu D. (2006). Shifting Tides-Culture in Contemporary China . Beijing University Press.
Mulford D. C. (2005). Paper Presented at The Conference on Building A Vibrant Insurance Market in India. New Delhi: Taj Mansingh Press.
(reference 就是文章中引用部分的出处,按照作者,年份,书名,出版社地址, 出版社来写,要注意几点:
1. 每个 ref 之间隔一行,
2. 如果一个 ref 要写两行,第二行缩进 5个字符
4. 最后,将每个 ref 按其首字母的先后顺序排序
5. 一般 1000字写 4个 ref ,以此类推
6. 在 reference 部分里出现的每个 ref 都要写到文章中相应的引用部分,所以文 中和后面的 ref 要一一对应 )
关于 ref 的格式,我们会在“ reference 写法”文件里特别详细说明,请仔细阅读
Information systems modifications and routine enhancements is one of the most significant changes that could affects organizations productivity and performances in delivering high quality products and services, many organizations are concerned with problems of running applications that have been in operations for several years, these types of systems are known as the legacy types, a critical point http://www.ukassignment.org/essayfw/19653.htmlin many of such old systems arrives when
i.High maintenance costs is been incurred.
ii.Use of obsolete hardware and software resulting in loss of profit and decline productivity.
iii.Improper documentations and lack of user support with the knowledge required to maintain such systems.
iv.Systems becoming problematic and incapable of handling requirement for change in the business environment.
All these factors combined results in the need to carry out overall changes in current systems used by most organizations. Some companies prefer to replace legacy systems with new ones, to achieve their objectives, however this may sometimes be expensive, therefore modifying existing ones is always a good choice. As Warren (1999) stated, 'if you abandon a legacy system, you face a risk of losing vital businesses knowledge which is embedded in many old system', (Warren, I.1999, p.120). If organizations eventually choose to continue maintaining the existing system, consideration should be given to implementing new features that will make the system more effective and efficient in accommodating changes in tasks and the business rules, also the system should incorporate new functional requirements and that the existing problems are corrected.
This report has been prepared as recommendations of an appropriate information system development methodology ISDM for quality Kitchen Company; it summarizes DSDM as an appropriate method and explains reasons with various issues to consider by the IT manager of quality kitchen in choosing this method.
System developments can be done in several different ways, among these different approaches, two methodologies are especially important as they work as the fundamental system development approaches today. They are: traditional structured approach and object oriented Approach.
Traditional structured approach which was developed in 1970s became the dominant system development methodology in 1980s. However with the growing complexities of information
system, the traditional approach has shown less competent in modern system development.
Since traditional structured approach has shown the inherit shortages when dealing with complex systems, which is the main trend of the current system. A new system developing method was introduced to better cope with the new system developing environment, that's the object-oriented approach.
The following sections will provide a basic introduction of these two methodologies, compare their advantages and disadvantages. And finally a short discuss about the risks might involved in transition from traditional structured approach to object oriented approach
Nowadays, everyone is using software application to perform their tasks. Software application is being utilized in everywhere, be it in the public, within a particular organization or at home.
There is a study named human-computer interaction (HCI). This study is very important to enhance the effectiveness of a software application. It is a study of the interaction of humans with computers and to what level that computers are or are not developed for successful interaction with human beings. HCI tries to ensure that the interaction between human and computer are successful. Interaction between users and computers happens at the user interface, which include both software and hardware.
My final year project, Timetable Management System, requires a lot of interaction between user and the system. It is mainly because it requires many data from the user to generate the timetable or reports. Hence, in this seminar, discussions on a few important aspects will be included. Some brief overviews on the contents are such as introduction to HCI, importance of HCI, issues in HCI, theories and principles of HCI and types of User Interface. The main ideas of the contents are adapted from the book "Human-Computer Interaction" by Alan Dix, Janet Finlay and etc, published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Another main reference is "The Essence of Human-Computer Interaction" by Christine Faulkner which is published by Pearson Prentice Hall too.
This project is on the design and development of an inventory management system which is part of the supply-chain Management. This system will attempt to solve issues with current inventory management systems in order to give businesses a better competitive edge.
The literature review will provide a detailed overview about Inventory management; why business need to manage their inventory, benefits and objectives of inventory management and best practice in inventory management. It will go on to further discuss what inventory management system is all about, a detailed explanation of the benefits, future of inventory management systems and talk about success of inventory management system.
In the review, various factors for implementing efficient inventory management systems were listed in order to understand fully how to design and develop a software solution for a company that would provide the best services and effective solution to their current problems. The report also discussed some challenges faced by most inventory management system in providing businesses with an effective solution.
As part of the literature review, a case study was carried out on Sahad Stores, a distribution company in Nigeria and a detailed investigation into their existing system was accomplished highlighting the problems of the current system. Based on knowledge gained from the literature review, a proposed solution was presented to resolve the issues with the company's current system of inventory management.
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英语essay范文(英国essay范例)-The essay will analyse several of the main factors which have
affected the changing of the lone mothers families in the UK. And both the troubles and fortunes that received by lone mothers
There are 1,250,000 lone-parent families in the UK, and 19 percent of all these families have children(Millar, 1999). The quantity of single parents have almost increased two-fold since early 1970s and this growth ishttp://www.ukassignment.org/essayfw/19479.html part of widest patterns of change in family structure. Here are so many reasons for this, for example, the rising in extramarital births, the increasing in cohabitation, the rising in the divorce, and the rising of remarriage and cohabitation after divorce. (Millar, 1999). In 2000, it may be that less than 50% of all children in the United Kingdom will have spent all their lives in a traditional two parents family with both their real parents (Kiernan & Wicks, 1990 cited Millar, 1996). The essay will analyse several of the main factors which have affected the changing of the lone mothers families in the UK. And both the troubles and fortunes that received by lone mothers. There are three main parts to explain the changing of lone parents families in Britain: the changing policy; the ascending economy; the changing sociology ( social value).
The Three Main Factors—Policy, Economy, and Sociology, for the Increasing of the Lone
Mothers Families in the United Kingdom
Since 1971 to 1990 the number of divorced and seperated female with children increased from 290,000 to 650,000; the quantity of single mother rose from 90,000 to 390,000. The numbers of lone fathers have also raised from 70,000 to 110,000, but they still very much in the small number ,at nearly 10% of all single parents. Hence most lone parents are women and only over 50% are female who are divorced or seperated from their ex-hunsbands (Haskey, 1993 cited Millar, 1996).
Nevertheless, the rise in the numbers of single mothers families itself has not significantly increased the concern of the government. In recent three decades, the reason why the quantities of lone parents in the UK has been rising is that their dependence on state benefits has been increasing and the rates of their employment have been decreasing. Poverty has risen and partly single mothers live on incomes probably fewer than the average for other households with children. However, during this time policy for long parents has been ‘in the doldrums’(Bradshaw, 1989 cited Millar, 1996).
The Changing Policy
In the late 1980s, while, the government began to pay more attention to those lone parents families. The social security system as a whole had been reviewed in the middle 1980s and legislation introduced in 1986( Millar,1996). After this review was completed ,according to Millar (1996), policy attention changed, especially to lone parents. In the middle of 1980s the Lancashire Country Council established a welfare rights service which offering expert advice and guidance on
the maze of benefits and allowances available to people across the country (Cosslett, Easton & Summerfield,1996). Lone mothers in the UK got tremendous benefits from this service, and various poster and press advertising campaigns have been launched to ensure that mothers are aware of the benefits avialable to them and how to apply for them.
Finance is another of the essential reasons. Because the income support for long parents had been increasing rapidly throughout the 1980s and because of this, in real terms social secutrity spending on lone parents increased three times between 1981 and 1988(DSS, 1990 cited Millar,1996). The key economic objective for conservative government in the 1980s was the control of public expenditure. Therefore these increasing cost lead to the concern.
One of the Conservative social policy’s central tenets in the 1980s was that the government offered too much support, offering a large number of welfare, and this means that the people and households were not responsible for themselves anymore(Millar,1996). As there was an increasing numbers of lone mothers families who relied on the government to offer them an income. In order to lighten this burden and reduce single parents’ unemployment rate, the policy turned its attention towards another aspect: children support, to solve these problems. Through this way, firstly, it can rise the ‘responsibility’ of the absent father; secondly, it can reduce the ‘dependency’ of the lone mother on the state; thirdly, it can save the state money. So in 1991, there was a Child Support Act. And it aims to deal with thoes lone parents’ children’s issues by establishing an government organisation to be responsible for setting and enforcing maintenance payments for children (Millar,1996). The Children Support Agency really did a big favour to those lone parents, and at the same time it also reflects a particular response to changing employment of female in economy. The Ascending Economy
The twentiety century has went through a far-reaching change of the nature of work and of the skills of the workforce. Particularly , the economy is controlled by the service industries and work tasks increasingly include work with people rather than on objects. An the same time, with the development of science and technology , an increasing number of works are associated with different kinds of skills. These changes in the forms of work have been accompanied by a dramatic shift in the sex composition of the work force (Halsey & Webb, 2000). Men’s participation rates have consitently decreased through every ten years, from 94% in 1911 to
71% in 1998. On the opposite, there has been a strong trend for women’s participation in the labour force to raise. In 1991, only more than 1/3 of female (35%) were in the workforce; by 1998 this was the case for over half ( 54%) (Halsey & Webb, 2000). From this we can know that the increasing of female cooperation was indicated in the women’s rised share of works. At the same time, it also means that more and more single mothers can support themselves by using their incomes, since they are becoming more independence than before. Hence , it is not uncommon for an increasing number of mothers to chose to support their children by themselves. At the beginning of the 20th century, manufacturing industries had been the main industries, work mainly involved the production of objects. While ,at the end of 20th century the main industries were service industries and work mainly included solving people(Halsey & Webb, 2000). This change was followed by a leading move in the family structure and gender roles. The Canging Sociology (Social Value)
With the development of modern culture, people’s notion about family structure becomes more and more open-minded. Several decades ago, the most popular family was the traditional family which includes both natural parents and several children. In this kind of family, the traditional role
of the man is the financial provider, and the traditional role of the woman is the housewife (taking care of children and doing the housework). At that time, lone mothers were likely to be a number of negative consequence of this fixation on traditional gender roles(Millar,1996). Because, firstly, the women’s ability to improving their incomes are very limited; secondly, the income of part-time
jobs are very low. In other words, this sort of family was reflected inequality between male and female.
However ,in contrast, nowadays, there is an increasing number of cohabitating family, divorce family, remarriage family, single parents family, and even homosexual family. Therefore, lone mother family has become a natural part of social families now, and this kind of family is also understand and accepted by the whole society. These days the acceptable role for women includs every kind of jobs, so lone mothers are also have the opportunities to find those high payment jobs. In the modern society, in order to protect women’s right, the feminist organazation WLM even ‘tempted to produce a protection organization which could appeal to all female to adopt its
‘manifesto’ of seven requests. These demands were for (Easton & Summerfield, 1996):
1, equal pay;
2, equal education and job opportunity;
3, free contraception and aboration on demand;
4, free 24-hour nurseries, under community control;
5, legal and financial independence;
6, an end to discrimination against lesbians;
7, freedom from intimidation by the threat or use of violence or sexual coercion, regardless of marital status’.
Significantly, feminists have played a essential role in the development of lone mother families. It has helped the lone mother gain a lot of rights, and enhance their social states. But we still need ways to reduce inequalities betweent men and women.
Overall, with the increasing number of single parents ,that the lone mothers families had become have a significant influence in the British society. It is true that lone parents family brings some challenges for social policy, especially about state financial support for low income single mother families. And the government also need to pay enough attention to single parents family’s children care problems and welfare support. Thanks to the rapid development of 20th century’s economy,
because it offers more acceptable jobs and good development opportunities. Then it is not unrealistic that more and more single mothers can find higher salary works and becoming more independence than several decades ago. However, there are still inequalities between men and women, and so many single mothers and their children are still facing some problems, such as poverity, education inequality, violence threaten from the women’s ex-husband( Millar,1996 ). So
things are unpredictable. Now what we should do is to find ways to solve those problems, and reduce the unfair between male and female.
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HAVIT INFORMATION CO.LTD AND ITS HUMAN RESOURSE
For better understanding of some important concepts,it is necessary to briefly introduce following definitions to lay the basis of the work.
HRM: It is the managerial ustilisation of the efforts, knowledge, capabilities and committed behaviors which people contribute to an authoritatively co-ordinated human enterprise as part of an employment exchange for more temporary contractual arrangement to carry out work tasks in a way which enables the enterprise to continue into the future (John M Ivancevich , 2001, p4).
Multinational Enterprises: According to Jin W. Cyhn, the multinational enterprise (MNE)is defined as an enterprise that controls and manages production establishments-plants-located in at least two countries( Jin W. Cyhn,2002,p1)
Salary Administration:It is about how to implement a problem that will analyze and evaluate positions,provide equitable and competitive remuneration and appraise individual performance(Entrepreneurial Business Consultants of Canada,2004)
Performance Appraisal:A performance appraisal (PA) or performance evaluation is a systematic and periodic process that assesses an individual employee's job performance and productivity in relation to certain pre-established criteria and organizational objectives.(Joe Martocchio,2010,p2).
Overview Havit Co.Ltd
The essay mainly analyzes Havit Co.ltd. This company is located in Kwangju metropolitan city of Korean. Its main business is emerged in the research and production of IR Cut-off Filter, Lens' protection glass, optical core components for DVD and VCD, and so on. According to the statistics (Havit,2010), its average sales reaches to 26 billon won every year. Havit Co.Ltd also has its own patens, and builds long-term cooperation relationship with other big enterprises, such as Samsung Sony, LG, FuShiKang. The sales of IR Cut-off Filter nearly accounts for 40% in the market of camera phone around the world (Havit,2010). Camera manufacturers is mainly Samsung, other customers are very scattered. Since 2007, the company has continuously developed new products, such as Glass-Lens, IR Filter, Module Lens, Tape, Optical Pick-up (Havit Co.Ltd,2011). A lot of factories are built by Harvit in some big cities in China or Japan, for example TianJing and Wuhan. The development of its international market mainly depends on the parent company and Korea company
in local. Subsidiary conducts business in the name of the parent company. Current HR problem
The global economy is increasingly becoming an organic whole. In this context, the traditional management ideas are constantly affected, as the natural result of economic integration, multinational enterprises face the conflicts in political system, legal standard and custom. Havit Co.ltd, as a typical multinational enterprise, in order to ensure the successful development of its business in China or Japan, makes every effort in internal management in recent years, but due to the influence and restriction of cultural and institutional factors, its human resource management still has many problems at present (Cooke, F. L,2009). In practical terms, Havit’s human resource
management have following problems: The problems of performance appraisal; Recruitment problems.
Possible interventions for Havit Co.Ltd
In the essay，four inventions will be attempted by Havit Co.ltd for solving the HR problems, for instance, make good recruitment plan and broaden channels,set up a perfect training system for employees, construct reasonable salary administration system, perfect mechanism of performance appraisal.
Background information on Havit Co.Ltd
Havit Co.ltd is a listed company in Korean. With a average sales of 26 billon won every year, it mainly emerges in the research and production of IR Cut-off Filter, Lens' protection glass, optical core components for DVD and VCD,and so on. From the perspective of the customer groups, Havit's customers contain four kinds: mobile manufacturers,camera makers, manufacturers of pickup products and some other product makers, for instance Samsung, LG, Nokia, etc. Camera manufacturers is mainly Samsung, other customers are very scattered. Since 2007, the company continuously developed new products, such as Glass-Lens, IR Filter, Module Lens, Tape, Optical Pick-up (Havit Co.Ltd,2011). In the choice of supplier, subsidiary completely goes the route of the parent company, not only the equipments are basically from South Korea (actually a lot of equipment has had widespread use in its target countries, for example, China, and the performance is stable), even some of the common raw materials are imported from Korea as far as possible.Because of Havit's unreasonable ideas, its human resource management have many serous problems.
The subsidiary of Havit Co.Ltd couldn't make scientific personnel demand plan, according to the demand of enterprise development, always temporarily deciding to recruit staff, having big randomness. Havit Co.Ltd is conservative and exclusive,
when it recruits new employees, it likes to find the right employees from prestigious universities and some secondary technical schools, also may encourage its staff to introduce their familiar relatives and friends to work for the company. In addition, when there are no suitable staffs, it also recruits through labor market. Because of the oneness of the recruitment channels, these employees seriously lack practical ability, and work experience is almost zero, hardly meeting the requirement of the job, even damaging equipments. The leadership appointed is all from parent company, other personnel are recruited in the local, greatly hitting the enthusiasm of local management personnel, and management personnel from Korea rigidly use the management mode of parent company, easily causing conflicts with local staffs (Jerry Hallier, Juliette Summers ,2011).
Employees' training problems
From the perspective of human resource management, Havit has paid much attention to employees' training, but it still exists some serious problems, mainly reflected in that training needs are not clear, training arrangements are unreasonable and training effect lacks effective evaluation. When making training plans for employees, Havit ignores scientific analysis of training needs. As the training needs are not clear, and in the determination of the training content, all staffs are the same, without difference, and as long as there is a training arrangement, whatever the training is, all employees must attend, causing the staffs' blindness to training. This can not reach the expected effect of training, and will lead to the lower of the enthusiasm of staff, bad for the long-term training activities. In the training process, the company can't timely and effectively evaluate training effect, making training become a mere formality. After the training, it also can not actually survey staffs' feeling by the method of discussion and questionnaire, let alone to further perfect the training contents and methods, so it can't provide the basis for the improvement of training work in the future, which not only increases the company's training costs, but also makes training effect without guarantee.
The problems of salary administration
Havit's salary administration still do not reach the designated position. Because of the weakness of salary administration, technical workers don't want to work for Havit, it also appears that employees break away from company, especially the technical workers who have important influence on production.All these restrict the company's rapid and healthy development. In practical terms, its salary system pay attention to qualifications of employee. Labor compensation unilaterally depend on high and low of degree. Compared with other similar companies,its salary is lower , lack of external competitiveness. Staffs' wages consist of two parts, benchmark wage and subsidies, all fixed, not influenced by individual performance and company performance, without performance-based pay. The staffs can't get high return through his better work while employees will not get less return because of his own low performance,
causing that salary's incentive effect is obviously insufficient.The phenomenon of waste is very serious. The difference of performance can be reflected well, seriously damaging the staffs' work enthusiasm, also causing the loss of talent(Z. Klement, Z.
Bozsó, P. G. Ott ,1999).
The problems of performance appraisal
The performance evaluation on staffs have about two times a year. After the end of evaluation, only leadership know the specific evaluation results. Evaluation result mainly provides the basis for the employees' salary at the end of the year, only employees not elevated as "bad" can raise salary in next year,but in fact evaluation results hardly appear "bad". In addition, the range of raising the salary is small, lack of the effect of encouraging employees to improve the performance. At the same time, the company doesn't inform evaluation results employee, after evaluation results come out, neither praise good staff, nor communicate with employees about the improvement of their performance. Staffs are always not aware of the gap between their performance and the company expectation and its concrete cause. It is hard to find direction to improve, go against ascension of performance level. In addition, the company also don't connect evaluation result with the position of staffs. So it is hard to make full use of stimulation effect of performance evaluation .
According to Dennis R. Briscoe, Randall S. Schuler, Lisbeth Claus, in order to be successful in the globe marketplace, must develop business strategies that take advantage of globe resources and markets, including their human resource functions. In order for HIR managers to make an effective contribution to that success,they have had to learn how to contribute to the globe strategic management of the enterprise. (Dennis R. Briscoe, Randall S. Schuler, Lisbeth Claus 2008 ) The invention is necessary. From the analysis of the problems above, the key issues contains four aspects,recruitment plan, training system, salary administration system , performance appraisal. For removing obstacles and improving its competitiveness, Havit Co.ltd may conduct four usefull inventions described as followings:
Make good recruitment plan and broaden channels
At first, the key invention measure for Havit is to make good recruitment plan and broaden channels.Recruitment is a important enterprise behavior. Well recruitment plan can provide a basic framework for enterprise's human resource management, also provide more objective basis for staff recruitment, helping reduce or avoid blindness and liberty in the process of recruiting(John M Ivancevich,2001). This will not only ensure and improve the quality of the recruitment work, also can effectively reduce recruitment cost, improve the enterprise's efficiency. A Good recruitment plan is taken as a standard for recruitment, made by making use of the scientific methods to analyze every post, determining the work content of the position,operation process and personnel's quality requirements. In the recruitment process, the human resource
department will closely cooperate with the company, helping recruit personnel to better master the recruitment standard, make scientific decision, so as to reduce the error (Tom Tassinari,2010). It is necessary to broaden and choose a variety of recruitment channels, to ensure the quality and quantity of recruitment. The production workers should be mainly from technical school students, through holding recruitment fair or releasing the recruitment information in the influential newspapers and other media. To the important technical workers, in the recruitment, Havit had better provide higher salary for them to attract talent to join company. In addition, the decision of senior managers in the company also should break the tradition, properly make some localization recruitments, as can get relevant special through professional service talents, improving recruitment efficiency.
Set up a perfect training system for employees
Besides of recruitment plan and channel, the improvement of training system is another important thing. Employee training is a process used by the enterprise to promote staff to learn, and is the important way for enterprise to create knowledge, share knowledge and develop human resource (Steve M. Jex,2008). The main purpose of the training is to make staffs to learn new knowledge and skills, continuously develop intelligence, or develop their potential. In particular terms,to perfect training system contains three steps: (a) make the analysis of training demand well. comprehensively use some research methods,such as observation, questionnaire, interview, reading technical record and expert interview, in order to reduce the blindness of training, improve the effectiveness of the training(Stephen Drotter, 2011). (b) emphasize the organization and management of training. Havit co.ltd shall make the training plan and training programme, including the the concrete object, trainers' choice, the training budget, content, method, time and place, training method also should be different, in order to enhance the pertinence of training, so as to obtain good effect of training.In the implementation process of training, to strengthen assessment management, not only investigate if employee actually participate, but assess work condition of the trainer and the actual effect.(c) Pay special attention to the evaluation of training effect. Evaluation of training effect points to the practical evaluation on effect of training project, its main purpose is to judge the actual effect of a training program, by comparing the change of employees in the quality and ability before and after the training
Construct reasonable salary administration system
Another helpful invention measure is the construction of reasonable salary administration system. Compensation levels in the same position differ in different countries, industries and enterprises. Although treatment and reward are not the only dominant factors to decide employees' enthusiasm, but they profoundly influence employees' satisfaction degree to enterprise (Lawrence S Aft ,2005). In Havit company, compensation is overall in the middle and lower level compared with enterprises in related industries, without competitiveness and attractiveness in the
external talent market. Therefore, if economic strength allows, the company should fully improve employees' compensation level, keep a proper level with related enterprise's salary, not blindly keeping low salary for lowing the cost of production. Even though this could increase enterprise's artificial cost and financial burden in the short term, but it is worthy (Society for Human Resource Management,2007).For the enterprise, fixed income and change income are two strategy choices. Adjust salary structure, add the change income in the structure of salary and reduce the proportion of fixed salary. For production workers, because of their work's high repeating degree and low creativeness, the proportion of change income can be appropriately reduced. And for the managers, especially senior managers, because of their work' uncertainty and creativeness, the proportion of change income can be appropriately improved, in order to fully reflect the personal value and arouse their enthusiasm for work.
Perfect mechanism of performance appraisal
Another invention for the Harvit company is perfecting mechanism of performance appraisal. Performance evaluation is one of the core functions of the enterprise's human resources management, and is a management activity to guarantee effective operation of enterprise's internal management mechanism and realize business target. According to the position characteristics of workers, while insisting qualitative evaluation, pay more attention to the evaluation on quantity, for example choose some quantitative evaluation index, such as the rate of attendance, labor productivity, product percent of pass, which not only makes evaluation work more practical, and can arouse the enthusiasm of the employees. For management personnel, evaluation should combine the qualitative with evaluation quantitative evaluation (Dick Grote, 2011). To determine the evaluation standard, the company can refer to the practice of similar enterprises. Evaluation standard should be modest, if higher, it will let staff feel too difficult to implement, if lower, it will lose the power of enterprising, also, if too low, it is hard to mobilize the enthusiasm of the employees and improve the management performance of the enterprise (Stephen Drotter, 2011). The evaluation result can be combined with the distribution of position. The excellent employee can be promoted, and even atypical promoted into the management position. But for backward employees, they must be trained again and even resigned, according to the specific circumstances, to motivate staffs' vitality.
With the quickening of integration of the world economy, more and more enterprises carry out international operations, and become multinational companies. However, in the process of multinational operation, multinational companies generally face many problems in human resources management. Havit Co.Ltd, as a multinational company, makes use of some un reasonable measures, not only reducing the efficiency of human resources management, but also bringing a lot of other problems.
Making good recruitment plan and broaden channels is the most important invention. This will not only ensure and improve the quality of the recruitment work, also can effectively reduce recruitment cost, improve the enterprise's efficiency. Good recruitment plan is taken as a standard for recruitment, made by making use of the scientific methods to analyze every post, determine the work content of the position, operation process and personnel's quality requirements.
As another invention, setting up a perfect training system for employees. The main purpose of the training is to make staffs to learn new knowledge and skills, continuously develop intelligence, or develop their potential. It contains three aspects as followings (a)make the analysis of training demand well. (b) emphasize the organization and management of training.(c) pay special attention to the evaluation of training effect.
Further, Construct reasonable salary administration system. Company should fully improve employees' compensation level, and keep a proper level with related enterprise's salary, not blindly keeping low salary for lowing the cost of production. Adjust salary structure, add the change income in the structure of salary, and reduce the proportion of fixed salary.
Last is perfecting mechanism of performance appraisal. The excellent employee should be preferably promoted, and even atypically promoted into management position. But for backward employees must be trained again and even resigned, according to the specific circumstances, to motivate staffs' vitality.
The conclusion is that the inventions discussed above are possibilities for Havit Co.Ltd to improve competitiveness in the international market. As long as The company makes its effort, the human resource management will be solved well at last.
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